Appendix BGlossary

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Acculturation

the socialization process through which people in minority groups adopt certain elements from the majority culture.

Assessment

a comprehensive evaluation of a client's indepth status and needs.

Chromosome

a microscopic, rodlike structure in the cell's nucleus that carries genetic material.

Co-occurring disorders

co-occurring substance use (abuse or dependence) and mental disorders. In the context of this TIP, clients said to have co-occurring disorders have one or more mental disorders as well as one or more disorders relating to the use of alcohol and/or drugs.

Countertransference

the feelings, reactions, biases, and images from the past that the clinician may project onto the client.

Culture

the conceptual system that structures the way we view the world. Culture incorporates a particular set of beliefs, norms, and values that influence our ideas about the nature of relationships, the way we live our lives, and the way we organize our world.

Cyber

a prefix relating to computers or computer networks.

Employee assistance programs

programs that provide professional consultation services for employees who are experiencing personal issues that might be negatively affecting their work performance.

Ethnicity

shared values and beliefs, social identity, mutual belongingness, and standards of behavior that define a group of people.

Gender

category to which an individual is assigned, by self or others, on the basis of sex.

Gender identity

the subjective, continuous, and persistent sense of oneself as male or female.

Gender role conflict

a psychological state in which a person's beliefs about himself or herself or his or her behaviors conflict with socialized gender roles, resulting in negative consequences. Gender conflict occurs when rigid, sexist, or restrictive gender roles result in personal restrictions, devaluation, or violation of others or self.

Gender role stress

may arise from excessive commitment to and reliance on certain culturally approved masculine or feminine schemes that limit the range of coping strategies a person is able to use in any particular situation. Masculine gender role stress may also arise from the belief that one is not living up to culturally sanctioned gender role behavior. Men may experience stress if they feel that they have acted in an unmanly or feminine fashion. Many men are doubly stressed by experiencing fear or by feeling that they have not appeared successful or tough enough in situations requiring masculine appearances of strength and invincibility.

Gene

a specific sequence of DNA that encodes for a specific trait, characteristic, or protein in an organism.

Genetic transmission

inherited characteristics passed from parents to children.

Heterosexism

an attitude or belief that heterosexual behavior is the norm.

Intersystemic

occurring between systems.

Intrasystemic

occurring within systems.

Maladaptive

marked by faulty or inadequate adaptation.

Male

of, relating to, or designating the sex that has organs to produce spermatozoa for fertilizing ova.

Mandate

a command, order, or direction—written or oral—which courts are authorized to give and people are bound to obey.

Marginalization

removal of someone's importance and power.

Masculine role socialization

the process whereby men learn how they (as men) are expected to act, feel, and think. As part of this learning process, they experience negative consequences (e.g., public humiliation, anger from peers) when they fail to meet those expectations.

Masculine

relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender.

Masculinity ideologies

a body of socially constructed ideas and beliefs about what it means to be a man. The ideologies attempt to measure the degree to which an individual endorses these cultural norms regarding the male gender role.

Nonrelational sex

the tendency to experience sex primarily as lust without any requirements for relational intimacy or emotional attachment.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

an illness whose essential feature is the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor involving direct personal experience of an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury or other threat to one's physical integrity; it can also result from witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person or learning about the unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close friend or relative.

Psychoactive

possessing the ability to alter mood, feelings, behavior, cognitive processes, or mental states; usually applied to pharmacologic agents.

Psychotherapy

treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and mental disorders based primarily on verbal or nonverbal communication and interventions with the patient, in contrast to treatments that use chemical and physical measures.

Race

a social construct to describe people with shared physical characteristics.

Racism

an attitude or belief that people with certain characteristics are better than others.

Religion

any specific system of belief about one or more deities, often involving rituals, a code of ethics, and a philosophy of life.

Screening

a process to determine whether a client warrants further evaluation for a particular diagnosis (e.g., substance use disorders, mental disorders, HIV/AIDS). A screening process can be designed so that it can be conducted with little additional training by counselors. Positive screenings are followed by comprehensive assessments.

Sex

the biological differences between women and men.

Sociocultural

of or involving both social and cultural factors.

Spirituality

the state or quality of being dedicated to a deity, a religion, or spiritual things or values, especially as contrasted with material or temporal ones.

Stigma

a negative association attached to some activity or condition; a cause of shame or embarrassment.

Substance

can refer to a drug of abuse, a medication, or a toxin.

Substance abuse

a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested through recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of substances. Sometimes used interchangeably with the term substance dependence.

Substance dependence

a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by a need for increasing amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication, markedly diminished effect of the substance with continued use, the need to continue to take the substance in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and other serious behavioral effects, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period.

Substance use disorders

a class of substance-related disorders that includes both substance abuse and substance dependence.

Transference

the feelings, reactions, biases, and images from the past that the client may project onto the clinician.