Table 119Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), by state: pilot year and program features, United States, 2012

[Data are based on state PDMPs]

StateFeatures of the current programFeatures of the state statute
Year became operational1Covers most drugs that have a safe and acceptable use2Can monitor non-controlled substancesRequires committee oversight of PDMP operationsDoes not require practitioners to access data before prescribing or dispensing
Alabama2006YNYN
Alaska2011Y3NNY
Arizona2008YNYY
Arkansas---NNN
California2005YNNN
Colorado2008YNYN
Connecticut2008YNYN
Delaware2012YNNN
Florida2011YNYN
Georgia---NNN
Hawaii2002YNNN
Idaho2004YYNY
Illinois2011YNYY
Indiana2008YNYY
Iowa2009YNYN
Kansas2011YYYY
Kentucky2005YNNN
Louisiana2009YYYN
Maine2004YNNN
Maryland---NNN
Massachusetts2010YNYN
Michigan2003YNYN
Minnesota2010YNYN
Mississippi2009YYNN
Missouri---NNN
Montana---NNN
Nebraska---NNN
Nevada1997YNNN
New Hampshire---NNN
New Jersey2011YYNN
New Mexico2005YNNN
New York2006YNNN
North Carolina2007YNNN
North Dakota2007YYYY
Ohio2006YYNY
Oklahoma2006YNNY
Oregon2011YNYY
Pennsylvania1973N4NNN
Rhode Island1997N5NNN
South Carolina2008YNNY
South Dakota2012YNYY
Tennessee2006YNYN
Texas62008YNNN
Utah1995YNNN
Vermont2009YNYN
Virginia2006YNYN
Washington2011YYNN
West Virginia19957YNNY
Wisconsin---NNY
Wyoming2004YYNY

N = No.

Y = Yes.

---

Data not available.

Category not applicable.

1

See the University of Wisconsin-Madison Pain & Policy Studies Group website for information on when previous PDMPs were enacted: http://www​.painpolicy​.wisc.edu/sites/www​.painpolicy.wisc.edu​/files/PMP_matrix_2012. pdf

2

In this column, states are marked “N” if their PDMP does not cover schedule II, III, or IV drugs. States are marked “Y” if their PDMP covers drugs categorized in schedule II or lower risk categories. Schedule I drugs (e.g., heroin) have no safe and acceptable use and cannot be prescribed. Schedule II drugs have a high abuse risk, but also have safe and accepted medical uses in the United States. These drugs can cause severe psychological or physical dependence. Schedule II drugs include certain narcotic, stimulant, and depressant drugs. Some examples are morphine, cocaine, oxycodone (Percodan®), methylphenidate (Ritalin®), and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®). Schedule III, IV, or V drugs have a lower abuse risk than schedule II drugs and have safe and accepted medical uses in the United States. Schedule III, IV, or V drugs contain smaller amounts of certain narcotic and non-narcotic drugs, anti-anxiety drugs, tranquilizers, sedatives, stimulants, and non-narcotic analgesics. Some examples are acetaminophen with codeine (Tylenol® No.3), paregoric, hydrocodone with acetaminophen (Vicodin®), diazepam (Valium®), alprazolam (Xanax®), propoxyphene (Darvon®), and pentazocine (Talwin®).

3

The Alaska program covers schedule I, II, III, IV, and V drugs under federal law and covers schedule IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and VA drugs under state law.

4

The Pennsylvania program covers schedule II drugs only.

5

The Rhode Island program covers schedule II and III drugs but not schedule IV drugs.

6

Prescribers in Texas are required to obtain state-issued prescription forms.

7

The West Virginia program was discontinued in 1998 but reauthorized in 2002.

NOTES: The information in this table comes from two sources. The information in the first two columns is from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Pain & Policy Studies Group website (http://www​.painpolicy​.wisc.edu/sites/www​.painpolicy.wisc.edu​/files/PMP_matrix_2012.pdf) and is current as of March 26, 2012. The information from the remaining three columns comes from the KASPER report and is current as of June 2010.

As an example of how to interpret the estimates in the table, Alabama's PDMP became operational in 2006, covers most drugs that have a safe and acceptable use, and the state statute requires committee oversight of PDMP operations.

SOURCES: University of Wisconsin-Madison Pain & Policy Studies Group. 43 states with operational prescription monitoring. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Pain & Policy Studies Group; 2012. Retrieved from http://www​.painpolicy​.wisc.edu/sites/www​.painpolicy.wisc.edu​/files/PMP_matrix_2012.pdf.

Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER) Evaluation Team. Review of prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, Institute for Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy; Jun, 2010. Retrieved from http://chfs​.ky.gov/NR​/rdonlyres/85989824-1030-4AA6-91E1-7F9E3EF68827​/0/KASPEREvaluationPDMPStatusFinalReport6242010.pdf.

From: 5, TABLES

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Behavioral Health, United States, 2012.

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