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Origin of Adverse Drug Events in U.S. Hospitals, 2011

Statistical Brief #158

, PhD, , PhD, , MA, and , PhD.

Published: .

Introduction

Prescription medications are widely used to treat a variety of acute and chronic medical conditions, and their use has increased substantially in the United States over the past 20–25 years.1 In the years 1988–1994, approximately 38 percent of the U.S. population reported that they had used a prescription drug in the past 30 days; this increased to nearly 48 percent of the population in the period from 2005 to 2008.2 Prescription drug use has increased among all age groups, reaching 25 percent of children and 90 percent of the elderly in the years 2005–2008.3 Moreover, the number of medications per patient also has increased. For example, in the period from 1988–1994, just over one-third of the elderly used three or more prescription drugs in the past 30 days, compared to nearly two-thirds in the years 2005–2008.4

The intention of prescription medications is to help cure disease or alleviate symptoms; however, sometimes the drugs can cause patient injury, known as an adverse drug event (ADE). With the substantial rise in the use of medications, there has been a concomitant increase in the occurrence of ADEs reported to the FDA.5 However, the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System only requires drug manufacturers to report ADEs while many ADEs are often reported in hospitals instead. Between 2004 and 2008, there was a 52 percent increase in the number of ADEs reported in U.S. hospitals.6 Adverse drug events increase the risk of death, the length of hospitalization, and the cost of care.7,8

Hospital stays involving ADEs have been reported for a range of drugs, including hormones, analgesics, antibiotics, and cardiovascular drugs, among others.9 Adverse drug events may be a reason for admission to the hospital—that is, the ADE was present on admission (POA). Alternatively, ADEs may originate during the hospital stay because of medications administered during hospitalization. Adverse drug events are the most common nonsurgical adverse events in hospitals.10 In 2008, about 14 percent of Medicare patients experienced an adverse event originating during their hospital stay, costing an estimated $3.8 billion a year, with about a third of the events being ADEs.11 This Statistical Brief presents more recent data on national ADE rates over all payers in 2011.

In 32 of 46 States participating in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), the data indicate whether diagnoses are POA or originate during the hospital stay. In these States, inpatient data can be used to chart the frequency of in-hospital events and to report the frequency of community-occurring ADEs that are serious enough to require hospitalization and be observed at admission. This Statistical Brief presents data from these 32 States. The 2011 rates are reported for general classes as well as the specific types of drugs that cause ADEs.12

All numbers noted in the text and included in the tables are actual values, not estimates, because the data include a census of discharges rather than a sample of discharges. In other words, we count the actual number of hospital stays with ADEs in the 32 States. Because we analyze numbers for the actual population rather than a sample, there is no need to estimate how well the sample represents an underlying population. As a result, there is no sampling error associated with the calculated values presented, and significance testing is not necessary.13

Findings

Highlights

  • In 2011, adverse drug events (ADEs) in U.S. hospitals were three times more likely to be present on admission (388 per 10,000 discharges) than to originate during the hospital stay (129 per 10,000 discharges).
  • The most common general causes of ADEs that were present on admission (POA) were antibiotics and anti-infectives (23.4 percent of all ADEs), systemic agents (13.6 percent), nonspecific ADE causes (12.9 percent), and hormones (11.9 percent).
  • The most common general causes of ADEs that originated during the stay were antibiotics and anti-infectives (28.0 percent of all ADEs), nonspecific ADE causes (16.6 percent), hormones (16.1 percent), and analgesics (12.6 percent).
  • Overall, the most common specific ADEs were related to clostridium difficile infection (95 per 10,000 discharges), antineoplastic drugs, and steroids (each at a rate of 57 per 10,000 discharges).
  • Almost all ADEs were more likely to be POA than to originate during the stay. The largest differences were observed for antidepressants (17.6 times more likely to be POA) and central nervous system drugs (13.5 times more likely to be POA).
  • ADEs due to CNS depressants and anesthetics were nearly two times more likely to originate during the stay than to be POA. Antibiotic-related ADEs were equally likely to be POA as to originate during the stay.

Frequency of adverse drug events, 2011

Across a total of 20,172,966 discharges in the 32 States included in our analysis, there were 782,757 ADEs that were present on admission and 259,662 ADEs that originated during the hospital stay. Table 1 presents the rate and percentage of ADEs for a range of causes. Overall, ADEs observed during hospitalization were more likely to be present on admission (388 per 10,000 discharges) than to originate during the hospital stay (129 per 10,000 discharges). Among ADEs present on admission, the most common general causes were antibiotics and anti-infectives (23.4 percent of all ADEs), systemic agents (13.6 percent), nonspecific ADE causes (12.9 percent), and hormones (11.9 percent). Among ADEs that originated during the stay, the most prevalent general causes were antibiotics and anti-infectives (28.0 percent of all ADEs), nonspecific ADE causes (16.6 percent), hormones (16.1 percent), and analgesics (12.6 percent).

Table 1. Adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospital inpatient settings, 32 states, 2011.

Table 1

Adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospital inpatient settings, 32 states, 2011.

General causes of adverse drug events, 2011

The general causes of adverse drug events that were present on hospital admission and those that originated during the stay are provided in Figure 1. The order of the list is from the most to least frequently occurring cause overall. The most frequent general causes of ADEs were antibiotics and anti-infectives (127 events per 10,000 discharges), nonspecific ADE causes (71 events), hormones (67 events), and analgesics (62 events). Across all general causes, ADEs were substantially more likely to be present on admission than to originate during the stay.

This is a stacked bar graph, showing the number of adverse drug events per 10,000 discharges by the cause of the adverse drug event, for those that originated during the stay and those that were present on admission. Antibiotics and anti-infectives: 36.1 originated during the stay and 90.9 were present on admission. Nonspecific adverse event causes, drug type not specified: 21.4 originated during the stay and 49.9 were present on admission. Hormones: 20.7 originated during the stay and 46.3 were present on admission. Analgesics: 16.2 originated during the stay and 45.5 were present on admission. Systemic agents: 8.5 originated during the stay and 52.8 were present on admission. Agents affecting blood constituents: 8.5 originated during the stay and 43.9 were present on admission. Psychotropic agents: 4.2 originated during the stay and 34.8 were present on admission. Cardiovascular drugs: 7.5 originated during the stay and 29.4 were present on admission. Water, mineral, and uric acid metabolism drugs: 6.1 originated during the stay and 16.9 were present on admission. Sedatives or hypnotics: 5.7 originated during the stay and 11.0 were present on admission. All other adverse drug event causes: 11.2 originated during the stay and 29.5 were present on admission. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases for 32 States, 2011.

Figure 1

General causes of adverse drug events (ADEs), 2011. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 32 States, (more...)

Most common specific causes of adverse drug events, 2011

Figure 2 presents the 10 most common specific causes of adverse drug events. The data represent causes that occurred at a rate of more than 15 per 10,000 discharges. Clostridium difficile infection was the most common ADE cause, occurring at a rate of 95 per 10,000 discharges. The next two most frequently occurring ADE causes—antineoplastic drugs and steroids—each occurred at a rate of 57 per 10,000 discharges.

This is a stacked bar graph, showing the number of adverse drug events per 10,000 discharges by the cause of the adverse drug event, for those that originated during the stay and those that were present on admission. Clostridium difficile infection: 21.9 originated during the stay and 73.1 were present on admission. Antineoplastic drugs: 7.8 originated during the stay and 49.2 were present on admission. Steroids: 19.7 originated during the stay and 37.3 were present on admission. Anticoagulants: 6.7 originated during the stay and 40.6 were present on admission. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: 5.1 originated during the stay and 28.3 were present on admission. Opiates and Narcotics: 11.2 originated during the stay and 18.8 were present on admission. Other cardiovascular drugs: 5.9 originated during the stay and 21.6 were present on admission. Antibiotics: 12.9 originated during the stay and 12.5 were present on admission. Benzodiazepine: 2.2 originated during the stay and 18.1 were present on admission. Other diuretics: 4.6 originated during the stay and 10.7 were present on admission. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases for 32 States, 2011.

Figure 2

Ten most common specific causes of adverse drug events (ADEs), 2011. Abbreviation: NSAIDS, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost (more...)

With the exception of antibiotics, all of the most common specific causes of ADEs were more likely to be present on admission than to originate during the hospital stay. For antibiotics, the number of events was nearly equal across the settings: 12.5 ADEs per 10,000 discharges were present on admission versus 12.9 ADEs that originated during the stay.

Most common causes of adverse drug events that were present on admission versus originated during the stay, 2011

Across all causes of adverse drug events, there were three times as many ADEs that were present on admission than originated during the stay. Most causes of adverse drug events were more likely to be present on admission.

Figure 3 presents the ratio of ADEs per 10,000 discharges that were present on admission versus those that originated during the stay for ADE causes that had at least a 5-fold difference (i.e., the ratio was at least 5.0). Most of the ADE causes had a ratio between 5.0 and 10.0. Only two ADE causes exceeded a ratio of 10.0: ADEs that were due to antidepressants (17.6 times more likely to be POA) and central nervous system drugs (13.5 times more likely to be POA).

This is a bar graph showing the ratio of adverse drug events per 10,000 discharges present on admission versus those that originated during the stay by the cause of the adverse drug event. Antidepressants, 17.6, Central nervous system drugs, 13.5, Other psychotropic drugs, 9.5, Insulin and hypoglycemics, 8.6, Antipsychotics, 8.2, Benzodiazepine, 8.2, Saluretics, 7.7, Other anticonvulsants, 7.6, Anti-Parkinson drugs, 7.6, Digoxin, 7.6, Hydantoin, 7.5, Antineoplastic drugs, 6.3, Anticoagulants, 6.1, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 5.5. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases for 32 States, 2011.

Figure 3

Most common causes of adverse drug events (ADEs) that were present on admission versus those that originated during the stay, 2011. Abbreviation: NSAIDS, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center (more...)

Only one ADE cause—CNS depressants and anesthetics (data not shown)—was more likely to originate during the hospital stay (4 per 10,000 discharges were present on admission versus 7 per 10,000 discharges originated during the stay). ADEs caused by antibiotics were about equally likely to originate during the stay as to be present on admission (data not shown).

Data Source

The estimates in this Statistical Brief are based upon data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2011 State Inpatient Databases (SID) from 32 States. These States included data elements that designated whether diagnoses were present on admission or originated during the stay: Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Nevada, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin.

Definitions

The specific causes of adverse drug events presented in this Statistical Brief were based on a review of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes and external cause of injury codes (E codes). The specific ICD-9-CM codes used for each ADE cause is provided in the separate appendix associated with this Statistical Brief on the HCUP-US website at: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb158_appendix.pdf.

Present on admission was determined for each discharge diagnosis based on two types of present-on-admission indicator flags in the SID: (1) a diagnosis-specific flag that indicates whether each diagnosis was present on admission, and (2) an E code flag that indicates whether each external cause of injury was present on admission.

A total of 4,554 hospitals and 30,149,145 discharges were in the original SID for the 32 States in this study. Hospitals and individual discharge records with missing or incomplete present-on-admission information were excluded from the analysis, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Exclusion criteria and the number of hospitals and discharges excluded.

Table 2

Exclusion criteria and the number of hospitals and discharges excluded.

The final analysis file for this Statistical Brief included 2,737 hospitals (60.1 percent) and 20,172,966 discharges (66.9 percent) across the 32 States.

Unit of analysis

The unit of analysis is the hospital discharge (i.e., the hospital stay), not a person or patient. This means that a person who is admitted to the hospital multiple times in one year will be counted each time as a separate “discharge” from the hospital.

For More Information

For more information about HCUP, visit http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/.

For additional HCUP statistics, visit HCUPnet, our interactive query system, at http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/.

For information on other hospitalizations in the United States, download HCUP Facts and Figures: Statistics on Hospital-Based Care in the United States in 2009, located at http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports.jsp.

For a detailed description of HCUP, more information on the design of the State Inpatient Databases (SID), please refer to the following publications:

Introduction to the HCUP State Inpatient Databases. Online. December 2012. U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/state/siddist/Introduction_to_SID.pdf. Accessed June 24, 2013.

Footnotes

1

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2011: With Special Feature on Socioeconomic Status and Health. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012. .

2

Ibid.

3

Ibid.

4

Ibid.

5

Moore TJ, Cohen MR, Furberg CD. Serious adverse drug events reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998–2005. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007;167(15):1752–9. [PubMed: 17846394].

6

Lucado J, Paez K, Elixhauser E. HCUP Statistical Brief #109. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Apr, 2011. [June 24, 2013]. Medication-Related Adverse Outcomes in U.S. Hospitals and Emergency Departments, 2008. http://www​.hcup-us.ahrq​.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb109.pdf..

7

Classen DC, Jaser L, Budnitz DS. Adverse Drug Events Among Hospitalized Medicare Patients: Epidemiology and National Estimates from a New Approach to Surveillance. The Joint Comm.J. on Quality and Patient Safety. 2010;36(1):12–21. [PubMed: 20112660].

8

Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, et al. Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA. 1997 Jan 22;277(4):301–6. [PubMed: 9002492].

9

Lucado J, Paez K, Elixhauser E. HCUP Statistical Brief #109. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Apr, 2011. [June 24, 2013]. Medication-Related Adverse Outcomes in U.S. Hospitals and Emergency Departments, 2008. http://www​.hcup-us.ahrq​.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb109.pdf..

10

de Vries EN, Ramrattan MA, Smorenburg SM, Gouma DJ, Boermeester MA. The incidence and nature of in-hospital adverse events: a systematic review. Quality and Safety in Health Care. 2008;17:216–23. [PMC free article: PMC2569153] [PubMed: 18519629].

11

Levinson DR. Adverse Events in Hospitals: National Incidence Among Medicare Beneficiaries. Office of Inspector General, Department of Health and Human Services; 2010. OEI-06-0900090..

12

2010 HCUP ADE origination rates were presented in Encinosa WE and Bae J. Will Meaningful Use Hospital EMR Prevent Hospital-Acquired Drug Events?; WHITE Conference; October, 2012; [Accessed August 11, 2013]. http://www​.rhsmith.umd​.edu/chidswhite/2012/program.aspx..

13

Houchens R. Inferences with HCUP State Databases Final Report. HCUP Methods Series Report # 2010-05. U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; [June 24, 2013]. Online October 12, 2010. http://www​.hcup-us.ahrq​.gov/reports/methods/2010_05.pdf..

14

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) often occurs as a complication of antibiotic therapy; ampicillin, clindamycin third-generation cephalosporins (such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime), and fluoroquinolones are commonly identified as high-risk drugs. From: Blondeau JM. What have we learned about antimicrobial use and the risks for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2009;63(2):230–7..

APPENDIX. List of Adverse Drug Event Causes with Constituent ICD-9-CM Codes and Descriptions

Antibiotics and anti-infectives
Antibiotics760.74 Anti-infectives affecting fetus or newborn via placenta or breast milk
960.0 Poisoning by penicillins
960.1 Poisoning by antifungal antibiotics
960.2 Poisoning by chloramphenicol group
960.3 Poisoning by erythromycin and other macrolides
960.4 Poisoning by tetracycline group
960.5 Poisoning of cephalosporin group
960.6 Poisoning of antimycobacterial antibiotics
960.8 Poisoning by other specified antibiotics
960.9 Poisoning by unspecified antibiotic
E856 Accidental poisoning by antibiotics
E930.0 Penicillins causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.1 Antifungal antibiotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.2 Chloramphenicol group causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.3 Erythromycin and other macrolides causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.4 Tetracycline group causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.5 Cephalosporin group causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.6 Antimycobacterial antibiotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.8 Other specified antibiotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E930.9 Unspecified antibiotic causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Clostridium difficile infection008.45 Intestinal infection due to Clostridium difficile
Other anti-infectives961.0 Poisoning by sulfonamides
961.1 Poisoning by arsenical anti-infectives
961.2 Poisoning by heavy metal anti-infectives
961.3 Poisoning by quinoline and hydroxyquinoline derivatives
961.4 Poisoning by antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa
961.5 Poisoning by other antiprotozoal drugs
961.6 Poisoning by anthelmintics
961.7 Poisoning by antiviral drugs
961.8 Poisoning by other antimycobacterial drugs
961.9 Poisoning by other and unspecified anti-infectives
E857 Accidental poisoning by other anti-infectives
E931.0 Sulfonamides causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.1 Arsenical anti-infectives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.2 Heavy metal anti-infectives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.3 Quinoline and hydroxyquinoline derivatives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.4 Antimalarials and drugs acting on other blood protozoa causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.5 Other antiprotozoal drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.6 Anthelmintics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.7 Antiviral drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.8 Other antimycobacterial drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E931.9 Other and unspecified anti-infectives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Hormones
Steroids365.31 Corticosteroid-induced glaucoma, glaucomatous stage
365.32 Corticosteroid-induced glaucoma, residual stage
962.0 Poisoning by adrenal cortical steroids
E932.0 Adrenal cortical steroids causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Insulin and Hypoglycemics962.3 Poisoning by insulins and antidiabetic agents
995.23 Unspecified adverse effect of insulin
996.57 Mechanical CX due to insulin pump
E932.3 Insulins and antidiabetic agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other hormones760.76 Diethylstilbestrol [DES] affecting fetus or newborn via placenta or breast milk
962.1 Poisoning by androgens and anabolic congeners
962.2 Poisoning by ovarian hormones and synthetic substitutes
962.4 Poisoning by anterior pituitary hormones
962.5 Poisoning by posterior pituitary hormones
962.6 Poisoning by parathyroid and parathyroid derivatives
962.7 Poisoning by thyroid and thyroid derivatives
962.8 Poisoning by antithyroid agents
962.9 Poisoning by other and unspecified hormones and synthetic substitutes
E858.0 Accidental poisoning by hormones and synthetic substitutes
E932.1 Androgens and anabolic congeners causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.2 Ovarian hormones and synthetic substitutes causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.4 Anterior pituitary hormones causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.5 Posterior pituitary hormones causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.6 Parathyroid and parathyroid derivatives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.7 Thyroid and thyroid derivatives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.8 Antithyroid agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E932.9 Other and unspec hormones and synthetic substitutes causing adv eff in therapeutic use
Systemic agents
Antineoplasticdrugs284.11 Antineoplastic chemotherapy induced pancytopenia
285.3 Antineoplastic chemotherapy induced anemia
528.01 Mucositis (ulcerative) due to antineoplastic therapy
760.78 Antimetabolic agents affecting fetus or newborn via placenta or breast milk
960.7 Poisoning by antineoplastic antibiotics
963.1 Poisoning by antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs
E930.7 Antineoplastic antibiotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E933.1 Antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Antiallergy and antiemetic drugs963.0 Poisoning by antiallergic and antiemetic drugs
E933.0 Antiallergic and antiemetic drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other systemic agents963.2 Poisoning by acidifying agents
963.3 Poisoning by alkalizing agents
963.4 Poisoning by enzymes, not elsewhere classified
963.5 Poisoning by vitamins, not elsewhere classified
963.8 Poisoning by other specified systemic agents
963.9 Poisoning by unspecified systemic agent
E858.1 Accidental poisoning by primarily systemic agents
E933.2 Acidifying agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E933.3 Alkalizing agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E933.4 Enzymes, not elsewhere classified, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E933.5 Vitamins, not elsewhere classified, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E933.6 Oral bisphosphonates
E933.7 Intravenous bisphosphonates
E933.8 Other systemic agents, not elsewhere classified, causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E933.9 Unspecified systemic agent causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Agents affecting blood constituents
Anticoagulants964.2 Poisoning by anticoagulants
E934.2 Anticoagulants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other agents that affect blood constituents964.0 Poisoning by iron and its compounds
964.1 Poisoning by liver preparations and other antianemic agents
964.3 Poisoning by vitamin K (phytonadione)
964.4 Poisoning by fibrinolysis-affecting drugs
964.5 Poisoning by anticoagulant antagonists and other coagulants
964.6 Poisoning by gamma globulin
964.7 Poisoning by natural blood and blood products
964.8 Poisoning by other specified agents affecting blood constituents
964.9 Poisoning by unspecified agent affecting blood constituents
E858.2 Accidental poisoning by agents primarily affecting blood constituents
E934.0 Iron and its compounds causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E934.1 Liver preparations and other antianemic agents causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E934.3 Vitamin k [phytonadione] causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E934.4 Fibrinolysis-affecting drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E934.5 Anticoagulant antagonists and other coagulants causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E934.6 Gamma globulin causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E934.7 Natural blood and blood products causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E934.8 Other agents affecting blood constituents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E934.9 Unspecified agent affecting blood constituents causing adv eff in therapeutic use
Analgesics
Opiates/Narcotics965.09 Poisoning by other opiates and related narcotics
E850.2 Accidental poisoning by other opiates and related narcotics
E935.2 Other opiates and related narcotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
NSAIDS965.1 Poisoning by salicylates
965.4 Poisoning by aromatic analgesics, not elsewhere classified
965.5 Poisoning by pyrazole derivatives
965.61 Poisoning by propionic acid derivatives
965.69 Poisoning by other antirheumatics
965.7 Poisoning by other non-narcotic analgesics
965.8 Poisoning by other specified analgesics and antipyretics
965.9 Poisoning by unspecified analgesic and antipyretic
E850.3 Accidental poisoning by salicylates
E850.4 Accidental poisoning by aromatic analgesics, not elsewhere classified
E850.5 Accidental poisoning by pyrazole derivatives
E850.6 Accidental poisoning by antirheumatics (antiphlogistics)
E850.7 Accidental poisoning by other non-narcotic analgesics
E850.8 Accidental poisoning by other specified analgesics and antipyretics
E850.9 Accidental poisoning by unspecified analgesic or antipyretic
E935.3 Salicylates causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E935.4 Aromatic analgesics, not elsewhere classified, causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E935.5 Pyrazole derivatives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E935.6 Antirheumatics [antiphlogistics] causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E935.7 Other non-narcotic analgesics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E935.8 Other specified analgesics and antipyretics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E935.9 Unspecified analgesic and antipyretic causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E980.0 Poisoning by analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted
Anticonvulsants and anti-Parkinson drugs
Hydantoin966.1 Poisoning by hydantoin derivatives
E936.1 Hydantoin derivatives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other anticonvulsants760.77 Anticonvulsants affecting fetus or newborn via placenta or breast milk
966.0 Poisoning by oxazolidine derivatives
966.2 Poisoning by succinimides
966.3 Poisoning by other and unspecified anticonvulsants
E855.0 Accidental poisoning by anticonvulsant and anti-parkinsonism drugs
E936.0 Oxazolidine derivatives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E936.2 Succinimides causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E936.3 Other and unspecified anticonvulsants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Anti-Parkinson drugs966.4 Poisoning by anti-Parkinsonism drugs
E936.4 Anti-parkinsonism drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Sedatives or hypnotics
Sedatives or hypnotics967.0 Poisoning by barbiturates
967.1 Poisoning by chloral hydrate group
967.2 Poisoning by paraldehyde
967.3 Poisoning by bromine compounds
967.4 Poisoning by methaqualone compounds
967.5 Poisoning by glutethimide group
967.6 Poisoning by mixed sedatives, not elsewhere classified
967.8 Poisoning by other sedatives and hypnotics
967.9 Poisoning by unspecified sedative or hypnotic
E851 Accidental poisoning by barbiturates
E852.0 Accidental poisoning by chloral hydrate group
E852.1 Accidental poisoning by paraldehyde
E852.2 Accidental poisoning by bromine compounds
E852.3 Accidental poisoning by methaqualone compounds
E852.4 Accidental poisoning by glutethimide group
E852.5 Accidental poisoning by mixed sedatives, not elsewhere classified
E852.8 Accidental poisoning by other specified sedatives and hypnotics
E852.9 Accidental poisoning by unspecified sedative or hypnotic
E937.0 Barbiturates causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.1 Chloral hydrate group causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.2 Paraldehyde causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.3 Bromine compounds causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.4 Methaqualone compounds causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.5 Glutethimide group causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.6 Mixed sedatives, not elsewhere classified, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.8 Other sedatives and hypnotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E937.9 Unspecified sedatives and hypnotics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E980.1 Poisoning by barbiturates, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted
E980.2 Poisoning by other sedatives and hypnotics, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted
CNS depressants and anesthetics
CNS depressants and anesthetics668.00 Pulmonary CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, unspecified as to episode of care
668.01 Pulmonary CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, delivered, w or w/o antepartum condition
668.02 Pulmonary CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, delivered, with postpartum CX
668.03 Pulmonary CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, antepartum condition or CX
668.04 Pulmonary CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, postpartum condition or CX
668.10 Cardiac CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, unspecified as to episode of care or not applicable
668.11 Cardiac CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, delivered, w or w/o antepartum condition
668.12 Cardiac CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, delivered, with postpartum CX
668.13 Cardiac CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, antepartum condition or CX
668.14 Cardiac CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, postpartum condition or CX
668.20 Central nervous system CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, unspecified as to episode of care
668.21 Central nervous system CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, delivered, w or w/o antepartum
668.22 Central nervous system CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, delivered, with postpartum CX
668.23 Central nervous system CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, antepartum condition or CX
668.24 Central nervous system CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, postpartumcondition or CX
668.80 Other CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, unspecified as to episode of care or not applicable
668.81 Other CX of anesthesia or other sedation in L&D, delivered, w or w/o antepartum condition
668.82 Other CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, delivered, with postpartum CX
668.83 Other CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, antepartum condition or CX
668.84 Other CX of anesthesia or other sedation in labor and delivery, postpartum condition or CX
668.90 Unspecified CX of anesthesia and other sedation in L&D, unspecified as to episode of care
668.91 Unspecified CX of anesthesia and other sedation in L&D, delivered, w or w/o antepartum condition
668.92 Unspecified CX of anesthesia and other sedation in labor and delivery, delivered, with postpartum CX
668.93 Unspecified CX of anesthesia and other sedation in labor and delivery, antepartum condition or CX
668.94 Unspecified CX of anesthesia and other sedation in labor and delivery, postpartum condition or CX
763.5 Maternal anesthesia and analgesia affecting fetus or newborn
968.0 Poisoning by central nervous system muscle-tone depressants
968.1 Poisoning by halothane
968.2 Poisoning by other gaseous anesthetics
968.3 Poisoning by intravenous anesthetics
968.4 Poisoning by other and unspecified general anesthetics
968.5 Surface (topical) and infiltration anesthetics
968.6 Poisoning by peripheral nerve- and plexus-blocking anesthetics
968.7 Poisoning by spinal anesthetics
968.9 Poisoning by other and unspecified local anesthetics
995.22 Unspecified adverse effect of anesthesia
995.24 Failed moderate sedation during procedure
995.4 Shock due to anesthesia, not elsewhere classified
995.86 Malignant hyperthermia
E855.1 Accidental poisoning by other central nervous system depressants
E855.2 Accidental poisoning by local anesthetics
E938.0 Central nervous system muscle-tone depressants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.1 Halothane causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.2 Other gaseous anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.3 Intravenous anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.4 Other and unspecified general anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.5 Surface and infiltration anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.6 Peripheral nerve- and plexus-blocking anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.7 Spinal anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E938.9 Other and unspecified local anesthetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Psychotropic agents
Antidepressants969.00 Poisoning by antidepressant, unspecified
969.01 Poisoning by monoamine oxidase inhibitors
969.02 Poisoning by selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
969.03 Poisoning by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
969.04 Poisoning by tetracyclic antidepressants
969.05 Poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants
969.09 Poisoning by other antidepressants
E854.0 Accidental poisoning by antidepressants
E939.0 Antidepressants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Antipsychotics333.92 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
969.3 Poisoning by other antipsychotics, neuroleptics, and major tranquilizers
E939.3 Other antipsychotics, neuroleptics, and major tranquilizers causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Benzodiazepine969.4 Poisoning by benzodiazepine-based tranquilizers
E853.2 Accidental poisoning by benzodiazepine-based tranquilizers
E939.4 Benzodiazepine-based tranquilizers causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other psychotropic drugs (other than hallucinogens, amphetamines, and caffeine)969.1 Poisoning by phenothiazine-based tranquilizers
969.2 Poisoning by butyrophenone-based tranquilizers
969.5 Poisoning by other tranquilizers
969.8 Poisoning by other specified psychotropic agents
969.9 Poisoning by unspecified psychotropic agents
E853.0 Accidental poisoning by phenothiazine-based tranquilizers
E853.1 Accidental poisoning by butyrophenone-based tranquilizers
E853.8 Accidental poisoning by other specified tranquilizers
E853.9 Accidental poisoning by unspecified tranquilizer
E854.8 Accidental poisoning by other psychotropic agents
E939.1 Phenothiazine-based tranquilizers causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E939.2 Butyrophenone-based tranquilizers causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E939.5 Other tranquilizers causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E939.8 Other psychotropic agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E939.9 Unspecified psychotropic agent causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E980.3 Poisoning by tranquilizers and other psychotropic agents, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted
Central nervous system drugs
Central nervous system drugs970.0 Poisoning by analeptics
970.1 Poisoning by opiate antagonists
970.81 Poisoning by cocaine
970.89 Poisoning by other central nervous system stimulants
970.9 Poisoning by unspecified central nervous system stimulant
E854.3 Accidental poisoning by central nervous system stimulants
E940.0 Analeptics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E940.1 Opiate antagonists causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E940.8 Other specified central nervous system stimulants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E940.9 Unspecified central nervous system stimulant causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Autonomic nervous system drugs
Autonomic nervous system drugs971.0 Poisoning by parasympathomimetics (cholinergics)
971.1 Poisoning by parasympatholytics (anticholinergics and antimuscarinics) ands pasmolytics
971.2 Poisoning by sympathomimetics [adrenergics]
971.9 Poisoning by unspecified drug primarily affecting autonomic nervous system
E855.3 Accidental poisoning by parasympathomimetics [cholinergics]
E855.4 Accidental poisoning by parasympatholytics [anticholinergics and antimuscarinics] and spasmolytics
E855.5 Accidental poisoning by sympathomimetics [adrenergics]
E855.8 Accidental poisoning by other specified drugs acting on central and autonomic nervous systems
E855.9 Accidental poisoning by unspecified drug acting on central and autonomic nervous systems
E941.0 Parasympathomimetics [cholinergics] causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E941.1 Parasympatholytics [anticholinergics and antimuscarinics] and spasmolytics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E941.2 Sympathomimetics [adrenergics] causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E941.9 Unspecified drug primarily affecting the autonomic nervous system causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Cardiovascular drugs
Digoxin972.1 Poisoning by cardiotonic glycosides and drugs of similar action
E942.1 Cardiotonic glycosides and drugs of similar action causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Antiadrenergics (e.g., “beta blockers”)971.3 Poisoning by sympatholytics [antiadrenergics]
E855.6 Accidental poisoning by sympatholytics [antiadrenergics]
E941.3 Sympatholytics [antiadrenergics] causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other cardiovascular drugs972.0 Poisoning by cardiac rhythm regulators (e.g., practolol, procainamide, propranolol, quinidine)
972.2 Poisoning by antilipemic and antiarteriosclerotic drugs
972.3 Poisoning by ganglion-blocking agents
972.4 Poisoning by coronary vasodilators
972.5 Poisoning by other vasodilators
972.6 Poisoning by other antihypertensive agents
972.7 Poisoning by antivaricose drugs, including sclerosing agents
972.8 Poisoning by capillary-active drugs
972.9 Poisoning by other and unspecified agents primarily affecting the cardiovascular system
E858.3 Accidental poisoning by agents primarily affecting cardiovascular system
E942.0 Cardiac rhythm regulators causing adv eff in therapeutic use (e.g., propranolol)
E942.2 Antilipemic and antiarteriosclerotic drugs causing adverse effectsin therapeutic use
E942.3 Ganglion-blocking agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E942.4 Coronary vasodilators causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E942.5 Other vasodilators causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E942.6 Other antihypertensive agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E942.7 Antivaricose drugs, including sclerosing agents, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E942.8 Capillary-active drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E942.9 Other and unspec agents primarily affecting the cardiovascular system causing adv eff in therapeutic use
GI system drugs
GI system drugs973.0 Poisoning by antacids and antigastric secretion drugs
973.1 Poisoning by irritant cathartics
973.2 Poisoning by emollient cathartics
973.3 Poisoning by other cathartics, including intestinal atonia
973.4 Poisoning by digestants
973.5 Poisoning by antidiarrheal drugs
973.6 Poisoning by emetics
973.8 Poisoning by other specified agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system
973.9 Poisoning by unspecified agent primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system
E858.4 Accidental poisoning by agents primarily affecting gastrointestinal system
E943.0 Antacids and antigastric secretion drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.1 Irritant cathartics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.2 Emollient cathartics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.3 Other cathartics, including intestinal atonia drugs, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.4 Digestants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.5 Antidiarrheal drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.6 Emetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.8 Other specified agents primarily affecting the GI system causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E943.9 Unspecified agent primarily affecting the GI system causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Water, mineral, and uric acid metabolism drugs
Saluretics (e.g., chlorothiazide)974.3 Poisoning by saluretics
E944.3 Saluretics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other diuretics (e.g., ethacrynic acid, furosemide)974.0 Poisoning by mercurial diuretics
974.1 Poisoning by purine derivative diuretics
974.4 Poisoning by other diuretics
E944.0 Mercurial diuretics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E944.1 Purine derivative diuretics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E944.4 Other diuretics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other drugs affecting mineral and uric acid metabolism974.2 Poisoning by carbonic acid anhydrase inhibitors
974.5 Poisoning by electrolytic, caloric, and water-balance agents
974.6 Poisoning by other mineral salts, not elsewhere classified
974.7 Poisoning by uric acid metabolism drugs
E858.5 Accidental poisoning by water, mineral, and uric acid metabolism drugs
E944.2 Carbonic acid anhydrase inhibitors causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E944.5 Electolytic, caloric, and water-balance agents causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E944.6 Other mineral salts, not elsewhere classified, causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E944.7 Uric acid metabolism drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Smooth muscle and respiratory drugs
Smooth muscle and respiratory drugs975.0 Poisoning by oxytocic agents
975.1 Poisoning by smooth muscle relaxants
975.2 Poisoning by skeletal muscle relaxants
975.3 Poisoning by other and unspecified drugs acting on muscles
975.4 Poisoning by antitussives
975.5 Poisoning by expectorants
975.6 Poisoning by anticommon cold drugs
975.7 Poisoning by antiasthmatics
975.8 Poisoning by other and unspecified respiratory drugs
E858.6 Accidental poisoning by agents primarily acting on the smooth and skeletal muscles and respiratory system
E945.0 Oxytocic agents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.1 Smooth muscle relaxants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.2 Skeletal muscle relaxants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.3 Other and unspecified drugs acting on muscles causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.4 Antitussives causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.5 Expectorants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.6 Anticommon cold drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.7 Antiasthmatics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E945.8 Other and unspecified respiratory drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Skin, eye, mucous membrane drugs
Skin, eye, mucous membrane drugs976.0 Poisoning by local anti-infectives and anti-inflammatory drugs
976.1 Poisoning by antipruritics
976.2 Poisoning by local astringents and local detergents
976.3 Poisoning by emollients, demulcents, and protectants
976.4 Poisoning by keratolytics, keratoplastics, other hair treatment drugs and preparations
976.5 Poisoning by eye anti-infectives and other eye drugs
976.6 Poisoning by anti-infectives and other drugs and preparations for ear, nose, and throat
976.7 Poisoning by dental drugs topically applied
976.8 Poisoning by other agents primarily affecting skin and mucous membrane
976.9 Poisoning by unspecified agent primarily affecting skin and mucous membrane
E858.7 Accidental poisoning by agents primarily affecting skin and mucous membrane, ophthalmological, ENT, and dental drugs
E946.0 Local anti-infectives and anti-inflammatory drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.1 Antipruritics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.2 Local astringents and local detergents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.3 Emollients, demulcents, and protectants causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.4 Keratolytics, keratoplastics, other hair treatment drugs and preparations causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.5 Eye anti-infectives and other eye drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.6 Anti-infectives and other drugs and preparations for ENT causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E946.7 Dental drugs topically applied causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E946.8 Other agents primarily affecting skin and mucous membrane causing adv effects in therapeutic use
E946.9 Unspecified agent affecting skin and mucous membrane causing adv effects in therapeutic use
Vaccines
Vaccines978.0 Poisoning by BCG vaccine
978.1 Poisoning by typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine
978.2 Poisoning by cholera vaccine
978.3 Poisoning by plague vaccine
978.4 Poisoning by tetanus vaccine
978.5 Poisoning by diphtheria vaccine
978.6 Poisoning by pertussis vaccine, including combinations with a pertussis component
978.8 Poisoning by other and unspecified bacterial vaccines
978.9 Poisoning by mixed bacterial vaccines, except combinations with a pertussis component
979.0 Poisoning by smallpox vaccine
979.1 Poisoning by rabies vaccine
979.2 Poisoning by typhus vaccine
979.3 Poisoning by yellow fever vaccine
979.4 Poisoning by measles vaccine
979.5 Poisoning by poliomyelitis vaccine
979.6 Poisoning by other and unspecified viral and rickettsial vaccines
979.7 Poisoning by mixed viral-rickettsial and bacterial vaccines, except with a pertussis component
979.9 Poisoning by other and unspecified vaccines and biological substances
995.21 Arthus reaction (due to vaccine)
999.0 Generalized vaccinia as a complication of medical care, not elsewhere classified
999.42 Anaphylactic reaction due to vaccination
999.52 Other serum reaction due to vaccination
E875.1 Contaminated substance injected or used for vaccination
E948.0 Bcg vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.1 Typhoid and paratyphoid vaccines causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.2 Cholera vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.3 Plague vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.4 Tetanus vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.5 Diphtheria vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.6 Pertussis vaccine, including with a pertussis component, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.8 Other and unspecified bacterial vaccines causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E948.9 Mixed bacterial vaccines, except with pertussis component, causing adv effects in therapeutic use
E949.0 Smallpox vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.1 Rabies vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.2 Typhus vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.3 Yellow fever vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.4 Measles vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.5 Poliomyelitis vaccine causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.6 Other and unspecified viral and rickettsial vaccines causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E949.7 Mixed viral-rickettsial and bacterial vaccines, except with pertussis, causing adv eff in therapeutic use
E949.9 Other and unspecified vaccines and biological substances causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Other specific drugs
Other specific drugs977.0 Poisoning by dietetics
977.1 Poisoning by lipotropic drugs
977.2 Poisoning by antidotes and chelating agents, not elsewhere classified
977.3 Poisoning by alcohol deterrents
977.4 Poisoning by pharmaceutical excipients
E947.0 Dietetics causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E947.1 Lipotropic drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E947.2 Antidotes and chelating agents, not elsewhere classified, causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E947.3 Alcohol deterrents causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E947.4 Pharmaceutical excipients causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
Nonspecific ADE causes (drug type not specified)
Nonspecific ADE causes (drug type not specified)284.12 Other drug-induced pancytopenia
288.03 Drug induced neutropenia
332.1 Secondary parkinsonism (due to drugs)
333.72 Acute dystonia due to drugs
333.85 Subacute dyskinesia due to drugs
333.90 Unspecified extrapyramidal diseases (incl. medication-induced movement disorders)
333.99 Other extrapyramidal diseases and abnormal movement disorders (incl. drug-induced)
339.3 Drug induced headache, not elsewhere classified
357.6 Polyneuropathy due to drugs
359.24 Drug- induced myotonia
528.02 Mucositis (ulcerative) due to other drugs
692.3 Contact dermatitis and other eczema due to drugs and medicines in contact with skin 693.0 Dermatitis due to drugs and medicines taken internally
695.13 Stevens-Johnson syndrome
695.14 Stevens-Johnson syndrome -- epidermal necrolysis overlap syndrome
695.15 Toxic epidermal necrolysis
909.0 Late effect of poisoning due to drug, medicinal or biological substance
909.5 Late effect of adverse effect of drug, medicinal or biological substance
977.8 Poisoning by other specified drugs and medicinal substances
977.9 Poisoning by unspecified drug or medicinal substance
E980.4 Poisoning by other specified drugs and medicinal substances, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted
E980.5 Poisoning by unspecified drug or medicinal substance, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted
995.0 Other anaphylactic reaction due to medicinal substance properly administered
995.20 Unspecified adverse effect of unspecified drug, medicinal and biological substance
995.27 Other drug allergy
995.29 Unspecified adverse effect of other drug, medicinal and biological substance
E875.2 Contaminated drug or biological substance administered by other means
E858.8 Accidental poisoning by other specified drugs
E858.9 Accidental poisoning by unspecified drug
E947.8 Other drugs and medicinal substances causing adverse effects in therapeutic use
E947.9 Unspecified drug or medicinal substance causing adverse effects in therapeutic use

About the SID The HCUP State Inpatient Databases (SID) are hospital inpatient databases from data organizations participating in HCUP. The SID contain the universe of the inpatient discharge abstracts in the participating HCUP States, translated into a uniform format to facilitate multistate comparisons and analyses. Together, the SID encompass more than 95 percent of all U.S. community hospital discharges in 2011. The SID can be used to investigate questions unique to one State, to compare data from two or more States, to conduct market area variation analyses, and to identify State-specific trends in inpatient care utilization, access, charges, and outcomes.

Suggested Citation Weiss AJ (Truven Health Analytics), Elixhauser A (AHRQ), Bae J (Emory University), Encinosa W (AHRQ). Origin of Adverse Drug Events in U.S. Hospitals, 2011. HCUP Statistical Brief #158. July 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www​.hcup-us.ahrq​.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb158.pdf.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Devi Katikineni and Valeriy Bakaushin of Social & Scientific Systems, Inc.

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