Table 123Medicaid coverage among persons under age 65, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1984–2011

Updated data when available, Excel, PDF, more data years, and standard errors:

[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

Number, in millions
Total 414.015.426.622.923.225.531.131.644.847.4
Percent of population
Under 19 years11.712.
 Under 6 years15.515.729.324.724.726.231.832.443.746.1
 6–18 years9.810.517.014.916.818.622.522.931.833.4
Under 18 years11.912.621.518.419.621.525.926.436.438.2
 6–17 years10.110.917.415.
18–64 years4.
 18–44 years5.
  18–24 years6.46.810.
  19–25 years6.36.610.
  25–34 years5.
  35–44 years3.
 45–64 years3.
  45–54 years3.
  55–64 years3.
Sex and marital status 5
 Divorced, separated, widowed4.
 Never married4.
 Divorced, separated, widowed16.
 Never married10.711.916.514.
Race 6
White only4.
Black or African American only20.519.028.522.421.222.124.524.930.430.9
American Indian or Alaska Native only*28.229.719.019.615.
Asian only*8.7*8.810.
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander only - - - - - - - - - - - - ******
2 or more races - - - - - - - - - - - - 19.117.519.019.327.427.2
Hispanic origin and race 6
Hispanic or Latino13.313.521.917.615.517.521.922.528.630.1
 Puerto Rican31.527.333.431.029.430.328.529.135.733.0
 Other Hispanic or Latino7.911.118.215.314.515.619.920.824.527.7
Not Hispanic or Latino6.26.510.
 White only3.
 Black or African American only20.719.
Age and percent of poverty level 7
Under 65 years:
 Below 100%33.037.648.440.538.440.
 400% or more0.
Under 19 years:
 Below 100%42.045.863.556.456.959.467.568.978.479.9
 400% or more**1.2*
Under 18 years:
 Below 100%43.347.866.058.058.561.569.270.779.881.4
 400% or more**1.1*
18–64 years:
 Below 100%25.329.134.828.024.925.728.628.932.433.0
 400% or more0.
Disability measure among adults 18–64 years 8
Any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation - - - - - - - - - 13.212.813.414.714.917.819.6
 Any basic actions difficulty - - - - - - - - - 12.712.212.914.014.216.719.1
 Any complex activity limitation - - - - - - - - - 22.923.224.323.924.130.030.8
No disability - - - - - - - - -
Geographic region
Location of residence
Within MSA
Outside MSA 96.17.912.310.111.912.414.815.021.422.1
- - -

Data not available.


Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE greater than 30%.


Data prior to 1997 are not strictly comparable with data for later years due to the 1997 questionnaire redesign. See Appendix I, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and Appendix II, Health insurance coverage.


Estimates for 2000–2002 were calculated using 2000-based sample weights and may differ from estimates in other reports that used 1990-based sample weights for 2000–2002 estimates.


Beginning in quarter 3 of the 2004 NHIS, persons under age 65 with no reported coverage were asked explicitly about Medicaid coverage. Estimates were calculated without and with the additional information from this question in the columns labeled 2004(1) and 2004(2), respectively, and estimates were calculated with the additional information starting with 2005 data.


Includes all other races not shown separately, those with unknown marital status, unknown disability status, and, in 1984 and 1989, persons with unknown poverty level.


Includes persons aged 14–64.


The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single-race categories plus multiple-race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category 2 or more races includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to 1999, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards with four racial groups, and the Asian only category included Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. Starting with 2003 data, race responses of other race and unspecified multiple race were treated as missing, and then race was imputed if these were the only race responses. Almost all persons with a race response of other race were of Hispanic origin. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race.


Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Poverty level was unknown for 10%–11% of persons under age 65 in 1984 and 1989. Missing family income data were imputed for 1995 and beyond. Some data have been revised and may differ from previous versions of Health, United States. Revised rates are due to the addition of a third decimal place to the poverty ratio estimate. See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty; Table VI.


Any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation is defined as having one or more of the following limitations or difficulties: movement difficulty, emotional difficulty, sensory (seeing or hearing) difficulty, cognitive difficulty, self-care (activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living) limitation, social limitation, or work limitation. For more information, see Appendix II, Basic actions difficulty; Complex activity limitation. Starting with 2007 data, the hearing question, a component of the basic actions difficulty measure, was revised. Consequently, data prior to 2007 are not comparable with data for 2007 and beyond. For more information on the impact of the revised hearing question, see Appendix II, Hearing trouble.


MSA is metropolitan statistical area. Starting with 2006 data, MSA status is determined using 2000 census data and the 2000 standards for defining MSAs. For data prior to 2006, see Appendix II, Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) for the applicable standards.

NOTES: The category Medicaid coverage includes persons who had any of the following at the time of interview: Medicaid, other public assistance through 1996, state-sponsored health plan starting in 1997, or Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) starting in 1999; it includes those who also had another type of coverage in addition to one of these. In 2011, 14.4% of persons under age 65 reported being covered by Medicaid, 1.5% by state-sponsored health plans, and 1.9% by CHIP. The number of persons with Medicaid coverage was calculated by multiplying the percentage with Medicaid coverage by the number of persons under age 65 in the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population, which was determined from the post-stratification Census control total for each survey year. Percentages of persons with Medicaid coverage were calculated with unknown values excluded from denominators. See Appendix II, Health insurance coverage. Standard errors are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: http://www​ Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, health insurance supplements (1984, 1989, 1994–1996). Starting with 1997, data are from the family core and the sample adult questionnaires. See Appendix I, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2012
Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care.
National Center for Health Statistics (US).
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2013 May.

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