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Melloni C, Jones WS, Washam JB, et al. Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Treatments for Unstable Angina/Non–ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Nov. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 129.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Treatments for Unstable Angina/Non–ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction [Internet].

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Appendix CList of Included Studies

  1. Abuzahra M, Pillai M, Caldera A, et al. Comparison of higher clopidogrel loading and maintenance dose to standard dose on platelet function and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention using drug-eluting stents. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(4):401–3. [PubMed: 18678295]
  2. Ajani AE, Waksman R, Gruberg L, et al. Acute procedural complications and in-hospital events after percutaneous coronary interventions: eptifibatide versus abciximab. Cardiovasc Radiat Med. 2003;4(1):12–7. [PubMed: 12892767]
  3. Alexander D, Ou FS, Roe MT, et al. Use of and inhospital outcomes after early clopidogrel therapy in patients not undergoing an early invasive strategy for treatment of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines (CRUSADE) Am Heart J. 2008;156(3):606–12. [PubMed: 18760147]
  4. Ambrosio G, Steinhubl S, Gresele P, et al. Impact of chronic antiplatelet therapy before hospitalization on ischemic and bleeding events in invasively managed patients with acute coronary syndromes: the ACUITY trial. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011;18(1):121–8. [PubMed: 20523219]
  5. Angkasuwapala K, Ratanasumawong K, Ngarmukos T, et al. Effect of un-fractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin on hospital mortality in patients with non ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90 Suppl 1:109–14. [PubMed: 18431893]
  6. Anonymous. Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa with eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The PURSUIT Trial Investigators. Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(7):436–43. [PubMed: 9705684]
  7. Anonymous. Randomised placebo-controlled and balloon-angioplasty-controlled trial to assess safety of coronary stenting with use of platelet glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa blockade. Lancet. 1998;352(9122):87–92. [PubMed: 9672272]
  8. Anonymous. A comparison of aspirin plus tirofiban with aspirin plus heparin for unstable angina. Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management (PRISM) Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(21):1498–505. [PubMed: 9599104]
  9. Anonymous. Inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with tirofiban in unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management in Patients Limited by Unstable Signs and Symptoms (PRISM-PLUS) Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(21):1488–97. [PubMed: 9599103]
  10. Anonymous. Novel dosing regimen of eptifibatide in planned coronary stent implantation (ESPRIT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The ESPRIT Investigators. Lancet. 2000;356(9247):2037–44. [PubMed: 11145489]
  11. Anonymous. The SYNERGY trial: study design and rationale. Am Heart J. 2002;143(6):952–60. [PubMed: 12075248]
  12. Antman EM. TIMI 11B. Enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. Rationale, study design, and methods. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 11B Trial Investigators. Am Heart J. 1998;135(6 Pt 3 Su):S353–60. [PubMed: 9628449]
  13. Antman EM, McCabe CH, Braunwald E. Bivalirudin as a replacement for unfractionated heparin in unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: observations from the TIMI 8 trial. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction. Am Heart J. 2002;143(2):229–34. [PubMed: 11835024]
  14. Antman EM, McCabe CH, Gurfinkel EP, et al. Enoxaparin prevents death and cardiac ischemic events in unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 11B trial. Circulation. 1999;100(15):1593–601. [PubMed: 10517729]
  15. Antman EM, Wiviott SD, Murphy SA, et al. Early and late benefits of prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a TRITON-TIMI 38 (TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(21):2028–33. [PubMed: 18498956]
  16. Aoki J, Lansky AJ, Mehran R, et al. Early stent thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with drug-eluting and bare metal stents: the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy trial. Circulation. 2009;119(5):687–98. [PubMed: 19171852]
  17. Aronow HD, Califf RM, Harrington RA, et al. Relation between aspirin dose, all-cause mortality, and bleeding in patients with recent cerebrovascular or coronary ischemic events (from the BRAVO Trial) Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(10):1285–90. [PubMed: 18993142]
  18. Aronow HD, Steinhubl SR, Brennan DM, et al. Bleeding risk associated with 1 year of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from the Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial. Am Heart J. 2009;157(2):369–74. [PubMed: 19185647]
  19. Banerjee S, Weideman RA, Weideman MW, et al. Effect of concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors after percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol. 2011;107(6):871–8. [PubMed: 21247527]
  20. Barada K, Karrowni W, Abdallah M, et al. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndromes: clinical predictors and prophylactic role of proton pump inhibitors. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42(4):368–72. [PubMed: 18277903]
  21. Bauer T, Mollmann H, Weidinger F, et al. Use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in diabetics undergoing PCI for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: impact of clinical status and procedural characteristics. Clin Res Cardiol. 2010;99(6):375–83. [PMC free article: PMC2876272] [PubMed: 20186546]
  22. Becker RC, Bassand JP, Budaj A, et al. Bleeding complications with the P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel and ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(23):2933–44. [PubMed: 22090660]
  23. Berger JS, Slater JN, Sherman W, et al. Impact of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy on in-hospital outcomes and long-term survival following percutaneous coronary rotational atherectomy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2005;19(1):47–54. [PubMed: 15976967]
  24. Berger PB, Best PJ, Topol EJ, et al. The relation of renal function to ischemic and bleeding outcomes with 2 different glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: the do Tirofiban and ReoPro Give Similar Efficacy Outcome (TARGET) trial. Am Heart J. 2005;149(5):869–75. [PubMed: 15894970]
  25. Berglund U, Richter A. Clopidogrel treatment before percutaneous coronary intervention reduces adverse cardiac events. J Invasive Cardiol. 2002;14(5):243–6. [PubMed: 11983944]
  26. Bernardi V, Szarfer J, Summay G, et al. Long-term versus short-term clopidogrel therapy in patients undergoing coronary stenting (from the Randomized Argentine Clopidogrel Stent [RACS] trial) Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(3):349–52. [PubMed: 17261396]
  27. Bertel O, Ramsay D, Wettstein T, et al. Intravenous enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: the Zurich enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in PCI study (ZEUS) EuroIntervention. 2010;6(3):407–12. [PubMed: 20884422]
  28. Best PJ, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, et al. The efficacy and safety of short- and long-term dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease: results from the Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial. Am Heart J. 2008;155(4):687–93. [PubMed: 18371477]
  29. Bhatt DL, Cryer BL, Contant CF, et al. Clopidogrel with or without omeprazole in coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(20):1909–17. [PubMed: 20925534]
  30. Bhatt DL, Lee BI, Casterella PJ, et al. Safety of concomitant therapy with eptifibatide and enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the Coronary Revascularization Using Integrilin and Single bolus Enoxaparin Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(1):20–5. [PubMed: 12570939]
  31. Bhattacharya R, Pani A, Dutta D, et al. Randomised controlled trial evaluating the role of tirofiban in high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: an East Indian perspective. Singapore Med J. 2010;51(7):558–64. [PubMed: 20730395]
  32. Bhurke SM, Martin BC, Li C, et al. Effect of the Clopidogrel-Proton Pump Inhibitor Drug Interaction on Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Pharmacotherapy. 2012 [PMC free article: PMC3531962] [PubMed: 22744772]
  33. Blazing MA, De Lemos JA, Dyke CK, et al. The A-to-Z Trial: Methods and rationale for a single trial investigating combined use of low-molecular-weight heparin with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban and defining the efficacy of early aggressive simvastatin therapy. Am Heart J. 2001;142(2):211–7. [PubMed: 11479456]
  34. Blazing MA, de Lemos JA, White HD, et al. Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin vs unfractionated heparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who receive tirofiban and aspirin: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):55–64. [PubMed: 15238591]
  35. Bonde L, Sorensen R, Fosbol EL, et al. Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a nationwide study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(13):1300–7. [PubMed: 20338489]
  36. Bonello L, Lemesle G, De Labriolle A, et al. Impact of a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel on 30-day outcome in unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(10):1318–22. [PubMed: 18993148]
  37. Brener SJ, Ellis SG, Schneider J, et al. Abciximab-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention and long-term survival--a prospective single-center registry. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(7):630–8. [PubMed: 12657221]
  38. Brener SJ, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, et al. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention reduces ischemic events without affecting the need for repeat revascularization: insights from the CREDO trial. J Invasive Cardiol. 2007;19(7):287–90. [PubMed: 17620671]
  39. Brieger D, Van de Werf F, Avezum A, et al. Interactions between heparins, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, and coronary intervention. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) Am Heart J. 2007;153(6):960–9. [PubMed: 17540196]
  40. Brosa M, Rubio-Terres C, Farr I, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in the secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. Pharmacoeconomics. 2002;20(14):979–87. [PubMed: 12403638]
  41. Brown R, Armstrong P. Cost effectiveness in Canada of eptifibatide treatment for acute coronary syndrome patients using PURSUIT subgroup analysis. Can J Cardiol. 2003;19(2):161–6. [PubMed: 12601441]
  42. Budaj A, Eikelboom JW, Mehta SR, et al. Improving clinical outcomes by reducing bleeding in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(6):655–61. [PubMed: 18713759]
  43. Budaj A, Yusuf S, Mehta SR, et al. Benefit of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation in various risk groups. Circulation. 2002;106(13):1622–6. [PubMed: 12270853]
  44. Buresly K, Eisenberg MJ, Zhang X, et al. Bleeding complications associated with combinations of aspirin, thienopyridine derivatives, and warfarin in elderly patients following acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(7):784–9. [PubMed: 15824298]
  45. Burgess BC, Hanna-Moussa S, Ramasamy K, et al. Abciximab or eptifibatide in percutaneous coronary intervention: In-hospital outcomes and costs and six-month results. Int J Angiol. 2002;11(4):221–224.
  46. Butler MJ, Eccleston D, Clark DJ, et al. The effect of intended duration of clopidogrel use on early and late mortality and major adverse cardiac events in patients with drug-eluting stents. Am Heart J. 2009;157(5):899–907. [PubMed: 19376319]
  47. Caixeta A, Dangas GD, Mehran R, et al. Incidence and clinical consequences of acquired thrombocytopenia after antithrombotic therapies in patients with acute coronary syndromes: results from the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trial. Am Heart J. 2011;161(2):298–306 e1. [PubMed: 21315212]
  48. Cannon CP, Harrington RA, James S, et al. Comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in patients with a planned invasive strategy for acute coronary syndromes (PLATO): a randomised double-blind study. Lancet. 2010;375(9711):283–93. [PubMed: 20079528]
  49. Cannon CP, Husted S, Harrington RA, et al. Safety, tolerability, and initial efficacy of AZD6140, the first reversible oral adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist, compared with clopidogrel, in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: primary results of the DISPERSE-2 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(19):1844–51. [PubMed: 17980250]
  50. Chan AW, Moliterno DJ, Berger PB, et al. Triple antiplatelet therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with improved outcomes including one-year survival: results from the Do Tirofiban and ReoProGive Similar Efficacy Outcome Trial (TARGET) J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(7):1188–95. [PubMed: 14522478]
  51. Chang WC, Harrington RA, Simoons ML, et al. Does eptifibatide confer a greater benefit to patients with unstable angina than with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction? Insights from the PURSUIT Trial. Eur Heart J. 2002;23(14):1102–11. [PubMed: 12090748]
  52. Charlot M, Ahlehoff O, Norgaard ML, et al. Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with increased cardiovascular risk independent of clopidogrel use: a nationwide cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(6):378–86. [PubMed: 20855802]
  53. Charlot M, Grove EL, Hansen PR, et al. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study. BMJ. 2011;342:d2690. [PMC free article: PMC3092520] [PubMed: 21562004]
  54. Charlot M, Nielsen LH, Lindhardsen J, et al. Clopidogrel discontinuation after myocardial infarction and risk of thrombosis: a nationwide cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2012 [PubMed: 22798561]
  55. Chen JL, Chen J, Qiao SB, et al. A randomized comparative study of using enoxaparin instead of unfractionated heparin in the intervention treatment of coronary heart disease. Chin Med J (Engl) 2006;119(5):355–9. [PubMed: 16542576]
  56. Cheng CI, Chen CP, Kuan PL, et al. The causes and outcomes of inadequate implementation of existing guidelines for antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome: the experience from Taiwan Acute Coronary Syndrome Descriptive Registry (T-ACCORD Registry) Clin Cardiol. 2010;33(6):E40–8. [PubMed: 20552592]
  57. Chew DP, Huang Z, Pieper KS, et al. Patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the modern era of antithrombotic therapy. Am Heart J. 2008;155(2):239–44. [PubMed: 18215592]
  58. Chin CT, Roe MT, Fox KA, et al. Study design and rationale of a comparison of prasugrel and clopidogrel in medically managed patients with unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the TaRgeted platelet Inhibition to cLarify the Optimal strateGy to medicallY manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial. Am Heart J. 2010;160(1):16–22 e1. [PubMed: 20598967]
  59. Chitose T, Hokimoto S, Oshima S, et al. Clinical Outcomes Following Coronary Stenting in Japanese Patients Treated With and Without Proton Pump Inhibitor. Circ J. 2011 [PubMed: 22130313]
  60. Chu WW, Kuchulakanti PK, Wang B, et al. Bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention after acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2006;7(3):132–5. [PubMed: 16945819]
  61. Cohen M, Blaber R, Demers C, et al. The Essence Trial: Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave MI: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Multicenter Study Comparing Enoxaparin and Intravenous Unfractionated Heparin: Methods and Design. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 1997;4(2):271–274. [PubMed: 10639269]
  62. Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel EP, et al. A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q-Wave Coronary Events Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(7):447–52. [PubMed: 9250846]
  63. Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel EP, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparins in non-ST-segment elevation ischemia: the ESSENCE trial. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin versus intravenous unfractionated heparin, in non-Q-wave Coronary Events. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82(5B):19L–24L. [PubMed: 9737476]
  64. Cohen M, Levine GN, Pieper KS, et al. Enoxaparin 0.3 mg/kg IV supplement for patients transitioning to PCI after subcutaneous enoxaparin therapy for NSTE ACS: a subgroup analysis from the SYNERGY trial. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;75(6):928–35. [PubMed: 20432399]
  65. Cohen M, Mahaffey KW, Pieper K, et al. A subgroup analysis of the impact of prerandomization antithrombin therapy on outcomes in the SYNERGY trial: enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(7):1346–54. [PubMed: 17010793]
  66. Cohen M, Theroux P, Borzak S, et al. Randomized double-blind safety study of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with tirofiban and aspirin: the ACUTE II study. The Antithrombotic Combination Using Tirofiban and Enoxaparin. Am Heart J. 2002;144(3):470–7. [PubMed: 12228784]
  67. Cortese B, Micheli A, Picchi A, et al. Safety and efficacy of a prolonged bivalirudin infusion after urgent and complex percutaneous coronary interventions: a descriptive study. Coron Artery Dis. 2009;20(5):348–53. [PubMed: 19543084]
  68. Cuisset T, Frere C, Quilici J, et al. Benefit of a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel on platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(7):1339–45. [PubMed: 17010792]
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  301. Zairis MN, Tsiaousis GZ, Patsourakos NG, et al. The impact of treatment with omeprazole on the effectiveness of clopidogrel drug therapy during the first year after successful coronary stenting. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26(2):e54–7. [PMC free article: PMC2851393] [PubMed: 20151060]
  302. Zeymer U, Gitt AK, Zahn R, et al. Clopidogrel in addition to aspirin reduces one-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in unselected patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Acute Card Care. 2008;10(1):43–8. [PubMed: 17924233]

Study Groupings Table

    Table C-1 presents a key to the 302 primary and companion articles included in this report, organized alphabetically by study designation (if applicable). A full reference list follows the table.

    References for Study Groupings

    1.
    Blazing MA, de Lemos JA, White HD, et al. Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin vs unfractionated heparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who receive tirofiban and aspirin: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):55–64. [PubMed: 15238591]
    2.
    Blazing MA, De Lemos JA, Dyke CK, et al. The A-to-Z Trial: Methods and rationale for a single trial investigating combined use of low-molecular-weight heparin with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban and defining the efficacy of early aggressive simvastatin therapy. Am Heart J. 2001;142(2):211–7. [PubMed: 11479456]
    3.
    de Lemos JA, Blazing MA, Wiviott SD, et al. Enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in patients treated with tirofiban, aspirin and an early conservative initial management strategy: results from the A phase of the A-to-Z trial. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(19):1688–94. [PubMed: 15451146]
    4.
    Stone GW, McLaurin BT, Cox DA, et al. Bivalirudin for patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(21):2203–16. [PubMed: 17124018]
    5.
    Stone GW, Bertrand ME, Moses JW, et al. Routine upstream initiation vs deferred selective use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: the ACUITY Timing trial. JAMA. 2007;297(6):591–602. [PubMed: 17299194]
    6.
    Ambrosio G, Steinhubl S, Gresele P, et al. Impact of chronic antiplatelet therapy before hospitalization on ischemic and bleeding events in invasively managed patients with acute coronary syndromes: the ACUITY trial. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011;18(1):121–8. [PubMed: 20523219]
    7.
    Aoki J, Lansky AJ, Mehran R, et al. Early stent thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with drug-eluting and bare metal stents: the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy trial. Circulation. 2009;119(5):687–98. [PubMed: 19171852]
    8.
    Caixeta A, Dangas GD, Mehran R, et al. Incidence and clinical consequences of acquired thrombocytopenia after antithrombotic therapies in patients with acute coronary syndromes: results from the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trial. Am Heart J. 2011;161(2):298–306 e1. [PubMed: 21315212]
    9.
    Feit F, Manoukian SV, Ebrahimi R, et al. Safety and efficacy of bivalirudin monotherapy in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndromes: a report from the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(17):1645–52. [PubMed: 18436116]
    10.
    Goto K, Lansky AJ, Fahy M, et al. Predictors of outcomes in medically treated patients with acute coronary syndromes after angiographic triage: an Acute Catheterization And Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) substudy. Circulation. 2010;121(7):853–62. [PubMed: 20142447]
    11.
    Kumar D, Dangas G, Mehran R, et al. Comparison of Bivalirudin versus Bivalirudin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor versus heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in patients with acute coronary syndromes having percutaneous intervention for narrowed saphenous vein aorto-coronary grafts (the ACUITY trial investigators) Am J Cardiol. 2010;106(7):941–5. [PubMed: 20854954]
    12.
    Kirtane AJ, Parise H, Mehran R, et al. Comparison of catheterization laboratory initiated abciximab and eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes (an ACUITY substudy) Am J Cardiol. 2010;106(2):180–6. [PubMed: 20599000]
    13.
    Lansky AJ, Mehran R, Cristea E, et al. Impact of gender and antithrombin strategy on early and late clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (from the ACUITY trial) Am J Cardiol. 2009;103(9):1196–203. [PubMed: 19406258]
    14.
    Lincoff AM, Steinhubl SR, Manoukian SV, et al. Influence of timing of clopidogrel treatment on the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an analysis of the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY) trial. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2008;1(6):639–48. [PubMed: 19463378]
    15.
    Lopes RD, Alexander KP, Manoukian SV, et al. Advanced age, antithrombotic strategy, and bleeding in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: results from the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(12):1021–30. [PubMed: 19298914]
    16.
    Manoukian SV, Feit F, Mehran R, et al. Impact of major bleeding on 30-day mortality and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: an analysis from the ACUITY Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(12):1362–8. [PubMed: 17394970]
    17.
    Mehran R, Nikolsky E, Lansky AJ, et al. Impact of chronic kidney disease on early (30-day) and late (1-year) outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with alternative antithrombotic treatment strategies: an ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY) substudy. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2(8):748–57. [PubMed: 19695543]
    18.
    Miller CD, Blomkalns AL, Gersh BJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of bivalirudin in high-risk patients admitted through the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2009;16(8):717–25. [PubMed: 19673711]
    19.
    Pinto DS, Stone GW, Shi C, et al. Economic evaluation of bivalirudin with or without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition versus heparin with routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition for early invasive management of acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(22):1758–68. [PubMed: 19022155]
    20.
    Stone GW, Bertrand M, Colombo A, et al. Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY (ACUITY) trial: study design and rationale. Am Heart J. 2004;148(5):764–75. [PubMed: 15523305]
    21.
    Stone GW, Ware JH, Bertrand ME, et al. Antithrombotic strategies in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing early invasive management: one-year results from the ACUITY trial. JAMA. 2007;298(21):2497–506. [PubMed: 18056903]
    22.
    Stone GW, White HD, Ohman EM, et al. Bivalirudin in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a subgroup analysis from the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategy (ACUITY) trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9565):907–19. [PubMed: 17368152]
    23.
    White HD, Ohman EM, Lincoff AM, et al. Safety and efficacy of bivalirudin with and without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention 1-year results from the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(10):807–14. [PubMed: 18755342]
    24.
    White HD, Chew DP, Hoekstra JW, et al. Safety and efficacy of switching from either unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin to bivalirudin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes managed with an invasive strategy: results from the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(18):1734–41. [PubMed: 18452778]
    25.
    Cohen M, Theroux P, Borzak S, et al. Randomized double-blind safety study of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with tirofiban and aspirin: the ACUTE II study. The Antithrombotic Combination Using Tirofiban and Enoxaparin. Am Heart J. 2002;144(3):470–7. [PubMed: 12228784]
    26.
    Montalescot G, Sideris G, Meuleman C, et al. A randomized comparison of high clopidogrel loading doses in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: the ALBION (Assessment of the Best Loading Dose of Clopidogrel to Blunt Platelet Activation, Inflammation and Ongoing Necrosis) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(5):931–8. [PubMed: 16949482]
    27.
    Patti G, Colonna G, Pasceri V, et al. Randomized trial of high loading dose of clopidogrel for reduction of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary intervention: results from the ARMYDA-2 (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) study. Circulation. 2005;111(16):2099–106. [PubMed: 15750189]
    28.
    Di Sciascio G, Patti G, Pasceri V, et al. Clopidogrel reloading in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention on chronic clopidogrel therapy: results of the ARMYDA-4 RELOAD (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) randomized trial. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(11):1337–43. [PubMed: 20363764]
    29.
    Di Sciascio G, Patti G, Pasceri V, et al. Effectiveness of in-laboratory high-dose clopidogrel loading versus routine pre-load in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the ARMYDA-5 PRELOAD (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(7):550–7. [PubMed: 20688209]
    30.
    Patti G, Pasceri V, D'Antonio L, et al. Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Bivalirudin Versus Unfractionated Heparin in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Anti-Thrombotic Strategy for Reduction of Myocardial Damage During Angioplasty-Bivalirudin vs Heparin Study) Am J Cardiol. 2012 [PubMed: 22583760]
    31.
    Parodi G, Migliorini A, Valenti R, et al. Comparison of bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin plus protamine in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Antithrombotic Regimens aNd Outcome [ARNO] trial) Am J Cardiol. 2010;105(8):1053–9. [PubMed: 20381652]
    32.
    Mehta SR, Steg PG, Granger CB, et al. Randomized, blinded trial comparing fondaparinux with unfractionated heparin in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention: Arixtra Study in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: a Randomized Evaluation (ASPIRE) Pilot Trial. Circulation. 2005;111(11):1390–7. [PubMed: 15781750]
    33.
    Aronow HD, Califf RM, Harrington RA, et al. Relation between aspirin dose, all-cause mortality, and bleeding in patients with recent cerebrovascular or coronary ischemic events (from the BRAVO Trial) Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(10):1285–90. [PubMed: 18993142]
    34.
    Fung AY, Saw J, Starovoytov A, et al. Abbreviated infusion of eptifibatide after successful coronary intervention The BRIEF-PCI (Brief Infusion of Eptifibatide Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(10):837–45. [PubMed: 19264239]
    35.
    Kreutz RP, Stanek EJ, Aubert R, et al. Impact of proton pump inhibitors on the effectiveness of clopidogrel after coronary stent placement: the clopidogrel Medco outcomes study. Pharmacotherapy. 2010;30(8):787–96. [PubMed: 20653354]
    36.
    Leoncini M, Toso A, Maioli M, et al. Effects of tirofiban plus clopidogrel versus clopidogrel plus provisional abciximab on biomarkers of myocardial necrosis in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with early aggressive approach. Results of the CLOpidogrel, upstream TIrofiban, in cath Lab Downstream Abciximab (CLOTILDA) study. Am Heart J. 2005;150(3):401. [PubMed: 16169315]
    37.
    Bhatt DL, Cryer BL, Contant CF, et al. Clopidogrel with or without omeprazole in coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(20):1909–17. [PubMed: 20925534]
    38.
    Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, Mann JT 3rd, et al. Early and sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(19):2411–20. [PubMed: 12435254]
    39.
    Aronow HD, Steinhubl SR, Brennan DM, et al. Bleeding risk associated with 1 year of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from the Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial. Am Heart J. 2009;157(2):369–74. [PubMed: 19185647]
    40.
    Best PJ, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, et al. The efficacy and safety of short- and long-term dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease: results from the Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial. Am Heart J. 2008;155(4):687–93. [PubMed: 18371477]
    41.
    Brener SJ, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, et al. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention reduces ischemic events without affecting the need for repeat revascularization: insights from the CREDO trial. J Invasive Cardiol. 2007;19(7):287–90. [PubMed: 17620671]
    42.
    Bhatt DL, Lee BI, Casterella PJ, et al. Safety of concomitant therapy with eptifibatide and enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the Coronary Revascularization Using Integrilin and Single bolus Enoxaparin Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(1):20–5. [PubMed: 12570939]
    43.
    Alexander D, Ou FS, Roe MT, et al. Use of and inhospital outcomes after early clopidogrel therapy in patients not undergoing an early invasive strategy for treatment of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines (CRUSADE) Am Heart J. 2008;156(3):606–12. [PubMed: 18760147]
    44.
    Fosbol EL, Wang TY, Li S, et al. Safety and effectiveness of antithrombotic strategies in older adult patients with atrial fibrillation and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2012;163(4):720–8. [PubMed: 22520540]
    45.
    LaPointe NM, Chen AY, Alexander KP, et al. Enoxaparin dosing and associated risk of in-hospital bleeding and death in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(14):1539–44. [PubMed: 17646609]
    46.
    Singh KP, Roe MT, Peterson ED, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin compared with unfractionated heparin for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: results from the CRUSADE initiative. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006;21(3):211–20. [PubMed: 16683212]
    47.
    Tricoci P, Peterson ED, Chen AY, et al. Timing of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and outcomes among patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (results from CRUSADE) Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(10):1389–93. [PubMed: 17493466]
    48.
    Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(7):494–502. [PubMed: 11519503]
    49.
    Budaj A, Yusuf S, Mehta SR, et al. Benefit of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation in various risk groups. Circulation. 2002;106(13):1622–6. [PubMed: 12270853]
    50.
    Fox KA, Mehta SR, Peters R, et al. Benefits and risks of the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients undergoing surgical revascularization for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent ischemic Events (CURE) Trial. Circulation. 2004;110(10):1202–8. [PubMed: 15313956]
    51.
    Jolly SS, Pogue J, Haladyn K, et al. Effects of aspirin dose on ischaemic events and bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the PCI-CURE study. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(8):900–7. [PubMed: 18819961]
    52.
    Keltai M, Tonelli M, Mann JF, et al. Renal function and outcomes in acute coronary syndrome: impact of clopidogrel. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14(2):312–8. [PubMed: 17446813]
    53.
    Lewis BS, Mehta SR, Fox KA, et al. Benefit of clopidogrel according to timing of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndromes: further results from the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) study. Am Heart J. 2005;150(6):1177–84. [PubMed: 16338255]
    54.
    Peters RJ, Mehta SR, Fox KA, et al. Effects of aspirin dose when used alone or in combination with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes: observations from the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) study. Circulation. 2003;108(14):1682–7. [PubMed: 14504182]
    55.
    Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet. 2001;358(9281):527–33. [PubMed: 11520521]
    56.
    Moliterno DJ, Yakubov SJ, DiBattiste PM, et al. Outcomes at 6 months for the direct comparison of tirofiban and abciximab during percutaneous coronary revascularisation with stent placement: the TARGET follow-up study. Lancet. 2002;360(9330):355–60. [PubMed: 12241774]
    57.
    Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Zhao F, et al. Early and late effects of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2003;107(7):966–72. [PubMed: 12600908]
    58.
    Mehta SR, Bassand JP, Chrolavicius S, et al. Dose comparisons of clopidogrel and aspirin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(10):930–42. [PubMed: 20818903]
    59.
    Mehta SR, Bassand JP, Chrolavicius S, et al. Design and rationale of CURRENT-OASIS 7: a randomized, 2 × 2 factorial trial evaluating optimal dosing strategies for clopidogrel and aspirin in patients with ST and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes managed with an early invasive strategy. Am Heart J. 2008;156(6):1080–8 e1. [PubMed: 19033002]
    60.
    Mehta SR, Tanguay JF, Eikelboom JW, et al. Double-dose versus standard-dose clopidogrel and high-dose versus low-dose aspirin in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes (CURRENT-OASIS 7): a randomised factorial trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9748):1233–43. [PubMed: 20817281]
    61.
    Cannon CP, Husted S, Harrington RA, et al. Safety, tolerability, and initial efficacy of AZD6140, the first reversible oral adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist, compared with clopidogrel, in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: primary results of the DISPERSE-2 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(19):1844–51. [PubMed: 17980250]
    62.
    Giugliano RP, White JA, Bode C, et al. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(21):2176–90. [PubMed: 19332455]
    63.
    Giugliano RP, Newby LK, Harrington RA, et al. The early glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (EARLY ACS) trial: a randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the clinical benefits of early front-loaded eptifibatide in the treatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome--study design and rationale. Am Heart J. 2005;149(6):994–1002. [PubMed: 15976780]
    64.
    Melloni C, James SK, White JA, et al. Safety and efficacy of adjusted-dose eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes and reduced renal function. Am Heart J. 2011;162(5):884–92 e1. [PubMed: 22093205]
    65.
    Wang TY, White JA, Tricoci P, et al. Upstream clopidogrel use and the efficacy and safety of early eptifibatide treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an analysis from the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (EARLY ACS) trial. Circulation. 2011;123(7):722–30. [PubMed: 21300952]
    66.
    Roe MT, Christenson RH, Ohman EM, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of early eptifibatide for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Am Heart J. 2003;146(6):993–8. [PubMed: 14660990]
    67.
    van't Hof AW, de Vries ST, Dambrink JH, et al. A comparison of two invasive strategies in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: results of the Early or Late Intervention in unStable Angina (ELISA) pilot study. 2b/3a upstream therapy and acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(15):1401–5. [PubMed: 12909068]
    68.
    Rasoul S, Ottervanger JP, de Boer MJ, et al. A comparison of dual vs. triple antiplatelet therapy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: results of the ELISA-2 trial. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(12):1401–7. [PubMed: 16682384]
    69.
    Islam MA, Blankenship JC, Balog C, et al. Effect of abciximab on angiographic complications during percutaneous coronary stenting in the Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Stenting Trial (EPISTENT) Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(9):916–21. [PubMed: 12398954]
    70.
    Anonymous. Randomised placebo-controlled and balloon-angioplasty-controlled trial to assess safety of coronary stenting with use of platelet glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa blockade. Lancet. 1998;352(9122):87–92. [PubMed: 9672272]
    71.
    Price DJ, Campbell PG, Sutton AG, et al. Selective use of abciximab in coronary stenting: overall outcomes can still be equivalent to those in the EPISTENT treatment group. Int J Cardiovasc Intervent. 2001;4(1):15–20. [PubMed: 12431335]
    72.
    Malhotra S, Bhargava VK, Grover A, et al. A randomized trial to compare the efficacy, safety, cost and platelet aggregation effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (the ESCAPEU trial) Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;39(3):110–5. [PubMed: 11396750]
    73.
    Anonymous. Novel dosing regimen of eptifibatide in planned coronary stent implantation (ESPRIT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The ESPRIT Investigators. Lancet. 2000;356(9247):2037–44. [PubMed: 11145489]
    74.
    Labinaz M, Madan M, O'Shea JO, et al. Comparison of one-year outcomes following coronary artery stenting in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients (from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor With Integrilin Therapy [ESPRIT] Trial) Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(6):585–90. [PubMed: 12231081]
    75.
    O'Shea JC, Hafley GE, Greenberg S, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention: the ESPRIT trial: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(19):2468–73. [PubMed: 11368699]
    76.
    Puma JA, Banko LT, Pieper KS, et al. Clinical characteristics predict benefits from eptifibatide therapy during coronary stenting: insights from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor With Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(4):715–8. [PubMed: 16487833]
    77.
    Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel EP, et al. A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q-Wave Coronary Events Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(7):447–52. [PubMed: 9250846]
    78.
    Brosa M, Rubio-Terres C, Farr I, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in the secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. Pharmacoeconomics. 2002;20(14):979–87. [PubMed: 12403638]
    79.
    Cohen M, Blaber R, Demers C, et al. The Essence Trial: Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave MI: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Multicenter Study Comparing Enoxaparin and Intravenous Unfractionated Heparin: Methods and Design. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 1997;4(2):271–4. [PubMed: 10639269]
    80.
    Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel EP, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparins in non-ST-segment elevation ischemia: the ESSENCE trial. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin versus intravenous unfractionated heparin, in non-Q-wave Coronary Events. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82(5B):19L–24L. [PubMed: 9737476]
    81.
    Fox KA, Antman EM, Cohen M, et al. Comparison of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable angina pectoris/non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction having subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(5):477–82. [PubMed: 12208405]
    82.
    Goodman SG, Cohen M, Bigonzi F, et al. Randomized trial of low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) versus unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease: one-year results of the ESSENCE Study. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q Wave Coronary Events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36(3):693–8. [PubMed: 10987586]
    83.
    Goodman SG, Bozovich GE, Tan M, et al. The greatest benefit of enoxaparin over unfractionated heparin in acute coronary syndromes is achieved in patients presenting with ST-segment changes: the Enoxaparin in Non-Q-Wave Coronary Events (ESSENCE) Electrocardiogram Core Laboratory Substudy. Am Heart J. 2006;151(4):791–7. [PubMed: 16569535]
    84.
    Mark DB, Cowper PA, Berkowitz SD, et al. Economic assessment of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) versus unfractionated heparin in acute coronary syndrome patients: results from the ESSENCE randomized trial. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q wave Coronary Events [unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction] Circulation. 1998;97(17):1702–7. [PubMed: 9591764]
    85.
    Spinler SA, Inverso SM, Cohen M, et al. Safety and efficacy of unfractionated heparin versus enoxaparin in patients who are obese and patients with severe renal impairment: analysis from the ESSENCE and TIMI 11B studies. Am Heart J. 2003;146(1):33–41. [PubMed: 12851605]
    86.
    Gwon HC, Hahn JY, Park KW, et al. Six-month versus 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of drug-eluting stents: the Efficacy of Xience/Promus Versus Cypher to Reduce Late Loss After Stenting (EXCELLENT) randomized, multicenter study. Circulation. 2012;125(3):505–13. [PubMed: 22179532]
    87.
    Valgimigli M, Campo G, Tebaldi M, et al. Randomized, double-blind comparison of effects of abiciximab bolus only vs. on-label regimen on ex vivo inhibition of platelet aggregation in responders to clopidogrel undergoing coronary stenting. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8(9):1903–11. [PubMed: 20586923]
    88.
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