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Lin JS, O'Connor E, Rossom RC, et al. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: An Evidence Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Nov. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 107.)

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Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: An Evidence Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].

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Appendix BExcluded Studies

Exclusion Criteria

CODEDEFINITION
KQKey Question
E1Study relevance
E1bStudy design: Not an RCT, CCT, or SER (KQ1, 4); Good quality systematic reviews, diagnostic accuracy studies (KQ2); or good quality systematic reviews, RCT/CCT, prospective observational studies for efficacy, retrospective and case-control studies for harms (KQ3,5)
E2bStudy design: Follow up from baseline <3 months (12 weeks)
[Does not apply to harms trials (KQ3,5)]
E2dStudy design: Case control (only applies to screening trials)
E2eStudy design: n<1000 (only applies to treatment harms trials)
E3aSetting: Not a country with a very high HDL ranking
E3bSetting: Hospitals, intermediate care facilities (ICF), skilled nursing facilities, rehabilitation facilities, sub-acute care facilities, emergency departments
E3cSetting: Unrepresentative Settings (memory clinic, ADRC, referred population setting where the prevalence of dementia is not similar to the general population
E4aPopulation: Adults < 65 years or average age < 65 years
E4bPopulation: Populations exclusively with HIV/AIDS, Down's syndrome, post-traumatic brain injuries, Parkinson's Disease, stroke, and vitamin deficiency
E4cPopulation: Adults with severe dementia
E4dPopulation: Professional caregiver (formally or professionally trained, paid salary)
E5No Relevant Outcomes
E6aIntervention (Screening): Instruments > 10 min for clinician administration or > 20 min for self-administration; biomarkers (CSF, plasma, urine) or imaging (CT, MRI, PET)
E6b, E6cIntervention (Treatment): Not one of the specified interventions
E7aPoor Study Quality: High or differential attrition
E7bPoor Study Quality: Does not use a reference standard
E7cPoor Study Quality: Other quality issue
E8Part of an included SER
1.
Study links exercise, improved mental ability. Geriatrics. 1986;41(3):24. PMID: None. KQ4E1b, KQ5E1b.
2.
At-home Alzheimer's test may do more harm than good. Health News. 2003 Sep;9(9):7. KQ3E2a. [PubMed: 14584472]
3.
Aarsland D, Ballard C, Walker Z, et al. Memantine in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Jul;8(7):613–8. KQ4E4b, KQ5E4b. [PubMed: 19520613]
4.
Adam S, Van der LM, Ivanoiu A, et al. Optimization of encoding specificity for the diagnosis of early AD: the RI-48 task. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007 Jul;29(5):477–87. KQ2E3c, KQ3E3c. [PubMed: 17564913]
5.
ADAPT Research Group. Lyketsos CG, Breitner JC, et al. Naproxen and celecoxib do not prevent AD in early results from a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2007 May 22;68(21):1800–8. KQ4E1b, KQ5E1b. [PubMed: 17460158]
6.
ADAPT Research Group. Martin BK, Szekely C, et al. Cognitive function over time in the Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT): results of a randomized, controlled trial of naproxen and celecoxib. Arch Neurol. 2008 Jul;65(7):896–905. KQ4E1b, KQ5E1b. [PMC free article: PMC2925195] [PubMed: 18474729]
7.
ADAPT Research Group. Meinert CL, McCaffrey LD, et al. Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial: design, methods, and baseline results. Alzheimers Dement. 2009 Mar;5(2):93–104. KQ4E1b, KQ5E1b. [PMC free article: PMC2866447] [PubMed: 19328435]
8.
Agid Y, Dubois B, Anand R, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of rivastigmine in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1998;59:837–45. PMID: None. KQ4E8, KQ5E8.
9.
Aguglia E, Onor ML, Saina M, et al. An open-label, comparative study of rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine in a real-world setting. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Nov;20(11):1747–52. KQ4E2a, KQ5E2e. [PubMed: 15537474]
10.
Aguirre E, Spector A, Hoe J, et al. Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for dementia: a single-blind, multi-centre, randomized controlled trial of Maintenance CST vs. CST for dementia. Trials. 2010;11:46. KQ4E2b, KQ5E2b. [PMC free article: PMC2867981] [PubMed: 20426866]
11.
Ahmed S, De JC, Wilcock G. A comparison of screening tools for the assessment of mild cognitive impairment: preliminary findings. Neurocase. 2012;18(4):336–51. KQ2E2d. [PubMed: 22044211]
12.
Ainslie NK, Murden RA. Effect of education on the clock-drawing dementia screen in non-demented elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993 Mar;41(3):249–52. KQ2E3c. [PubMed: 8440847]
13.
Aisen PS. Anti-inflammatory therapy for Alzheimer's disease: implications of the prednisone trial. Acta Neurol Scand. 2000 Suppl 176:85–9. KQ4E6c, KQ5E6c. [PubMed: 11261810]
14.
Aisen PS, Schmeidler J, Pasinetti GM. Randomized pilot study of nimesulide treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2002 Apr 9;58(7):1050–4. KQ4E6c, KQ5E6c. [PubMed: 11940691]
15.
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16.
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17.
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18.
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19.
Alessi CA, Yoon EJ, Schnelle JF, et al. A randomized trial of a combined physical activity and environmental intervention in nursing home residents: do sleep and agitation improve? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999 Jul;47(7):784–91. KQ4E3b, KQ5E3b. [PubMed: 10404920]
20.
Alexopoulos GS, Mattis S. Diagnosing cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: primary screening tests. Geriatrics. 1991;46(12):33–8. KQ2E2a. [PubMed: 1743529]
21.
Anand R, Messina J, Hartman R. Dose-response effect of rivastigmine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatric Psychopharmacol. 2000;2:68–72. PMID: None. KQ4E5, KQ5E5.
22.
Ancoli-Israel S, Amatniek J, Ascher S, et al. Effects of galantamine versus donepezil on sleep in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease and their caregivers: a double-blind, head-to-head, randomized pilot study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2005 Oct;19(4):240–5. KQ4E2b, KQ5E2e. [PubMed: 16327351]
23.
Anderson-Hanley C, Arciero PJ, Brickman AM, et al. Exergaming and older adult cognition: A cluster randomized clinical trial. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(2):109–19. KQ4E2b, KQ5E2b. [PubMed: 22261206]
24.
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25.
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26.
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27.
Aprahamian I, Martinelli JE, Cecato J, et al. Screening for Alzheimer's disease among illiterate elderly: accuracy analysis for multiple instruments. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;26(2):221–9. KQ2E3a. [PubMed: 21593559]
28.
Arkin SM. Student-led exercise sessions yield significant fitness gains for Alzheimer's patients. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2003;18(3):159–70. KQ4E2a, KQ5E2a. [PubMed: 12811991]
29.
Artero S, Ritchie K. The detection of mild cognitive impairment in the general practice setting. Aging Ment Health. 2003 Jul;7(4):251–8. KQ2E1. [PubMed: 12888436]
30.
Articus K, Baier M, Tracik F, et al. A 24-week, multicentre, open evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of the rivastigmine patch in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Int J Clin Pract. 2011 Jul;65(7):790–6. KQ5E2e. [PubMed: 21645184]
31.
Ashendorf L, Jefferson AL, O'Connor MK, et al. Trail Making Test errors in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2008 Mar;23(2):129–37. KQ2E2d. [PMC free article: PMC2693196] [PubMed: 18178372]
32.
Ashford JW, Adamson M, Beale T, et al. MR spectroscopy for assessment of memantine treatment in mild to moderate Alzheimer dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;26:Suppl–6. KQ4E7c, KQ5E7c. [PMC free article: PMC3764646] [PubMed: 21971472]
33.
Assal F, Allali G, Kressig RW, et al. Galantamine improves gait performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 May;56(5):946–7. KQ4E2a, KQ5E5. [PubMed: 18454755]
34.
Asthana S, Baker LD, Craft S, et al. High-dose estradiol improves cognition for women with AD: results of a randomized study. Neurology. 2001 Aug 28;57(4):605–12. KQ4E2c, KQ5E2c. [PubMed: 11524467]
35.
Atri A, Shaughnessy LW, Locascio JJ, et al. Long-term course and effectiveness of combination therapy in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008 Jul;22(3):209–21. KQ4E2a, KQ5E5. [PMC free article: PMC2718545] [PubMed: 18580597]
36.
Au A, Li S, Lee K, et al. The coping with caregiving group program for Chinese caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in Hong Kong. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Feb;78(2):256–60. KQ4E7c, KQ5E7c. [PubMed: 19619974]
37.
Auriacombe S, Pere JJ, Loria-Kanza Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease who failed to benefit from treatment with donepezil. Curr Med Res Opin. 2002;18(3):129–38. KQ4E2a, KQ5E2e. [PubMed: 12094822]
38.
Avila R, Carvalho IA, Bottino CM, et al. Neuropsychological rehabilitation in mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease patients. Behav Neurol. 2007;18(4):225–33. KQ4E3a, KQ5E3a. [PubMed: 18430980]
39.
Ayalon L. The IQCODE Versus a Single-Item Informant Measure to Discriminate Between Cognitively Intact Individuals and Individuals With Dementia or Cognitive Impairment. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2011 Sep;24(3):168–73. KQ3E5. [PubMed: 21856971]
40.
Babacan-Yildiz G, Isik AT, Ur E, et al. COST: Cognitive State Test, a brief screening battery for Alzheimer disease in illiterate and literate patients. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Nov;9:1–10. KQ2E3a. [PubMed: 23137551]
41.
Babins L, Slater ME, Whitehead V, et al. Can an 18-point clock-drawing scoring system predict dementia in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008 Feb;30(2):173–86. KQ2E3c. [PubMed: 18938669]
42.
Bachynsky J, McCracken P, Lier D, et al. Propentofylline treatment for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia: an economic evaluation based on functional abilities. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2000 Apr;14(2):102–11. KQ4E6c, KQ5E6c. [PubMed: 10850749]
43.
Baek MJ, Kim HJ, Kim S. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34(4):396–404. KQ2E2d. [PubMed: 22263656]
44.
Baker LD, Frank LL, Foster-Schubert K, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: a controlled trial. Arch Neurol. 2010 Jan;67(1):71–9. KQ5E5. [PMC free article: PMC3056436] [PubMed: 20065132]
45.
Bakker TJ, Duivenvoorden HJ, van der LJ, et al. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Jun;19(6):507–20. KQ4E3b, KQ5E3b. [PubMed: 20808147]
46.
Ball LJ, Ogden A, Mandi D, et al. The validation of a mailed health survey for screening of dementia of the Alzheimer's type. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Jun;49(6):798–802. KQ3E5. [PubMed: 11454121]
47.
Ballard C, Kahn Z, Corbett A. Treatment of dementia with lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. Drugs Aging. 2011 Oct 1;28(10):769–77. KQ4E2a, KQ5E2a. [PubMed: 21970305]
48.
Barak Y, Bodner E, Zemishlani H, et al. Donepezil for the treatment of behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer's disease: A 6-month open trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2001;33(3):237–41. KQ4E3c, KQ5E3c. [PubMed: 15374020]
49.
Barberger-Gateau P, Letenneur L, Deschamps V, et al. Fish, meat, and risk of dementia: cohort study. BMJ. 2002 Oct 26;325(7370):932–3. KQ4E6b, KQ5E6b. [PMC free article: PMC130057] [PubMed: 12399342]
50.
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51.
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52.
Basic D, Khoo A, Conforti D, et al. Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination and General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition in a multicultural cohort of community-dwelling older persons with early dementia. Aust Psychol. 2009;44(1):40–53. PMID: None. KQ2E3c.
53.
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54.
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55.
Bass DM, Clark PA, Looman WJ, et al. The Cleveland Alzheimer's managed care demonstration: outcomes after 12 months of implementation. Gerontologist. 2003 Feb;43(1):73–85. KQ5E5. [PubMed: 12604748]
56.
Bastone AC, Jacob FW. Effect of an exercise program on functional performance of institutionalized elderly. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004 Sep;41(5):659–68. KQ4E3a, KQ5E3a. [PubMed: 15558395]
57.
Batman MW. The effects of therapeutic aquatic exercise on patients with Alzheimer's Disease. Diss Abstr Int. 1999;60(6):2933. PMID: None. KQ4E7c, KQ5E7c.
58.
Baum EE, Jarjoura D, Polen AE, et al. Effectiveness of a group exercise program in a long-term care facility: a randomized pilot trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2003 Mar;4(2):74–80. KQ4E3b, KQ5E3b. [PubMed: 12807578]
59.
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61.
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62.
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63.
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64.
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67.
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68.
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69.
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72.
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75.
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