Table II.4.1Classification of hypovolaemic shock associated with acute blood loss (in adults)

Class IClass IIClass IIIClass IV
Blood loss≤ 750 ml750–1500 ml1500–2000 ml> 2000 ml
% of blood volume lost15%15–30%30–40%> 40%
Pulse rate< 100> 100> 120> 140
Blood pressureNormalNormal to decreasedDecreasedMarkedly decreased
Mental statusNormal to slightly anxiousMildly anxiousAnxious and confusedConfused or lethargic
Urine outputNormalReducedMinimalNil
Fluid replacementCrystalloidCrystalloidCrystalloid and bloodCrystalloid and blood

From American College of Surgeons Advanced Trauma Life Support manual (6)

From: Objective 4, The team will recognize and effectively prepare for risk of high blood loss

Cover of WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009
WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009: Safe Surgery Saves Lives.
Copyright © 2009, World Health Organization.

All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: tni.ohw@sredrokoob). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: tni.ohw@snoissimrep).

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.