Table 31Study characteristics and association between OC use and colorectal cancer incidence

StudyaStudy DetailsORb95% CICovariatesRegionStudy QualityMeta-Analysis Codec
Levi, 2003242Women aged 28–74 yr in Canton of Vaud
Cases: 131 colorectal cancer, hospital
Controls: 373, hospital

Recruitment period: 1992–2001
0.830.4 to 1.7Age, parity, family history, fiber intake, physical activitySwitzerlandPoor1
Campbell, 2007243Women aged 20–74 yr in Ontario, Newfoundland, Labrador
Cases: 1404 colorectal cancer, registry
Controls: 1203, property records

Recruitment period: 2003–2006
0.770.65 to 0.91Age, province of residence, education, ever use postmenopausal hormones, colorectal cancer screening endoscopy, physical activity, BMI, menopausal statusCanadaFair1
Long, 2010244Women aged 40–80 yr in North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-II
Cases: 443 distal large bowel cancer, registry
Controls: 405, community

Recruitment period: 2001–2006
0.950.67 to 1.34Age, race, BMI, family history, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, education, HRT use, physical activityU.S.Good1
Rosenblatt, 2004249Textile workers in Shanghai aged 30–64 yr
Exposed: 352,851 person-years
Unexposed: 1,045,388 person-years

Recruitment period: 1989–1991
1.090.86 to 1.37Age, parityChinaFair1
Vessey, 2006156Women aged 25–39 yr in Oxford Family Planning Association Contraceptive Study
Exposed: 301,000 person-years
Unexposed: 187,000 person-years

Recruitment period: 1968–1974
0.80.6 to 1.2Age, parity, BMI, smoking, social class, height, age at first term pregnancy, age at first marriageUKGood1
Hannaford, 200737Royal College of General Practitioner's Oral Contraception study
Exposed: 744,000 person-years
Unexposed: 339,000 person-years

Mean age at entry: 29 (SD6.6)
Recruitment period: 1968–NR
0.720.58 to 0.90Age, parity, smoking, social statusUKFair1
Lin, 2007246Women ≥45 yr in Women's Health Study
Exposed: 27,440
Unexposed: 12,060

Recruitment period: 1992–NR
0.670.50 to 0.89Age, BMI, family history, smoking, randomized treatment assignment, family history of colorectal cancer, previous history of benign colorectal polyps, physical activity, red meat intake, alcohol consumption, baseline aspirin use, multivitamin use, baseline postmenopausal hormone useU.S.Good1
Kabat, 2008245Women aged 40–59 yr in Canadian National Breast Screening Study
Exposed: 1142
Unexposed: 88,655

Recruitment period: 1980–1985
0.830.73 to 0.94Age, parity, smoking, social status, ever use of HRTCanadaFair1
Dorjgochoo, 200988Women aged 40–70 yr in Shanghai Women's Health Study
Exposed: 12,957
Unexposed: 15,557

Recruitment period: 1997–2000
1.240.87 to 1.78Age, parity, menopausal status, BMI, family history, age at menarche, smoking, breastfeeding , education, physical activity, other contraceptive methodsChinaFair1
Tsilidis, 2010247Women aged 35–70 yr in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
Exposed: 196,862
Unexposed: 139,399

Recruitment period: 1990s
0.920.83 to 1.02Age, BMI, smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical activity, alcohol use10 European countriesGood1
Nichols, 2005248Women in Wisconsin aged 20–74 yr
Cases: 1488 colorectal cancer, registry
Controls: 4297, community

Recruitment periods: 1988–1991; 1997–2001
0.890.75 to 1.06BMI, family history, smoking, conditional on age and study of enrollment; adjusted for family history of colorectal cancer, education, screening, hormone replacement therapy, age at first birthU.S.Fair1

BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; DMV = department of motor vehicles; ER = estrogen receptor; HRT = hormone replacement therapy; NA = not applicable; NR = not reported; OC = oral contraceptive; OR = odds ratio; PR = progesterone receptor; UK = United Kingdom; U.S. = United States; yr = year/years


Study identifies the primary abstracted article. For details about the relationships between companion studies and articles, refer to Tables C-1 and C-2 in Appendix C.


Odds ratio for meta-analysis of ever versus never OC use.


Meta-analysis code: 1 = included in this meta-analysis.

From: 3, Oral Contraceptives and Other Cancers

Cover of Oral Contraceptive Use for the Primary Prevention of Ovarian Cancer
Oral Contraceptive Use for the Primary Prevention of Ovarian Cancer.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 212.
Havrilesky LJ, Gierisch JM, Moorman PG, et al.

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