Figure 11.3. Breast cancer rates for females who carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, shown as solid lines, versus those females who do not have a mutation, shown as dashed lines.

Figure 11.3

Breast cancer rates for females who carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, shown as solid lines, versus those females who do not have a mutation, shown as dashed lines. The circles in (a) and (c) mark the estimated fraction of females in each class that have not yet developed tumors, taken from Figure 1B of Struewing et al. (1997). In (b) and (d), I transformed the fraction tumorless, f, as S = (maxf)/max, where max is the fraction of the carriers who have fully elevated risk. Panels (a) and (b) used the smooth.spline function of the R computing language (R Development Core Team 2004) to fit a smooth curve to the observed points, with smoothing parameter set to 0.5; (c) and (d) force a stiffer, less curved fit with a smoothing parameter of 0.6. The second row shows incidence on a log10 scale, obtained from −d ln(S)/dt, where S is the fraction tumorless in the curves of the top row. The bottom row shows ΔLLA, the difference in the log-log slopes of incidence in the second row of plots.

From: Chapter 11, Inheritance

Cover of Dynamics of Cancer
Dynamics of Cancer: Incidence, Inheritance, and Evolution.
Frank SA.
Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press; 2007.
Copyright © 2007, Steven A Frank.

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