Table 8-1

Regulations, Advisories, and Guidelines Applicable to 1,4-Dioxane

    IARCCarcinogenicity classificationGroup 2BaIARC 1999
    WHOAir quality guidelinesNo dataWHO 2000
Water quality guidelinesNo dataWHO 2004
Regulations and Guidelines:
a. Air
    ACGIHTLV (8-hour TWA)20 ppmbACGIH 2011
    NIOSHREL (30-minute ceiling TWA)1 ppmcNIOSH 2004
IDLH500 ppm
     EPAHazardous air pollutantEPA 2004d
42 USC 7412
    OSHAPEL (8-hour TWA) for general industry100 ppmbOSHA 2004c
29 CFR 1910.1000,
Table Z-1
PEL (8-hour TWA) for construction
100 ppmbOSHA 2004b
29 CFR 1926.55,
Appendix A
PEL (8-hour TWA) for shipyard
100 ppmbOSHA 2004a
29 CFR 1915.1000,
Table Z
b. Water
     EPADrinking water standards and health
EPA 2004b
    1-Day HA for a 10-kg child4.0 mg/L
    10-Day HA for a 10-kg child0.4 mg/L
    10−4 cancer risk0.3 mg/L
c. Food
    FDAIndirect food additive for use only as a
component of adhesives
FDA 2003
21 CFR 175.105
d. Other
    ACGIHCarcinogenicity classificationGroup A3dACGIH 2011
     EPACarcinogenicity classificationLikely to be
carcinogenic to humans
IRIS 2011
No data
RfC0.03 mg/kg/day
Oral slope factor1×10−1 (mg/kg/day)−1
Drinking water unit risk2.9×10−6 (µg/L)−1
Community right-to-know; toxic
chemical release reporting; effective
01/01/1987EPA 2004e
40 CFR 372.65
     EPASuperfund, Emergency Planning, and
Community Right-To-Know Programs;
designated as a hazardous substance
pursuant to Section 112 of the Clean
Air Act and Section 3001 of RCRA
EPA 2004a
40 CFR 302.4
     Reportable quantity100 pounds
Hazardous waste identificationU108EPA 2004c
40 CFR 261,
Appendix VIII
    NTPCarcinogenicity classificationReasonably anticipated
to be a human
NTP 2011
a. Air
    No data
b. Water
    CaliforniaDrinking water guidelines3 µg/LHSDB 2010
    FloridaDrinking water guidelines5 µg/L
    MaineDrinking water guidelines32 µg/L
    MassachusettsDrinking water guidelines50 µg/L
c. Food
    No data
d. Other
    No data

Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans.


Skin designation: Potential significant contribution to the overall exposure by the cutaneous route, including mucous membranes and the eyes, either by contact with vapors, or of probable greater significance, by direct skin contact with the substance.


Potential occupational carcinogen.


Group A3: Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.

ACGIH = American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; CFR = Code of Federal Regulations; EPA = Environmental Protection Agency; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; HA = Health Advisory; HSDB = Hazardous Substances Data Bank; IARC = International Agency for Research on Cancer; IDLH = immediately dangerous to life or health; IRIS = Integrated Risk Information System; NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; NTP = National Toxicology Program; OSHA = Occupational Safety and Health Administration; PEL = permissible exposure limit; RCRA = Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; RfC = reference concentration; RfD = reference dose; TLV = threshold limit values; TWA = time-weighted average; USC = United States Codes; WHO = World Health Organization


Cover of Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane
Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane.
Wilbur S, Jones D, Risher JF, et al.

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