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Adam MP, Feldman J, Mirzaa GM, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2024.

Cover of GeneReviews®

GeneReviews® [Internet].

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GeneReviews Personnel

Initial Posting: ; Last Revision: January 18, 2024.

Estimated reading time: 1 minute


Margaret P Adam, MD Professor, Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle; ude.wu@1rotide

Allison Hill Project Manager; ude.wu@tssamda


Senior Editors

Jerry Feldman, MD, PhD Professor Emeritus, Genetics and Pediatrics, Wayne State University; ude.enyaw.dem@namdlefg

Ghayda M Mirzaa, MD Associate Professor, Pediatrics, University of Washington; gro.snerdlihcelttaes@aazrim.adyahg

Roberta A Pagon, MD Professor Emeritus, Pediatrics, University of Washington; ude.wu@nogapb

Stephanie E Wallace, MD Clinical Professor, Pediatrics, University of Washington; ude.wu@2rotide

Molecular Genetics Editors

Ghayda M Mirzaa, MD Associate Professor, Pediatrics, University of Washington; gro.snerdlihcelttaes@aazrim.adyahg

Genetic Counseling Editor

Anne Amemiya, MS, CGC ude.wu@rotidecg

Online Editorial Production

Caitlin Mahon, MA Copy Editor / Manager of Online Production; ude.wu@3nohamc

Consulting Editors

Shivarajan M Amudhavalli, MBBS Clinical Genetics
Pediatric Geneticist, Children's Mercy Hospital; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Missouri – Kansas City School of Medicine

Thomas D Bird, MD Neurogenetics
Professor Emeritus, Neurology, University of Washington

Jennifer L Cohen, MD Clinical Genetics
Assistant Professor, Division of Medical Genetics, Duke University

Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, MD, PhD Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics
Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

Ayman W El-Hattab, MD Clinical and Biochemical Genetics
Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Madelyn Gillentine, PhD Molecular Genetics
Variant Scientist, Seattle Children's Hospital

Karen W Gripp, MD Molecular Genetics
Nemours / Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children

Jennifer L Hand, MD Dermatology
Associate Professor, Dermatology, Medical Genetics, and Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic – Rochester

Anna CE Hurst, MS, MD Clinical Genetics
University of Alabama, Birmingham

Teodoro Jerves Serrano, MD Internal Medicine, Clinical and Biochemical Genetics
Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine

Manju Kurian, MA, MBBChir, MRCPCH, PhD Neurology, Pediatric Movement Disorders
Professor of Neurogenetics, University College London

Christina Lam, MD Biochemical Genetics
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, University of Washington; Seattle Children's Hospital

Dena R Matalon, MD Clinical Genetics
Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Stanford University

Carolina M Montaño, MD, PhD Clinical Genetics
National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health *

Francis Rossignol, MD Biochemical Genetics
Staff Clinician, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health *

Richard JH Smith, MD Otolaryngology
Director, Iowa Institute of Human Genetics; Professor, Otolaryngology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa, Iowa City

Konstantinos Varvagiannis, MD Intellectual Disability, Multiple Malformation Syndromes
Clinical Geneticist, Department of Genetics, Institute of Child Health, Athens, Greece

Tara Wenger, MD Craniofacial Medicine
Associate Professor, Pediatrics, University of Washington

Changrui Xiao, MD Neurology
Assistant Clinical Professor, Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California – Irvine

Shira G Ziegler, MD, PhD Clinical Genetics
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

* Editors serve in their own capacity. The views expressed are their own and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institutes of Health or the United States Government.

Copyright © 1993-2024, University of Washington, Seattle. GeneReviews is a registered trademark of the University of Washington, Seattle. All rights reserved.

GeneReviews® chapters are owned by the University of Washington. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce, distribute, and translate copies of content materials for noncommercial research purposes only, provided that (i) credit for source (http://www.genereviews.org/) and copyright (© 1993-2024 University of Washington) are included with each copy; (ii) a link to the original material is provided whenever the material is published elsewhere on the Web; and (iii) reproducers, distributors, and/or translators comply with the GeneReviews® Copyright Notice and Usage Disclaimer. No further modifications are allowed. For clarity, excerpts of GeneReviews chapters for use in lab reports and clinic notes are a permitted use.

For more information, see the GeneReviews® Copyright Notice and Usage Disclaimer.

For questions regarding permissions or whether a specified use is allowed, contact: ude.wu@tssamda.

Bookshelf ID: NBK138604


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