Appendix HSubgroup Tables

Publication Details

Table H-1. Subgroup results for KQ 1: antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications in the early invasive treatment of patients with UA/NSTEMI (MS Word, 344K)

Table H-2. Subgroup results for KQ 2: antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications in the initial conservative treatment of patients with UA/NSTEMI (MS Word, 311K)

Table H-3. Subgroup results for KQ 3: antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications in the postdischarge treatment of patients with UA/NSTEMI (MS Word, 292K)

References Cited in Appendix H

1.
Anonymous. Novel dosing regimen of eptifibatide in planned coronary stent implantation (ESPRIT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The ESPRIT Investigators. Lancet. 2000;356(9247):2037–44. [PubMed: 11145489]
2.
Antman EM, McCabe CH, Gurfinkel EP, et al. Enoxaparin prevents death and cardiac ischemic events in unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 11B trial. Circulation. 1999;100(15):1593–601. [PubMed: 10517729]
3.
Berglund U, Richter A. Clopidogrel treatment before percutaneous coronary intervention reduces adverse cardiac events. J Invasive Cardiol. 2002;14(5):243–6. [PubMed: 11983944]
4.
Bertel O, Ramsay D, Wettstein T, et al. Intravenous enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: the Zurich enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin in PCI study (ZEUS) EuroIntervention. 2010;6(3):407–12. [PubMed: 20884422]
5.
Bhatt DL, Lee BI, Casterella PJ, et al. Safety of concomitant therapy with eptifibatide and enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the Coronary Revascularization Using Integrilin and Single bolus Enoxaparin Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(1):20–5. [PubMed: 12570939]
6.
Blazing MA, de Lemos JA, White HD, et al. Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin vs unfractionated heparin in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who receive tirofiban and aspirin: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):55–64. [PubMed: 15238591]
7.
Brener SJ, Ellis SG, Schneider J, et al. Abciximab-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention and long-term survival--a prospective single-center registry. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(7):630–8. [PubMed: 12657221]
8.
Brieger D, Van de Werf F, Avezum A, et al. Interactions between heparins, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, and coronary intervention. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) Am Heart J. 2007;153(6):960–9. [PubMed: 17540196]
9.
Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel EP, et al. A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q-Wave Coronary Events Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(7):447–52. [PubMed: 9250846]
10.
Di Sciascio G, Patti G, Pasceri V, et al. Effectiveness of in-laboratory high-dose clopidogrel loading versus routine pre-load in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the ARMYDA-5 PRELOAD (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(7):550–7. [PubMed: 20688209]
11.
Di Sciascio G, Patti G, Pasceri V, et al. Clopidogrel reloading in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention on chronic clopidogrel therapy: results of the ARMYDA-4 RELOAD (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) randomized trial. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(11):1337–43. [PubMed: 20363764]
12.
Durand E, Hamm CW, Macaya CM, et al. A randomised controlled trial of upstream administration of eptifibatide in patients presenting non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome treated with an invasive strategy. EuroIntervention. 2007;3(2):228–34. [PubMed: 19758942]
13.
Ferguson JJ, Califf RM, Antman EM, et al. Enoxaparin vs unfractionated heparin in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes managed with an intended early invasive strategy: primary results of the SYNERGY randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292(1):45–54. [PubMed: 15238590]
14.
Fung AY, Saw J, Starovoytov A, et al. Abbreviated infusion of eptifibatide after successful coronary intervention The BRIEF-PCI (Brief Infusion of Eptifibatide Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53(10):837–45. [PubMed: 19264239]
15.
Giugliano RP, White JA, Bode C, et al. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(21):2176–90. [PubMed: 19332455]
16.
Islam MA, Blankenship JC, Balog C, et al. Effect of abciximab on angiographic complications during percutaneous coronary stenting in the Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Stenting Trial (EPISTENT) Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(9):916–21. [PubMed: 12398954]
17.
Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Neumann FJ, et al. Abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention after clopidogrel pretreatment: the ISAR-REACT 2 randomized trial. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1531–8. [PubMed: 16533938]
18.
Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, Mehilli J, et al. Bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(7):688–96. [PubMed: 18703471]
19.
Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, Schulz S, et al. Abciximab and heparin versus bivalirudin for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):1980–9. [PubMed: 22077909]
20.
Mehta SR, Steg PG, Granger CB, et al. Randomized, blinded trial comparing fondaparinux with unfractionated heparin in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention: Arixtra Study in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: a Randomized Evaluation (ASPIRE) Pilot Trial. Circulation. 2005;111(11):1390–7. [PubMed: 15781750]
21.
Mehta SR, Bassand JP, Chrolavicius S, et al. Dose comparisons of clopidogrel and aspirin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(10):930–42. [PubMed: 20818903]
22.
Ozkan M, Sag C, Yokusoglu M, et al. The effect of tirofiban and clopidogrel pretreatment on outcome of old saphenous vein graft stenting in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005;206(1):7–13. [PubMed: 15802870]
23.
Parodi G, Migliorini A, Valenti R, et al. Comparison of bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin plus protamine in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Antithrombotic Regimens aNd Outcome [ARNO] trial) Am J Cardiol. 2010;105(8):1053–9. [PubMed: 20381652]
24.
Patti G, Pasceri V, D'Antonio L, et al. Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Bivalirudin Versus Unfractionated Heparin in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Anti-Thrombotic Strategy for Reduction of Myocardial Damage During Angioplasty-Bivalirudin vs Heparin Study) Am J Cardiol. 2012 [PubMed: 22583760]
25.
Puymirat E, Aissaoui N, Coste P, et al. Comparison of efficacy and safety of a standard versus a loading dose of clopidogrel for acute myocardial infarction in patients >/= 75 years of age (from the FAST-MI registry) Am J Cardiol. 2011;108(6):755–9. [PubMed: 21726837]
26.
Singh KP, Roe MT, Peterson ED, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin compared with unfractionated heparin for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: results from the CRUSADE initiative. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006;21(3):211–20. [PubMed: 16683212]
27.
Steg PG, Jolly SS, Mehta SR, et al. Low-dose vs standard-dose unfractionated heparin for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes treated with fondaparinux: the FUTURA/OASIS-8 randomized trial. JAMA. 2010;304(12):1339–49. [PubMed: 20805623]
28.
Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, Mann JT 3rd, et al. Early and sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(19):2411–20. [PubMed: 12435254]
29.
Stone GW, McLaurin BT, Cox DA, et al. Bivalirudin for patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(21):2203–16. [PubMed: 17124018]
30.
Stone GW, Bertrand ME, Moses JW, et al. Routine upstream initiation vs deferred selective use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: the ACUITY Timing trial. JAMA. 2007;297(6):591–602. [PubMed: 17299194]
31.
Szuk T, Gyongyosi M, Homorodi N, et al. Effect of timing of clopidogrel administration on 30-day clinical outcomes: 300-mg loading dose immediately after coronary stenting versus pretreatment 6 to 24 hours before stenting in a large unselected patient cohort. Am Heart J. 2007;153(2):289–95. [PubMed: 17239691]
32.
Topol EJ, Moliterno DJ, Herrmann HC, et al. Comparison of two platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, tirofiban and abciximab, for the prevention of ischemic events with percutaneous coronary revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(25):1888–94. [PubMed: 11419425]
33.
Tricoci P, Peterson ED, Chen AY, et al. Timing of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and outcomes among patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (results from CRUSADE) Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(10):1389–93. [PubMed: 17493466]
34.
Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(11):1045–57. [PubMed: 19717846]
35.
Mahaffey KW, Wojdyla DM, Carroll K, et al. Ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel by geographic region in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Circulation. 2011;124(5):544–54. [PubMed: 21709065]
36.
Wang C, Kereiakes DJ, Bae JP, et al. Clopidogrel loading doses and outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes. J Invasive Cardiol. 2007;19(10):431–6. [PubMed: 17906345]
37.
Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(20):2001–15. [PubMed: 17982182]
38.
Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(14):1464–76. [PubMed: 16537663]
39.
Anonymous. Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa with eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The PURSUIT Trial Investigators. Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(7):436–43. [PubMed: 9705684]
40.
Anonymous. A comparison of aspirin plus tirofiban with aspirin plus heparin for unstable angina. Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management (PRISM) Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(21):1498–505. [PubMed: 9599104]
41.
Anonymous. Inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with tirofiban in unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management in Patients Limited by Unstable Signs and Symptoms (PRISM-PLUS) Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(21):1488–97. [PubMed: 9599103]
42.
Roe M, Armstrong P, Fox K. Prasugrel versus Clopidogrel for Acute Coronary Syndromes without Revascularization. NEJM. 2012. e-pub Aug. 26, 2012. 2012. [PubMed: 22920930]
43.
Simoons ML. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker abciximab on outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes without early coronary revascularisation: the GUSTO IV-ACS randomised trial. Lancet. 2001;357(9272):1915–24. [PubMed: 11425411]
44.
Spinler SA, Inverso SM, Cohen M, et al. Safety and efficacy of unfractionated heparin versus enoxaparin in patients who are obese and patients with severe renal impairment: analysis from the ESSENCE and TIMI 11B studies. Am Heart J. 2003;146(1):33–41. [PubMed: 12851605]
45.
Bonde L, Sorensen R, Fosbol EL, et al. Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a nationwide study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(13):1300–7. [PubMed: 20338489]
46.
Butler MJ, Eccleston D, Clark DJ, et al. The effect of intended duration of clopidogrel use on early and late mortality and major adverse cardiac events in patients with drug-eluting stents. Am Heart J. 2009;157(5):899–907. [PubMed: 19376319]
47.
Charlot M, Ahlehoff O, Norgaard ML, et al. Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with increased cardiovascular risk independent of clopidogrel use: a nationwide cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(6):378–86. [PubMed: 20855802]
48.
Charlot M, Nielsen LH, Lindhardsen J, et al. Clopidogrel discontinuation after myocardial infarction and risk of thrombosis: a nationwide cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2012 [PubMed: 22798561]
49.
Cheng CI, Chen CP, Kuan PL, et al. The causes and outcomes of inadequate implementation of existing guidelines for antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome: the experience from Taiwan Acute Coronary Syndrome Descriptive Registry (T-ACCORD Registry) Clin Cardiol. 2010;33(6):E40–8. [PubMed: 20552592]
50.
Gwon HC, Hahn JY, Park KW, et al. Six-month versus 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after implantation of drug-eluting stents: the Efficacy of Xience/Promus Versus Cypher to Reduce Late Loss After Stenting (EXCELLENT) randomized, multicenter study. Circulation. 2012;125(3):505–13. [PubMed: 22179532]
51.
Harjai KJ, Shenoy C, Orshaw P, et al. Clinical outcomes in patients with the concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors after percutaneous coronary intervention: an analysis from the Guthrie Health Off-Label Stent (GHOST) investigators. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4(2):162–70. [PubMed: 21386091]
52.
Harjai KJ, Shenoy C, Orshaw P, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy for more than 12 months after percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the Guthrie PCI Registry. Heart. 2009;95(19):1579–86. [PubMed: 19549619]
53.
Harjai KJ, Shenoy C, Orshaw P, et al. Low-dose versus high-dose aspirin after percutaneous coronary intervention: analysis from the guthrie health off-label StenT (GHOST) registry. J Interv Cardiol. 2011;24(4):307–14. [PubMed: 21790788]
54.
Ho PM, Fihn SD, Wang L, et al. Clopidogrel and long-term outcomes after stent implantation for acute coronary syndrome. Am Heart J. 2007;154(5):846–51. [PubMed: 17967588]
55.
Ho PM, Maddox TM, Wang L, et al. Risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following acute coronary syndrome. JAMA. 2009;301(9):937–44. [PubMed: 19258584]
56.
Juurlink DN, Gomes T, Ko DT, et al. A population-based study of the drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel. CMAJ. 2009;180(7):713–8. [PMC free article: PMC2659819] [PubMed: 19176635]
57.
Kreutz RP, Stanek EJ, Aubert R, et al. Impact of proton pump inhibitors on the effectiveness of clopidogrel after coronary stent placement: the clopidogrel Medco outcomes study. Pharmacotherapy. 2010;30(8):787–96. [PubMed: 20653354]
58.
O'Donoghue ML, Braunwald E, Antman EM, et al. Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials. Lancet. 2009;374(9694):989–97. [PubMed: 19726078]
59.
Persson J, Lindback J, Hofman-Bang C, et al. Efficacy and safety of clopidogrel after PCI with stenting in patients on oral anticoagulants with acute coronary syndrome. EuroIntervention. 2011;6(9):1046–1052. [PubMed: 21518675]
60.
Rassen JA, Choudhry NK, Avorn J, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients using clopidogrel with proton pump inhibitors after percutaneous coronary intervention or acute coronary syndrome. Circulation. 2009;120(23):2322–9. [PMC free article: PMC2818789] [PubMed: 19933932]
61.
Ray WA, Murray KT, Griffin MR, et al. Outcomes with concurrent use of clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(6):337–45. [PMC free article: PMC3176584] [PubMed: 20231564]
62.
Rossini R, Capodanno D, Musumeci G, et al. Safety of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors in patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. Coron Artery Dis. 2011;22(3):199–205. [PubMed: 21358542]
63.
Ruiz-Nodar JM, Marin F, Roldan V, et al. Should We Recommend Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting With a High HAS-BLED Bleeding Risk Score? Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5(4):459–66. [PubMed: 22787018]
64.
Schmidt M, Johansen MB, Robertson DJ, et al. Concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors is not associated with major adverse cardiovascular events following coronary stent implantation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(1):165–74. [PubMed: 22050009]
65.
Simon T, Steg PG, Gilard M, et al. Clinical events as a function of proton pump inhibitor use, clopidogrel use, and cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype in a large nationwide cohort of acute myocardial infarction: results from the French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation and Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) registry. Circulation. 2011;123(5):474–82. [PubMed: 21262992]
66.
So D, Cook EF, Le May M, et al. Association of aspirin dosage to clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: observations from the Ottawa Heart Institute PCI Registry. J Invasive Cardiol. 2009;21(3):121–7. [PubMed: 19258643]
67.
Stenestrand U, Lindback J, Wallentin L. Anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation in combination with acute myocardial infarction influences long-term outcome: a prospective cohort study from the Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) Circulation. 2005;112(21):3225–31. [PubMed: 16301355]
68.
Stockl KM, Le L, Zakharyan A, et al. Risk of rehospitalization for patients using clopidogrel with a proton pump inhibitor. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(8):704–10. [PubMed: 20421557]
69.
Valgimigli M, Campo G, Monti M, et al. Short- Versus Long-term Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Coronary Stenting: A Randomized Multicentre Trial. Circulation. 2012 [PubMed: 22438530]
70.
Valkhoff VE, t Jong GW, Van Soest EM, et al. Risk of recurrent myocardial infarction with the concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33(1):77–88. [PubMed: 21083580]
71.
van Boxel OS, van Oijen MG, Hagenaars MP, et al. Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal outcomes in clopidogrel users on proton pump inhibitors: results of a large Dutch cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(11):2430–6. quiz 2437. [PubMed: 20736935]
72.
Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(7):494–502. [PubMed: 11519503]
73.
Zeymer U, Gitt AK, Zahn R, et al. Clopidogrel in addition to aspirin reduces one-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in unselected patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Acute Card Care. 2008;10(1):43–8. [PubMed: 17924233]