Table 92Past year behavioral health service use for children and adolescents aged 1.5 to 17, 18 months after involvement in the child welfare system: percentage, United States, 2010

[Data are based on a nationally representative survey of young people in the child welfare system]

CharacteristicBehavioral health service use (percent)
 18 months—5 years10.4
 6–10 years33.5
 11–17 years32.2
Child's current living situation
 Formal kin care18.7
 Informal kin care23.8
 Foster care48.7
Group home or residential program81.9
Risk of a behavioral/emotional problem (1.5- to 10-year-olds)2
Risk of a behavioral/emotional or substance use problem (11 to 17-year-olds)3

Public includes children who did not have private coverage at the time of the interview, but who had coverage through Medicaid and/or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP).


Risk of a behavioral/emotional problem for children aged 1.5 to 10 years was defined as scores in the clinical range on any of the following standardized measures: Internalizing, Externalizing, or Total Problems scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (administered for children aged 1.5 to 18 years), Youth Self Report (administered to children aged 11 or older), the Teacher Report Form (administered to children aged 6 to 18 years), the Children's Depression Inventory (administered to children aged 7 or older), or the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder section Intrusive Experiences and Dissociation subscales of the Trauma Symptoms Checklist (administered to children aged 8 or older).


Risk of a behavioral/emotional problem or substance abuse problem for children aged 11 to 17 was defined as meeting the criteria for a behavioral/emotional problem (identical to the definition for children aged 1.5 to 10) or a substance abuse problem. Risk for a substance abuse problem was defined by a total score of 2 or more on the Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT) substance abuse screening test (Knight et al., 2002).

NOTES: Behavioral health services include any use of specialty outpatient, inpatient, family doctor, or school-based services for any behavioral or emotional problem in the past 12 months. Behavioral health services were reported by caregivers and measured with an adapted version of the Child and Adolescent Services Assessment (Burns et al., 1994).

As an example of how to interpret the estimates in the table, the seventh row shows that, according to caregiver reports 18 months after involvement of their child in the child welfare system, in 2010, 27.6 percent of U.S. male children and adolescents aged 1.5 to 17 had used a behavioral health service in the past year.

SOURCES: Burns BJ, Angold A, Magruder-Habib K, Costello EJ, Patrick MKS. The Child and Adolescent Services Assessment (CASA), Parent Interview and Child Interview. Durham, NC: Developmental Epidemiology Program, Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center; 1994. .

Casanueva C, Wilson E, Smith K, Dolan M, Ringeisen H, Horne B. NSCAW II Wave 2 Report: Child Well-Being. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. OPRE Report #2012-38..

Knight JR, Sherritt L, Shrier LA, Harris SK, Chang G. Validity of the CRAFFT substance abuse screening test among adolescent clinic patients. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2002;156:607–614.

From: 5, TABLES

Cover of Behavioral Health, United States, 2012
Behavioral Health, United States, 2012.

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