Table 7-1Analytical Methods for Determining Manganese in Biological Materialsa

Preparation methodAnalytical
detection limit
UrineExtraction into methylisobutyl-ketone as the cupferon chelateAAS (furnace technique)<1 µg/LbNo dataBaselt 1988
UrineExtract with resin, ash resinICP-AES<1 µg/Lb100±10NIOSH 1984d
BloodAcid digestionICP-AES1 µg/dL98±2.1Kneip and Craple 1988a
BloodDigestion in oxidizing acidICP-AES1 µg/100 g98±2.1NIOSH 1984c
TissueDigestion in oxidizing acidICP-AES0.2 µg/g98±2.1NIOSH 1984c
TissueAcid digestionICP-AES0.2 µg/g104±5.6Kneip and Craple 1988a
FecesDry at 110 °C, ash at 550 °C, dissolve in nitric acidAAS (furnace technique)<1 µg/g102±7Friedman et al. 1987
HairDigestion in concentrated nitric:perchloric acid (3:1) mixtureFlameless
<0.2 µg/gNo dataCollipp et al. 1983
Hair(a) slurry sample introduction technique (hair powder added to twice distilled water to measure bulk hair trace elements, or (b) direct introduction of hair segments to measure longitudinal gradientsETAAS (furnace technique)No dataNo dataStupar and Dolinsek 1996c
Methods for determination of MnDPDP
Human plasmaMix heparinized blood samples of patients receiving MnDPDP via injection with solid trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate pH 10.0±0.2; ultrafiltrateMixed-bed resin HPLC-anion exchange and reverse-phase0.8–2.3 µM (manganese compounds)
0.1–0.8 µM (zinc compounds) of 50 µL injection volume
85–115Toft et al. 1997a

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been useful in determining brain accumulation of manganese, but is not a quantitative method; therefore, it is not listed as an entry in this table.


Estimated from sensitivity and linearity data


Methods were used to determine levels of chromium, lead, and cadmium in hair. Manganese concentrations in hair were evaluated for some, but not all, of the samples and tested one, but not both, new methods. However, it is assumed that both techniques will work for the trace element manganese.

AAS = atomic absorption spectroscopy; HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography; ICP-AES = inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; MnDPDP = mangafodipir; NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health


Cover of Toxicological Profile for Manganese
Toxicological Profile for Manganese.
Williams M, Todd GD, Roney N, et al.

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