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Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EMS, et al. Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-Being [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2014 Jan. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 124.)

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Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-Being [Internet].

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Appendix AAbbreviations and Glossary of Terms

Table A1Abbreviations and acronyms

ACActive Control
ASGAlcohol dependence Support Group
BAIBeck Anxiety Index
BDIBeck Depression Inventory
BSIBrief Symptom Inventory
CBGTCognitive Behavioral Group Therapy
CESDCenter for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
CHFCongestive heart failure
COPDChronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CSMClinically Standardized Meditation
FFSFreedom From Smoking Treatment
HEHealth Education
IBSirritable bowel syndrome
IPATInstitute for Personality and Ability Testing
Kcal/dKilocalorie per day
LSQLife Stress lns Q
M-ADMMaintenance Antidepressant Mono-Therapy
MBBTMindfulness-based Breathing Therapy
MBCTMindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy
MBRPMindfulness-based Relapse Prevention
MBSRMindfulness Based Stress Reduction
MGMindfulness Group/Mindfulness Treatment Group
MOREMindfulness-oriented Recovery Enhancement
MPMeditation Program
MPIMultidisciplinary Pain Intervention
MTMindfulness Training
NENutrition Education
NEPNutrition Education Program
NPNot Provided
NRSNumeric Rating Scale
OMOther Mantra (any mantra program other than TM)
P+CLPlacebo Plus Clinical Management
PANASPositive and Negative Affect Scale/Schedule
PANAS-NPositive and Negative Affect Scale—Negative mood
POMSProfile of Mood States
PMRProgressive muscular relaxation
PPSPain Perception (Sensory)
PSQLPittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
PSSPerceived Stress Scale
RGRelaxation Treatment Group
RLProgressive Muscle Relaxation Group
SCIDStructured Clinical Interview
SCLSymptom Checklist
SCL90Symptom Checklist 90
SCL90-GSISymptom Checklist 90 Global Severity Index
SF12:MCShort Form-12: Mental Component Score of Health-related Quality of Life
SF36Short Form-36
SF36:MCShort Form 36: Mental Component Score of Health-related Quality of Life
SGSupport Group
SIASSocial Interaction Scale
SPSpiritual Meditation Group
SRDSSelf-rating Depression Scale
STAIState Trait Anxiety Index
TMTranscendental Meditation
VR36Veterans RAND 36 Item Health Survey
WHOQLWorld Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment

Appendix Table A2Glossary

AffectA clinical term that refers to emotion or mood. It can be positive, such as the feeling of well-being, or negative, such as anxiousness, depression, or stress. Studies usually measure affect through self-reported questionnaires designed to gauge how much someone experiences a particular affect.
AttritionA reduction in sample size due to withdrawal of study participants
Difference in changeAn analytic strategy that factors in baseline measurements of both the treatment group and control group in examining the effect of a treatment.
Intent-to-treat (ITT)An analytic strategy that includes all patients based on their original assignment in a randomized controlled trial. This allows for more accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an intervention as everyone who is initially randomized is included in the analysis, regardless of their completion of the trial.
Mantra meditationAny mantra meditation program, including transcendental meditation (TM), Clinically standardized meditation, or other mantra-based program
Meta-analysisA statistical method of combining results from a group of research findings in order to determine patterns and an overall effect size (i.e., strength of a relationship).
Mindfulness meditationAny mindfulness meditation program, including mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), or other variation
Modified mindfulness programAny mindfulness program that has used a variation of MBSR or other Buddhist-based mindfulness technique
Nonspecific active controlA nonspecific active control only matches time and attention, and is not a known therapy
Other MantraAny mantra program other than transcendental meditation (TM)
Percent difference in changePercent change that the difference in change (see above) represents from baseline.
RandomizationA process whereby participants in a research study are assigned to a treatment(s) or control group(s) by chance (i.e., there is an equal possibility that they will be assigned to either group(s)). This allows for equal allocation of factors that may impact study results (e.g., age, gender, race, etc.) in each group.
ScaleAn instrument to measure something. Examples include the Perceived Stress Scale or the SF 36 Mental Health subscale.
Specific active controlA specific active control compares the intervention to another known therapy, such as progressive muscle relaxation.
Standardized mean differenceA statistic in meta-analysis when studies that assess an outcome using a variety of measures are made standard on a scale for a more direct comparison.


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