Table ASummary of findings for incarceration-based interventions

ComparisonOutcomeRisk of BiasConsistencyPrecisionDirectnessSOE Grade
Clozapine vs. other antipsychoticsPsychiatric symptomsMedium (2 trials, N = 171)ConsistentImpreciseDirectLow in favor of the nonclozapine group
Clozapine vs. other antipsychoticsIndependent functioningMedium (1 trial, N = 98)UnknownPreciseDirectInsufficient
Risperidone vs. other antipsychoticsPsychiatric symptoms; institutional infractionsMedium (1 trial, N = 20)UnknownImpreciseDirectInsufficient
High-dose chlorpromazine vs. standard dosePsychiatric symptomsMedium (1 trial, N = 64)UnknownPrecise for BPRS, subscales of NOSIE, general and peak SDAS, and adverse eventsDirectInsufficient
Cognitive problem-solving group (R&R) vs. treatment as usualPsychiatric symptomsMedium (2 trials, N = 205)Unknown (different measures used)Precise for impulsive/carelessness and avoidant subscales of the SPSI and MVQDirectInsufficient
Cognitive group therapy vs. individual supportive therapyPsychiatric symptomsMedium (1 trial, N = 10)UnknownImpreciseDirectInsufficient
Modified therapeutic community vs. intensive outpatientPsychiatric symptomsMedium (1 trial, N = 468)UnknownImpreciseDirectInsufficient
Modified therapeutic community vs. intensive outpatientSubstance use or abuseMedium (1 trial, N = 468)UnknownImpreciseDirectInsufficient
Modified therapeutic community vs. intensive outpatientCriminal justice outcomesMedium (1 trial, N = 468)UnknownPrecise for reduction in arrests for crimes other than parole violations at 6-month followupDirectInsufficient
Modified therapeutic community vs. standard mental health treatmentPsychiatric symptoms; criminal justice outcomesMedium (1 trial, N = 139)UnknownImpreciseDirectInsufficient
Modified therapeutic community vs. standard mental health treatmentSubstance use or abuseMedium (1 trial, N = 139)UnknownPrecise for all measures of substance use/abuse including reduction in use, severity of use, and time to relapseDirectInsufficient

Note: Consistency is rated “unknown” when only 1 study is available.

BPRS = Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; MVQ = Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; N = number of subjects; NOSIE = Nurses’ Observational Scale for Inpatient Evaluation; R&R = Reasoning and Rehabilitation; SDAS = Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale; SOE = strength of evidence; SPSI = Social Problem Solving Inventory.

From: Executive Summary

Cover of Interventions for Adult Offenders With Serious Mental Illness
Interventions for Adult Offenders With Serious Mental Illness [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 121.
Fontanarosa J, Uhl S, Oyesanmi O, et al.

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