Table 3-10Genotoxicity of Cadmium In Vivo

Species (test system)End pointResultsReference
Mammalian cells:
  Inhalation exposure:
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Deknudt et al. 1973
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrationsBui et al. 1975
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Deknudt and Leonard 1975
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Bauchinger et al. 1976
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrationsO’Riordan et al. 1978
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Alessio et al. 1993
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Abrahim et al. 2011
   Human lymphocytesSister chromatid exchanges+Abrahim et al. 2011
   Human lymphocytesSister chromatid exchanges+Palus et al. 2003
   Human lymphocytesMicronuclei+Palus et al. 2003
   Human lymphocytesDNA damage+Palus et al. 2003
   Mouse bone marrowDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
   Mouse brain cellsDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
   Mouse testicular cellsDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
   Mouse liver cellsDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
   Mouse kidney cellsDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
   Mouse lung cellsDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
   Mouse nasal epithelial cellsDNA damage+Valverde et al. 2000
  Oral exposure:
   Rat bone cellsAltered gene expression+Ohba et al. 2007
   Mouse bone marrowChromosomal aberrationsDeknudt and Gerber 1979
   Mouse bone marrowChromosomal aberrations+Mukherjee et al. 1988b
   Rat bone marrowChromosomal aberrationsDesi et al. 2000
   Human leukocytesChromosomal aberrations+Shiraishi and Yoshida 1972
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrationsBui et al. 1975
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Tang et al. 1990
   Human lymphocytesChromosomal aberrations+Fu et al. 1999
   Mouse leukocytesDNA damage+Devi et al. 2001
   Rat lymphocytesDNA damage+Kasuba et al. 2002
   Rat spermatogenesisDominant lethal mutationsSutou et al. 1980
   Rat spermatogenesisDominant lethal mutationsZenick et al. 1982
   Rat lymphocytesMicronuclei+Kasuba et al. 2002
   Human lymphocytesMicronuclei+Fu et al. 1999
  Intraperitoneal exposure:
   Mouse oocytesAneuploidyMailhes et al. 1988
   Mouse spermatocytesChromosomal aberrations+Selypes et al. 1992
   Mouse bone marrowChromosomal aberrations+Fahmy and Aly 2000
   Mouse spermatocytesChromosomal aberrations+Fahmy and Aly 2000
   Mouse bone marrowChromosomal aberrationsBruce and Heddle 1979
   Mouse bone marrowChromosomal aberrations+Mukherjee et al. 1988a
   Mouse spermatocytesChromosomal translocationsGilliavod and Leonard 1975
   Rat lung cellsDNA strand breaks+Saplakoglu et al. 1997
   Rat kidney cellsDNA strand breaks+Saplakoglu et al. 1997
   Rat liver cellsDNA strand breaksSaplakoglu et al. 1997
   Mouse spermatogenesisDominant lethal mutationsEpstein et al. 1972
   Mouse spermatogenesisDominant lethal mutationsGilliavod and Leonard 1975
   Mouse oocytesDominant lethal mutationsSuter 1975
   Rat lymphocytes hprt locusGene mutation±Jianhua et al. 2006
   Mouse bone marrowMicronuclei±Mukherjee et al. 1988a
   Mouse bone marrowMicronuclei+Wronska-Nofer et al. 1999
   Mouse bone marrowMicronuclei+Fahmy and Aly 2000
   Mouse bone marrowSister chromatid exchanges+Mukherjee et al. 1988a
   Mouse bone marrowSister chromatid exchanges+Fahmy and Aly 2000
   Mouse spermatozoaSperm morphologyBruce and Heddle 1979
   Mouse spermatozoaSperm morphology+Mukherjee et al. 1988a
   Syrian hamster embryo cellsTransformation+DiPaulo and Castro 1979
  Subcutaneous exposure:
   Mouse testicular cellsAltered gene expression+Zhou et al. 2004b
   Mouse blastocystsAneuploidy+Watanabe and Endo 1982
   Syrian hamster oocytesAneuploidy+Watanabe et al. 1979
   Mouse bone marrowChromosomal aberrations+Karmakar et al. 1998
   Mouse testicular cellsDNA damageZhou et al. 2004b
   Rat lymphocytesDNA damage+Kasuba et al. 2002
   Rat lymphocytesMicronuclei+Kasuba et al. 2002
   Mouse bone marrowSister chromatid exchangesNayak et al. 1989
   Mouse fetal liver and lung cellsSister chromatid exchangesNayak et al. 1989

− = negative result; + = positive result; ± = weakly positive result; DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid

From: 3, HEALTH EFFECTS

Cover of Toxicological Profile for Cadmium
Toxicological Profile for Cadmium.
Faroon O, Ashizawa A, Wright S, et al.

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