Publication Details

The Forum on Emerging Infections was created by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1996 in response to a request from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of the Forum is to provide structured opportunities for leaders from government, academia, and industry to regularly meet and examine issues of shared concern regarding research, prevention, detection, and management of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases in humans, plants, and animals. In pursuing this task, the Forum provides a venue to foster the exchange of information and ideas, identify areas in need of greater attention, clarify policy issues by enhancing knowledge and identifying points of agreement, and inform decision makers about science and policy issues. The Forum seeks to illuminate issues rather than resolve them. For this reason, it does not provide advice or recommendations on any specific policy initiative pending before any agency or organization. Its value derives instead from the diversity of its membership and from the contributions that individual members make throughout the activities of the Forum. In September 2003, the Forum changed its name to the Forum on Microbial Threats.

The Forum on Microbial Threats and the IOM wish to express their warmest appreciation to the individuals and organizations who gave their valuable time to provide information and advice to the Forum through their participation in the planning and execution of this workshop. A full list of presenters, and their biographical information, may be found in Appendixes B and E, respectively.

The forum gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the members of the planning committee1: Arturo Casadevall (Albert Einstein College of Medicine), Eduardo Gotuzzo (Universidad Peruaña Cayetano Heredia), Jo Handelsman (Yale University), James M. Hughes (Emory University), David A. Relman (Stanford University), and P. Frederick Sparling (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill).

The Forum is also indebted to the IOM staff who tirelessly contributed throughout the planning and execution of the workshop and the production of this workshop summary report. On behalf of the Forum, we gratefully acknowledge these efforts led by Dr. Eileen Choffnes, Scholar and Director of the Forum; Dr. LeighAnne Olsen,2 Program Officer; Katherine McClure, Associate Program Officer; Rebekah Hutton, Research Associate; and Charlee Alexander,3 Senior Program Assistant for dedicating much effort and time to developing this workshop's agenda and for their thoughtful and insightful approach and skill in planning for the workshop and in translating the workshop's proceedings and discussion into this workshop summary report. We would also like to thank the following IOM staff and consultants for their valuable contributions to this activity: Daniel Bethea, Laura Harbold DeStefano, Chelsea Frakes, Alison Mack, Erika Vijh, and Julie Wiltshire.

Finally, the Forum wishes to recognize the sponsors that supported this activity. Financial support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, and the Fogarty International Center; U.S. Department of Defense: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Medical Research and Materiel Command; U.S. Department of Justice: Federal Bureau of Investigation; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; American Society for Microbiology; Burroughs Wellcome Fund;4 GlaxoSmithKline;5 Infectious Diseases Society of America; Johnson & Johnson; Merck Company Foundation; and sanofi pasteur. The views presented in this workshop summary are those of the workshop participants and have been summarized by the rapporteurs. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Forum on Microbial Threats, its sponsors, or the IOM.



Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests solely with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.


Staff member until August 15, 2013.


Staff member from April 1 to November 15, 2013.


Sponsor until October 18, 2013.


Sponsor until October 18, 2013.