Table 30Summary strength of evidence for KQ 3: Cardiac index

ComparisonNumber of Studies (Patients)DomainsStrength of Evidence
Effect Estimate (95% CI)
Risk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecision
Endothelin antagonists vs. placebo2 (63)Low (2)InconsistentIndirectImpreciseSOE = Insufficient
Mean difference 0.6
(−0.2 to 1.4)
Inconclusive benefit (few studies, wide CI)
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors vs. placebo1 (258)Low (1)NAIndirectPreciseSOE = Low
Mean difference 0.3
(0.1 to 0.5)
Favors PDE inhibitors
Prostanoids vs. placebo or standard therapy3 (661)Low (2)
Moderate (1)
ConsistentIndirectPreciseSOE = Low
Mean difference 0.4
(0.1 to 0.7)
Combination therapy vs. monotherapy1 (33)Low (1)NAIndirectImpreciseSOE = Insufficient
Mean difference 0.2
(−0.4 to 0.8)
Inconclusive benefit (single study, wide CI)

CI = confidence interval; NA = not applicable; OR = odds ratio; SOE = strength of evidence

From: Results

Cover of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Screening, Management, and Treatment
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Screening, Management, and Treatment [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 117.
McCrory DC, Coeytaux RR, Schmit KM, et al.

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