Appendix DIncluded Studies List

Publication Details

Support

1.
Allman RM, et al. Air-fluidized beds or conventional therapy for pressure sores. A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1987 Nov;107(5):641–8. [PubMed: 3310792]
2.
Branom R, Rappl LM. “Constant force technology” versus low-air-loss therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2001 Sep;47(9):38–46. [Erratum appears in Ostomy Wound Manage 2001 Nov;47(11):6] [PubMed: 11889743]
3.
Caley L, et al. Randomized Prospective Trial: Treatment Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness of Two Types of Low-Air-Loss Therapy; 9th Annual Clinical Symposium on Pressure Ulcer and Wound Management; Nashville, TN. October 1994; pp. 1–2.
4.
Clark MD, IP A randomised controlled trial comparing the healing of pressure sores upon two pressure-redistributing seat cushions; Proceedings of the 7th European European Conferences on Advances in Wound Management; 18–20 November; Harrogate, UK. 1997. pp. 122–5.
5.
Day A, Leonard F. Seeking quality care for patients with pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993 Jan;6(1):32–43. [PubMed: 8427642]
6.
Devine B. Alternating pressure air mattresses in the management of established pressure sores. Journal of Tissue Viability. 1995;5(3):94–8.
7.
Evans D, Land L, Geary A. A clinical evaluation of the Nimbus 3 alternating pressure mattress replacement system. Journal of Wound Care. 2000 Apr;9(4):181–6. [PubMed: 11933303]
8.
Ferrell BA, Osterweil D, Christenson P. A randomized trial of low-air-loss beds for treatment of pressure ulcers. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1993;269(4):494–7. [PubMed: 8338511]
9.
Groen HW, Groenier KH, Schuling J. Comparative study of a foam mattress and a water mattress. Journal of Wound Care. 1999 Jul;8(7):333–5. [PubMed: 10776222]
10.
Izutsu T, et al. Effect of rolling bed on decubitus in bedridden nursing home patients. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1998 Feb;184(2):153–7. [PubMed: 9605022]
11.
Jackson BS, et al. The effects of a therapeutic bed on pressure ulcers: an experimental study. Journal of Enterostomal Therapy. 1988 Nov–Dec;15(6):220–6. [PubMed: 3204209]
12.
Keogh A, Dealey C. Profiling beds versus standard hospital beds: effects on pressure ulcer incidence outcomes. Journal of Wound Care. 2001 Feb;10(2):15–9. [PubMed: 12964222]
13.
Land L, et al. A clinical evaluation of an alternating-pressure mattress replacement system in hospital and residential care settings. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2000 Jan;10(1):6–11. [PubMed: 10839090]
14.
Makhsous M, et al. Promote pressure ulcer healing in individuals with spinal cord injury using an individualized cyclic pressure-relief protocol. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2009 Nov;22(11):514–21. [PMC free article: PMC2860306] [PubMed: 20026933]
15.
Malbrain M, et al. A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing reactive air and active alternating pressure mattresses in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers among medical ICU patients. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2010 Feb;19(1):7–15. [PubMed: 20079647]
16.
Mulder G, et al. A study of pressure ulcer response to low air loss beds vs. conventional treatment. Journal of Geriatric Dermatology. 1994;2(3):87–91.
17.
Munro BH, Brown L, Heitman BB. Pressure ulcers: one bed or another? Geriatric nursing (New York, N.Y.). 1989;10(4):190–2. [PubMed: 2777121]
18.
Nixon J, et al. Pressure relieving support surfaces: a randomised evaluation. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). 2006 Jul;10(22):iii–iv. ix–x, 1–163. [PubMed: 16750060]
19.
Ochs RF, et al. Comparison of air-fluidized therapy with other support surfaces used to treat pressure ulcers in nursing home residents. Ostomy Wound Management. 2005 Feb;51(2):38–68. [PubMed: 15699554]
20.
Rosenthal MJ, et al. Healing of advanced pressure ulcers by a generic total contact seat: 2 randomized comparisons with low air loss bed treatments. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2003 Dec;84(12):1733–42. [PubMed: 14669176]
21.
Russell L, et al. A comparison of healing rates on two pressure-relieving systems. British Journal of Nursing. 2000 Dec 8–2001 Jan 10;9(22):2270–80. [PubMed: 12271193]
22.
Russell L, et al. Randomised controlled trial of two pressure-relieving systems. Journal of Wound Care. 2000 Feb;9(2):52–5. [PubMed: 11933280]
23.
Russell L, Reynolds TM, Towns A, et al. Randomized comparison trial of the RIK and the Nimbus 3 mattresses. British Journal of Nursing. 2003:254, 6–9. [PubMed: 12671572]
24.
Strauss MJ, et al. The cost of home air-fluidized therapy for pressure sores. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Family Practice. 1991 Jul;33(1):52–9. [PubMed: 2056290]
25.
Valente SA, et al. More expensive surfaces are not always better. Kuwait Medical Journal. 2012;44(1):40–5.
26.
Warner DJ. A clinical comparison of two pressure-reducing surfaces in the management of pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1992 May;5(3):52–5. 8–60, 2–4. [PubMed: 1596352]

Nutrition

1.
Barnes P Jr, Sauter TE, Zaheri S. Subnormal prealbumin levels and wound healing. Texas Medicine. 2007 Aug;103(8):65–8. [PubMed: 19113064]
2.
Benati G, et al. Impact on pressure ulcer healing of an arginine-enriched nutritional solution in patients with severe cognitive impairment. Archives of Gerontology & Geriatrics- Supplement. 2001;7:43–7. [PubMed: 11431045]
3.
Breslow RA, et al. The importance of dietary protein in healing pressure ulcers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1993;41(4):357–62. [PubMed: 8463519]
4.
Brewer S, et al. Effect of an arginine-containing nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in community spinal patients. Journal of Wound Care. 2010 Jul;19(7):311–6. [PubMed: 20616774]
5.
Cereda E, et al. Disease-specific, versus standard, nutritional support for the treatment of pressure ulcers in institutionalized older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2009 Aug;57(8):1395–402. [PubMed: 19563522]
6.
Chernoff R. The effect of a high protein fomula (Replete) on decubitus ulcer healing in long term tube fed institutionalized patients. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1990;90(130)
7.
Desneves KJ, et al. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2005 Dec;24(6):979–87. [PubMed: 16297506]
8.
Houston S, et al. Adverse effects of large-dose zinc supplementation in an institutionalized older population with pressure ulcers [4] Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001;49(8):1130–2. [PubMed: 11555083]
9.
Lee SK, et al. Pressure ulcer healing with a concentrated, fortified, collagen protein hydrolysate supplement: a randomized controlled trial. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2006 Mar;19(2):92–6. [PubMed: 16557055]
10.
Leigh B, et al. The effect of different doses of an arginine-containing supplement on the healing of pressure ulcers. Journal of Wound Care. 2012;21(3):150–6. [PubMed: 22399084]
11.
Meaume S, et al. Efficacy and safety of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in heel pressure ulcers in elderly patients: results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2009 Aug;13(7):623–30. [PubMed: 19621198]
12.
Myers SA, et al. Consistent wound care and nutritional support in treatment. Decubitus. 1990 Aug;3(3):16–28. [PubMed: 2119183]
13.
Ohura T, et al. Evaluation of effects of nutrition intervention on healing of pressure ulcers and nutritional states (randomized controlled trial). Wound Repair & Regeneration. 2011 May–Jun;19(3):330–6. [PubMed: 21539650]
14.
Ter Riet G, Kessels AGH, Knipschild PG. Randomized clinical trial of ascorbic acid in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995;48(12):1453–60. [PubMed: 8543959]
15.
Van Anholt RD, et al. An arginine- and micronutrient-enriched nutritional supplement accelerates pressure ulcer healing and reduces wound care in non-malnourished patients. EWMA Journal. 2010;10(2):45. 2010 49.
16.
Yamamoto T, et al. Evaluation of nutrition in the healing of pressure ulcers: are the EPUAP nutritional guidelines sufficient to heal wounds. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2009;21(6):153–7. [PubMed: 25903438]

Local Wound Applications

1.
Agren MS, Stromberg HE. Topical treatment of pressure ulcers. A randomized comparative trial of Varidase and zinc oxide. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 1985;19(1):97–100. [PubMed: 3895409]
2.
Alm A, et al. Care of pressure sores: a controlled study of the use of a hydrocolloid dressing compared with wet saline gauze compresses. Acta Dermato-Venereologica Supplementum. 1989;149:1–10. [PubMed: 2694713]
3.
Alvarez OM, et al. Chemical debridement of pressure ulcers: a prospective, randomized, comparative trial of collagenase and papain/urea formulations. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2000;12(2):15–25.
4.
Bale S, et al. A comparison of two amorphous hydrogels in the debridement of pressure sores. Journal of Wound Care. 1998 Feb;7(2):65–8. [PubMed: 9543975]
5.
Bale S, Hagelstein S, Banks V, et al. Costs of dressings in the community. Journal of Wound Care. 1998 Jul;7(7):327–30. [PubMed: 9791356]
6.
Bale S, et al. A comparison of two dressings in pressure sore management. Journal of Wound Care. 1997 Nov;6(10):463–6. [PubMed: 9455271]
7.
Banks V, Bale S, Harding K. The use of two dressings for moderately exuding pressure sores. Journal of Wound Care. 1994;3(3):132–4. [PubMed: 27922396]
8.
Banks V, Bale SE, Harding KG. Comparing two dressings for exuding pressure sores in community patients. Journal of Wound Care. 1994;3(4):175–8. [PubMed: 27922299]
9.
Belmin J, et al. Sequential treatment with calcium alginate dressings and hydrocolloid dressings accelerates pressure ulcer healing in older subjects: a multicenter randomized trial of sequential versus nonsequential treatment with hydrocolloid dressings alone. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002 Feb;50(2):269–74. [PubMed: 12028208]
10.
Bito S, et al. Randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of wrap therapy for wound healing acceleration in patients with NPUAP stage II and III pressure ulcer. BMJ Open. 2012;2:e000371. [PMC free article: PMC3253421] [PubMed: 22223842]
11.
Brod M, et al. A randomized comparison of poly-hema and hydrocolloid dressings for treatment of pressure sores. Archives of Dermatology. 1990 Jul;126(7):969–70. [PubMed: 2193631]
12.
Brown-Etris M, et al. A prospective, randomized, multisite clinical evaluation of a transparent absorbent acrylic dressing and a hydrocolloid dressing in the management of Stage II and shallow Stage III pressure ulcers. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2008 Apr;21(4):169–74. [PubMed: 18385577]
13.
Burgos A, et al. Collagenase ointment application at 24- versus 48-hour intervals in the treatment of pressure ulcers. A randomised multicentre study. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2000;19(6):399–407.
14.
Burgos A, et al. Cost, efficacy, efficiency and tolerability of collagenase ointment versus hydrocolloid occlusive dressing in the treatment of pressure ulcers. A comparative, randomised, multicentre study. Clinical Drug Investigation. 2000;19(5):357–65.
15.
Chang KW, et al. Pressure ulcers--randomised controlled trial comparing hydrocolloid and saline gauze dressings. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 1998 Dec;53(4):428–31. [PubMed: 10971989]
16.
Chuangsuwanich A, et al. The efficacy of silver mesh dressing compared with silver sulfadiazine cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2011 May;94(5):559–65. [PubMed: 21675444]
17.
Colin D, Kurring PA, Yvon C. Managing sloughy pressure sores. Journal of Wound Care. 1996 Nov;5(10):444–6. [PubMed: 9117814]
18.
Colwell JC, Foreman MD, Trotter JP. A comparison of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of managing pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993 Jul;6(4):28–36. [PubMed: 8297488]
19.
Danon D, et al. Treatment of human ulcers by application of macrophages prepared from a blood unit. Experimental Gerontology. 1997 Nov–Dec;32(6):633–41. [PubMed: 9785089]
20.
Darkovich SL, Brown-Etris M, Spencer M. Biofilm hydrogel dressing: a clinical evaluation in the treatment of pressure sores. Ostomy Wound Management. 1990 Jul–Aug;29:47–60. [PubMed: 2202317]
21.
Day A, et al. Managing sacral pressure ulcers with hydrocolloid dressings: results of a controlled, clinical study. Ostomy Wound Management. 1995 Mar;41(2):52–4. 6. 8 passim. [PubMed: 7598778]
22.
Felzani G, et al. Effect of lysine hyaluronate on the healing of decubitus ulcers in rehabilitation patients. Advances in Therapy. 2011 May;28(5):439–45. [PubMed: 21499725]
23.
Gerding GA, Browning JS. Oxyquinoline-containing ointment vs. standard therapy for stage I and stage II skin lesions. Dermatology Nursing. 1992 Oct;4(5):389–98. [PubMed: 1482629]
24.
Gorse GJ, Messner RL. Improved pressure sore healing with hydrocolloid dressings. Archives of Dermatology. 1987 Jun;123(6):766–71. [PubMed: 3555355]
25.
Graumlich JF, et al. Healing pressure ulcers with collagen or hydrocolloid: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(2):147–54. [PubMed: 12558709]
26.
Guthrie M, et al. A randomized double-blind clinical study of dermagran dual therapeutic system in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice. 1989;1(3):142–54.
27.
Harding KG, et al. A multi-center comparison of a hydrocellular adhesive dressing and a hydrocolloid dressing in the management of stage II and III pressure ulcers; 9th Annual Symposium on Advanced Wound Care and 6th Annual Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair; 1996.
28.
Hindryckx P, et al. The treatment of infected decubitus ulcers with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream. Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and Experimental. 1990;48(3):535–9.
29.
Hirshberg J, et al. TGF-beta3 in the treatment of pressure ulcers: a preliminary report. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2001 Mar–Apr;14(2):91–5. [PubMed: 11899912]
30.
Hollisaz MT, Khedmat H, Yari F. A randomized clinical trial comparing hydrocolloid, phenytoin and simple dressings for the treatment of pressure ulcers [ISRCTN33429693] BMC Dermatology. 2004;4(1):18. [PMC free article: PMC545970] [PubMed: 15601464]
31.
Honde C, Derks C, Tudor D. Local treatment of pressure sores in the elderly: amino acid copolymer membrane versus hydrocolloid dressing. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1994 Nov;42(11):1180–3. [PubMed: 7525682]
32.
Hsu YC, et al. Therapeutic effect of sheng-ji-san on pressure ulcers. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2000;28(3–4):391–9. [PubMed: 11154053]
33.
Kaya AZ, Turani N, Akyuz M. The effectiveness of a hydrogel dressing compared with standard management of pressure ulcers. Journal of Wound Care. 2005 Jan;14(1):42–4. [PubMed: 15656468]
34.
Kerihuel JC. Effect of activated charcoal dressings on healing outcomes of chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care. 2010 May;19(5):208, 10–2, 14–5. [PubMed: 20505594]
35.
Kim YC, et al. Efficacy of hydrocolloid occlusive dressing technique in decubitus ulcer treatment: a comparative study. Yonsei Medical Journal. 1996 Jun;37(3):181–5. [PubMed: 8826783]
36.
Kloth LC, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of noncontact normothermic wound therapy on chronic full-thickness pressure ulcers. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2002 Nov–Dec;15(6):270–6. [PubMed: 12477979]
37.
Kraft MR, et al. A comparison of Epi-Lock and saline dressings in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1993 Nov;6(6):42–4. 6, 8. [PubMed: 8286026]
38.
Kuflik A, et al. Petrolatum versus Resurfix ointment in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2001 Feb;47(2):52–6. [PubMed: 11235499]
39.
Kurzuk-Howard G, Simpson L, Palmieri A. Decubitus ulcer care: a comparative study. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 1985 Feb;7(1):58–79. [PubMed: 3850687]
40.
Landi F, et al. Topical treatment of pressure ulcers with nerve growth factor: a randomized clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003 Oct 21;139(8):635–41. [PubMed: 14568851]
41.
LeVasseur SA, Helme RD. A double-blind clinical trial to compare the efficacy of an active based cream F14001 against a placebo non-active based cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers in a population of elderly subjects. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1991 Aug;16(8):952–6. [PubMed: 1779084]
42.
Matzen S, Peschardt A, Alsbjorn B. A new amorphous hydrocolloid for the treatment of pressure sores: a randomised controlled study. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery & Hand Surgery. 1999 Mar;33(1):13–5. [PubMed: 10207960]
43.
Meaume S, et al. Optimizing wound care with a new lipido-colloid dressing (Urgotul Duo). British Journal of Nursing. 2007 Mar 22-Apr 11;16(6):S4, S6. S8 passim. [PubMed: 17505400]
44.
Meaume S, et al. Evaluation of a silver-releasing hydroalginate dressing in chronic wounds with signs of local infection. Journal of Wound Care. 2005 Oct;14(9):411–9. [Erratum appears in J Wound Care. 2005 Nov;14(10):479] [PubMed: 16240620]
45.
Meaume S, et al. A study to compare a new self-adherent soft silicone dressing with a self-adherent polymer dressing in stage II pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2003 Sep;49(9):44–51. [PubMed: 14581709]
46.
Moody M. Calcium alginate: a dressing trial. Nursing Standard. 1991;5(50):3–6. [PubMed: 27682752]
47.
Motta G, et al. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a new synthetic polymer sheet wound dressing. Ostomy Wound Management. 1999 Oct;45(10):41, 4–6, 8–9. [PubMed: 10687651]
48.
Mulder GD, et al. Prospective randomized study of the efficacy of hydrogel, hydrocolloid, and saline solution -- moistened dressings on the management of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair & Regeneration. 1993;1(4):213–8. [PubMed: 17166097]
49.
Muller E, van Leen MW, Bergemann R. Economic evaluation of collagenase-containing ointment and hydrocolloid dressing in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Pharmacoeconomics. 2001;19(12):1209–16. [PubMed: 11772156]
50.
Mustoe TA, et al. A phase II study to evaluate recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB in the treatment of stage 3 and 4 pressure ulcers. Archives of Surgery. 1994 Feb;129(2):213–9. [PubMed: 8304833]
51.
Narayanan S, et al. Comparison of pressure ulcer treatments in long-term care facilities: clinical outcomes and impact on cost. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 2005 May–Jun;32(3):163–70. [PubMed: 15931146]
52.
Neill K, et al. Pressure sore response to a new hydrocolloid dressing. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 1989;1:173–85.
53.
Nisi G, et al. Use of a protease-modulating matrix in the treatment of pressure sores. Chirurgia Italiana. 2005 Jul–Aug;57(4):465–8. [PubMed: 16060184]
54.
Oleske DM, et al. A randomized clinical trial of two dressing methods for the treatment of low-grade pressure ulcers. Journal of Enterostomal Therapy. 1986 May–Jun;13(3):90–8. [PubMed: 3519718]
55.
Parnell LKS, Ciufi B, Gokoo CF. Preliminary use of a hydrogel containing enzymes in the treatment of stage II and stage III pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2005 Aug;51(8):50–60. [PubMed: 16234576]
56.
Payne WG, et al. Long-term outcome study of growth factor-treated pressure ulcers. American Journal of Surgery. 2001 Jan;181(1):81–6. [PubMed: 11248182]
57.
Payne WG, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of a modern foam dressing versus a traditional saline gauze dressing in the treatment of stage II pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 2009 Feb;55(2):50–5. [PubMed: 19246785]
58.
Payne WG, et al. An exploratory study of dermal replacement therapy in the treatment of stage III pressure ulcers. Journal of Applied Research. 2004;4(1):12–23.
59.
Price P, et al. The effect of a radiant heat dressing on pressure ulcers. Journal of Wound Care. 2000 Apr;9(4):201–5. [PubMed: 11933306]
60.
Pullen R, et al. Prospective randomized double-blind study of the wound-debriding effects of collagenase and fibrinolysin/deoxyribonuclease in pressure ulcers. Age & Ageing. 2002 Mar;31(2):126–30. [PubMed: 11937475]
61.
Rees RS, et al. Becaplermin gel in the treatment of pressure ulcers: a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Wound Repair & Regeneration. 1999 May–Jun;7(3):141–7. [PubMed: 10417749]
62.
Rhodes RS, et al. Topical phenytoin treatment of stage II decubitus ulcers in the elderly. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2001 Jun;35(6):675–81. [PubMed: 11408983]
63.
Robson LE. Safety and effect of topical recombinant human interleukin-1beta in the management of pressure sores. Wound Repair & Regeneration. 1994 Jul;2(3):177–81. [PubMed: 17156109]
64.
Robson MC, et al. Sequential cytokine therapy for pressure ulcers: clinical and mechanistic response. Annals of Surgery. 2000 Apr;231(4):600–11. [PMC free article: PMC1421038] [PubMed: 10749622]
65.
Robson MC, et al. The safety and effect of topically applied recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of chronic pressure sores. Annals of Surgery. 1992 Oct;216(4):401–6. discussion 6–8. [PMC free article: PMC1242638] [PubMed: 1417189]
66.
Robson MC, et al. Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB for the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992;29(3):193–201. [PubMed: 1524367]
67.
Robson MC, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor BB for the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers. Lancet. 1992 Jan 4;339(8784):23–5. [PubMed: 1345953]
68.
Sayag J, Meaume S, Bohbot S. Healing properties of calcium alginate dressings. Journal of Wound Care. 1996 Sep;5(8):357–62. [PubMed: 8954425]
69.
Scevola S, et al. Allogenic platelet gel in the treatment of pressure sores: a pilot study. International Wound Journal. 2010 Jun;7(3):184–90. [PubMed: 20455960]
70.
Sebern MD. Pressure ulcer management in home health care: efficacy and cost effectiveness of moisture vapor permeable dressing. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 1986 Oct;67(10):726–9. [PubMed: 3533007]
71.
Sebern MD. Cost and efficacy of pressure ulcer management in a metropolitan visiting nurse association. Decubitus. 1989 Aug;2(3):58–9. [PubMed: 2775474]
72.
Seeley J, Jensen JL, Hutcherson J. A randomized clinical study comparing a hydrocellular dressing to a hydrocolloid dressing in the management of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management. 1999 Jun;45(6):39–44. 6–7. [PubMed: 10655861]
73.
Shamimi Nouri K, et al. Topical application of Semelil (ANGIPARS(trademark)) in treatment of pressure ulcers: A randomized clinical trial. Daru. 2008;16(SUPPL 1):54–7.
74.
Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M. Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 1995:71–4. [PubMed: 7640976]
75.
Sherman RA. Maggot versus conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair & Regeneration. 2002 Jul–Aug;10(4):208–14. [PubMed: 12191002]
76.
Sipponen A, et al. Beneficial effect of resin salve in treatment of severe pressure ulcers: a prospective, randomized and controlled multicentre trial. British Journal of Dermatology. 2008 May;158(5):1055–62. [PubMed: 18284391]
77.
Small N, et al. A comparative analysis of pressure sore treatment modalities in community settings. Curationis. 2002 Feb;25(1):74–82. [PubMed: 12096575]
78.
Stoker FM. A major contributor. Evaluation of Comfeel Pressure Relieving Dressing. Professional Nurse. 1990 Sep;5(12):644–53. [PubMed: 2217219]
79.
Subbanna PK, et al. Topical phenytoin solution for treating pressure ulcers: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Spinal Cord. 2007 Nov;45(11):739–43. [PubMed: 17279096]
80.
Thomas DR, Diebold MR, Eggemeyer LM. A controlled, randomized, comparative study of a radiant heat bandage on the healing of stage 3–4 pressure ulcers: a pilot study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2005 Jan–Feb;6(1):46–9. [PubMed: 15871870]
81.
Thomas DR, et al. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial. Advances in Wound Care. 1998 Oct;11(6):273–6. [PubMed: 10326343]
82.
Thomas S, et al. A comparison of two dressings in the management of chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care. 1997 Sep;6(8):383–6. [PubMed: 9341430]
83.
Tytgat H, Van Asch H. Topical ketanserin in the treatment of decubitus ulcers: A double-blind study with 2% ketanserin ointment against placebo. Advances in Therapy. 1988;5(4):143–52.
84.
Viamontes L, et al. An evaluation of an adhesive hydrocellular foam dressing and a self-adherent soft silicone foam dressing in a nursing home setting. Ostomy Wound Management. 2003 Aug;49(8):48–52. 4–6, 8. [PubMed: 14631663]
85.
Wang S-y, Wang J-n, Lv D-c, et al. Clinical research on the bio-debridement effect of maggot therapy for treatment of chronically infected lesions. Orthopaedic Audio-Synopsis Continuing Medical Education [Sound Recording] 2010:201–6. [PubMed: 22009949]
86.
Whitney JD, et al. Treatment of pressure ulcers with noncontact normothermic wound therapy: healing and warming effects. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 2001 Sep;28(5):244–52. [PubMed: 11557928]
87.
Winter A, Hewitt H. Testing a hydrocolloid. Nursing Times. 1990 Dec 12–8;86(50):59–62. [PubMed: 2255648]
88.
Xakellis. Hydrocolloid versus saline-gauze dressings in treating pressure ulcers: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1992;73:463–9. [PubMed: 1580775]
89.
Yapucu Gunes U, Eser I. Effectiveness of a honey dressing for healing pressure ulcers. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, & Continence Nursing. 2007 Mar–Apr;34(2):184–90. [PubMed: 17413836]
90.
Yastrub DJ. Relationship between type of treatment and degree of wound healing among institutionalized geriatric patients with stage II pressure ulcers... reprinted with permission from the author and Nurse Practitioner Associates for Continuing Education. Care Management Journals. 2004;5(4):213–8. [PubMed: 16294574]
91.
Zeron HM, Krotzsch Gomez FE, Munoz REH. Pressure ulcers: a pilot study for treatment with collagen polyvinylpyrrolidone. International Journal of Dermatology. 2007 Mar;46(3):314–7. [PubMed: 17343594]
92.
Zuloff-Shani A, et al. Hard to heal pressure ulcers (stage III-IV): efficacy of injected activated macrophage suspension (AMS) as compared with standard of care (SOC) treatment controlled trial. Archives of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 2010 Nov–Dec;51(3):268–72. Surgery. [PubMed: 20034682]

Surgery

1.
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2.
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3.
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4.
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6.
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Adjunctive

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2.
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6.
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7.
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8.
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9.
Comorosan S, et al. The effect of diapulse therapy on the healing of decubitus ulcer. Romanian Journal of Physiology (Bucuresti). 1993 Jan–Jun;30(1–2):41–5. [PubMed: 7982015]
10.
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11.
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12.
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13.
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14.
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15.
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16.
Gentzkow GD, et al. Improved healing of pressure ulcers using Dermapulse, a new electrical stimulation device. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice. 1991;3(5):158–70.
17.
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18.
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19.
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20.
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21.
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22.
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23.
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24.
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25.
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27.
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28.
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29.
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30.
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31.
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32.
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33.
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34.
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35.
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38.
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39.
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41.
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42.
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