TABLE 3Appropriate foods for complementary feeding

WHAT FOODS TO GIVE AND WHYHOW TO GIVE THE FOODS
BREAST MILK: continues to provide energy and high quality nutrients up to 23 months

STAPLE FOODS: provide energy, some protein (cereals only) and vitamins
  • Examples: cereals (rice, wheat, maize, millet, quinoa), roots (cassava, yam and potatoes) and starchy fruits (plantain and breadfruit)
ANIMAL-SOURCE FOODS: provide high quality protein, haem iron, zinc and vitamins
  • Examples: liver, red meat, chicken, fish, eggs (not good source of iron)
MILK PRODUCTS: provide protein, energy, most vitamins (especially vitamin A and folate), calcium
  • Examples: milk, cheese, yogurt and curds
GREEN LEAFY AND ORANGE-COLOURED VEGETABLES: provide vitamins A, C, folate
  • Examples: spinach, broccoli, chard, carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes
PULSES: provide protein (of medium quality), energy, iron (not well absorbed)
  • Examples: chickpeas, lentils, cowpeas, black-eyed peas, kidney beans, lima beans
OILS AND FATS: provide energy and essential fatty acids
  • Examples: oils (preferably soy or rapeseed oil), margarine, butter or lard
SEEDS: provide energy
  • Examples: groundnut paste or other nut pastes, soaked or germinated seeds such as pumpkin, sunflower, melon, sesame
Infants 6–11 months
  • Continue breastfeeding
  • Give adequate servings of:

    Thick porridge made out of maize, cassava, millet; add milk, soy, ground nuts or sugar

    Mixtures of pureed foods made out of matoke, potatoes, cassava, posho (maize or millet) or rice: mix with fish, beans or pounded groundnuts; add green vegetables

  • Give nutritious snacks: egg, banana, bread, papaya, avocado, mango, other fruits, yogurt, milk and puddings made with milk, biscuits or crackers, bread or chapati with butter, margarine, groundnut paste or honey, bean cakes, cooked potatoes
Children 12–23 months
  • Continue breastfeeding
  • Give adequate servings of:

    Mixtures of mashed or finely cut family foods made out of matoke, potatoes, cassava, posho (maize or millet) or rice; mix with fish or beans or pounded groundnuts; add green vegetables

    Thick porridge made out of maize, cassava, millet; add milk, soy, ground nuts or sugar

  • Give nutritious snacks: egg, banana, bread, papaya, avocado, mango, other fruits, yogurt, milk and puddings made with milk, biscuits or crackers, bread or chapati with butter, margarine, groundnut paste or honey, bean cakes, cooked potatoes
REMINDER:
Foods rich in iron
  • Liver (any type), organ meat, flesh of animals (especially red meat), flesh of birds (especially dark meat), foods fortified with iron
Foods rich in Vitamin A
  • Liver (any type), red palm oil, egg yolk, orange coloured fruits and vegetables, dark green vegetables
Foods rich in zinc
  • Liver (any type), organ meat, food prepared with blood, flesh of animals, birds and fish, shell fish, egg yolk
Foods rich in calcium
  • Milk or milk products, small fish with bones
Foods rich in Vitamin C
  • Fresh fruits, tomatoes, peppers (green, red, yellow), green leaves and vegetables

From: SESSION 3, Complementary feeding

Cover of Infant and Young Child Feeding
Infant and Young Child Feeding: Model Chapter for Textbooks for Medical Students and Allied Health Professionals.
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