NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

WHO Best Practices for Injections and Related Procedures Toolkit. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010 Mar.

Cover of WHO Best Practices for Injections and Related Procedures Toolkit

WHO Best Practices for Injections and Related Procedures Toolkit.

Show details


Aide-memoire for a national strategy for the safe and appropriate use of injections. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. http://www​​/about/country/en/AMENG​.pdf.
Wilburn S, Eijkemans G. Protecting health workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other bloodborne pathogens: from research to practice. Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety. 2007;13:8–12.
Hutin YJ, Hauri AM, Armstrong GL. Use of injections in healthcare settings worldwide, 2000: literature review and regional estimates. British Medical Journal. 2003;327(7423):1075. http://www​​/volumes/81/7/en/Hutin0703.pdf. [PMC free article: PMC261740] [PubMed: 14604927]
Safe Injection Global Network. Injection safety at a glance. http://www​
Prüss-Üstün A, Rapitil E, Hutin Y. Introduction and methods: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
Prüss-Üstün A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2005;48(6):482–490. http://www​​_ehimpacts/global/7sharps.pdf. [PubMed: 16299710]
Hutin Y, et al. Best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular needle injection. Bulletin of The World Health Organization. 2003;81:491–500. http://www​​/volumes/81/7/en/Hutin0703.pdf. [PMC free article: PMC2572501] [PubMed: 12973641]
Injection safety Guiding principles to ensure injection device security. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
Wagner SJ. Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection: risks, sources and interventions. Vox Sanguinis. 2004;86(3):157–163. [PubMed: 15078249]
Bloodborne pathogens for occupational exposures. Lexington, Kentucky: University of Kentucky Occupation Health & Safety; 2008. http://ehs​​/bloodborne/bptrain.html.
Safety training. Summary of OSHA's bloodborne pathogen standard. Oklahoma State University Environmental Health and Safety; 2006. http://www​.pp.okstate​.edu/ehs/MODULES/bbp/bbpsum.htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part II: Immunization of adults. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006;55(No. RR-16):1–25. [PubMed: 17159833]
Position paper – Hepatitis B vaccines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. http://www​
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for post exposure prophylaxis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2001. pp. 21–23. http://www​​/preview/MMWRhtml/rr5011a1.htm. [PubMed: 11442229]
World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution 60.26: Workers' health: global plan of action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. http://apps​​/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA60/A60_R26-en.pdf.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1998;47(No. RR–19):1–39. [PubMed: 9790221]
Beltrami EM, et al. Transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus from a nursing home patient to a health care worker. American Journal of Infection Control. 2003;31(3):168–175. [PubMed: 12734523]
Kamili S, et al. Infectivity of hepatitis C virus in plasma after drying and storing at room temperature. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 2007;28(5):519–524. [PubMed: 17464909]
Patel PR, et al. Hepatitis C virus infections from a contaminated radiopharmaceutical used in myocardial perfusion studies. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006;296(16):2005–2011. [PubMed: 17062864]
Aide-memoire for national blood programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. http://www​​/transfusion_services​/en/Blood_Safety_Eng.pdf.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS and alternative therapies. National Institutes of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine; 1994. http://www​​/pubs/cdc_fact_sheets/1994/cdc94033.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2005;54(No. RR–9):1–17.
Hauri AM, Armstrong GL, Hutin YJ. The global burden of disease attributable to contaminated injections given in health care settings. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2004;15(1):7–16. [PubMed: 14769164]
Aide-memoire for a national strategy for health-care waste management. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000. http://www​​/activities/2amhcw_en​.pdf.
Secretariat of the World Alliance for Patient Safety. Global Patient Safety Challenge 2005-2006. Tools. WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care (advanced draft). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
The Global Patient Safety Challenge – Clean care is safer care. Information sheet 6: Glove use. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www​​.pdf.
AAALAC International. From AAALAC's perspective, alcohol as a disinfectant. 2001. http://www​​/publications/Connection​/Using_Alcohol_Disinfectant.pdf.
Calfee D, Farr B. Comparison of four antiseptic preparations for skin in the prevention of contamination of percutaneously drawn blood cultures: a randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2002;40(5):1660–1665. [PMC free article: PMC130950] [PubMed: 11980938]
de Vries J, van Dorp W, van Barneveld P. A randomized control trial of alcohol 70% versus alcoholic iodine 2% in skin disinfection before insertion of peripheral infusion catheters. Journal of Hospital Infection. 1997;36:317–320. [PubMed: 9261762]
About SAVE LIVES: clean your hands. My 5 moments for hand hygiene. Geneva: World Health Organization; http://www​​/5may/background/5moments/en.
Perry J, Jagger J. EPINet data report: injuries from phlebotomy needles. Advances in Exposure Prevention. 2003;6(4):43–45.
Eye of the needle – surveillance of significant occupational exposure to blood-borne viruses in healthcare personnel. London: Health Protection Authority; 2005.
Protecting healthcare workers: preventing needlestick injuries toolkit. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www​​/activities​/pnitoolkit/en/
Aide-memoire: standard precautions in health care. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. http://www​​/resources/publications/EPR_AM2_E7.pdf.
Galena H. Complications occurring from diagnostic venepuncture. Journal of Family Practice. 1992;34(5):582–584. [PubMed: 1578208]
So you're going to collect a blood specimen: an introduction to phlebotomy. USA: College of American Pathologists; 2007.
World Health Organization. et al. Do no harm: injection safety in the context of infection prevention. Washington, DC: John Snow Inc; 2005.
Transmission of hepatitis B virus among persons undergoing blood glucose monitoring in long-term care facilities – Mississippi, North Carolina and Los Angeles County, California, 2003–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2004;54:220–223. [PubMed: 15758894]
Dreesman JM, et al. Outbreak of hepatitis B in a nursing home associated with capillary blood sampling. Epidemiology and Infection. 2006;134(5):1102–1113. [PMC free article: PMC2870482] [PubMed: 16438748]
Workbook for designing, implementing, and evaluating a sharps injury prevention program. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2006. Appendix F – Glossary. http://www​​.html.
Dodd R. Bacterial contamination and transfusion safety: experience in the United States. Transfusion Clinique et Biologique. 2003;10:6–9. [PubMed: 12668181]
Lippi G, et al. Phlebotomy issues and quality improvement in results of laboratory testing. Clinical Laboratory. 2006;52:217–230. [PubMed: 16812947]
Guidelines on post exposure prophylaxis prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Geneva: World Health Organization and International Labour Organization; 2008. http://www​​/pub/guidelines/PEP/en/index.html.
WHO guidelines on drawing blood: best practices in phlebotomy. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. [PubMed: 23741774]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of safety devices for preventing percutaneous injuries among health-care personnel during phlebotomy procedures 1993–1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1997. pp. 21–25. http://www​​/preview/mmwrhtml/00045648.htm. [PubMed: 9011778]
Laboratory continuing education: phlebotomy collection methods. Medialab Inc; 2009. http://www​.medialabinc​.net/butterfly-keyword.aspx.
Blood transfusion safety. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. http://www​​/en/Blood_Transfusion_Safety​.pdf.
Basic requirements for blood transfusion services. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
Smith J. The practice of venepuncture in lymphoedema. European Journal of Cancer Care. 1998;7(2):97–98. [PubMed: 9697450]
McLaughlin SA, et al. Prevalence of lymphedema in women with breast cancer 5 years after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection: patient perceptions and precautionary behaviors. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2008;26(32):5220–5226. [PMC free article: PMC2652092] [PubMed: 18838708]
Newman B, et al. The effect of a 473-ml (16-oz) water drink on vasovagal donor reaction rates in high school students. Transfusion. 2007;47(8):1524–1533. [PubMed: 17655598]
Liumbruno G, et al. Reduction of the risk of bacterial contamination of blood components through diversion of the first part of the donation of blood and blood components. Blood Transfusion. 2009;7(2):86–93. [PMC free article: PMC2689061] [PubMed: 19503628]
Phlebotomy. Salt Lake City: University of Utah; 2009. http://library​.med.utah​.edu/WebPath/TUTORIAL/PHLEB/PHLEB​.html.
Norberg A, et al. Contamination rates of blood cultures obtained by dedicated phlebotomy vs intravenous catheter. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003;289(6):726–729. [PubMed: 12585951]
Chiavetta J, et al. Estimated risk of transfusion transmitted infection in the Canadian blood supply (1987–1996) Vox Sanguinis. 2000;78(Suppl 1):360.
Moor ACE, et al. Transfusion-transmitted diseases: risks, prevention and perspectives. European Journal of Haematology. 1999;62(1):1–8. [PubMed: 9918306]
Hillyer C, et al. Bacterial contamination of blood components: risks, strategies and regulation. American Society of Hematology Education Program. 2003:575–589. [PubMed: 14633800]
Dhingra-Kumar N, Sharma A, Madan N. Analysis in quality assurance programme for HIV screening in blood transfusion centres in Delhi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1997;75(3):223–228. [PMC free article: PMC2486949] [PubMed: 9277009]
Blajchman M. Incidence and significance of the bacterial contamination of blood components. Developmental Biology. 2002;108:59–67. [PubMed: 12220143]
Blajchman M. Bacterial contamination and proliferation during the storage of cellular blood products. Vox Sanguinis. 1998;74:155–159. [PubMed: 9704439]
World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution 4517: Immunization and vaccine quality. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.
Aide-memoire for a strategy to protect health workers from infection with bloodborne viruses. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. https://www​​/toolbox​/docs/en/AM_HCW_Safety.pdf.
Joint ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS: Fact sheet No. 10. Summary outline for the management of occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogen. Geneva: International Labour Organization; 2005.
Ducel G, Fabry J, Nicolle L. Prevention of hospital-acquired infections A practical guide. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. http://www​​/resources/publications​/drugresist/en/whocdscsreph200212​.pdf.
Tanzania Ministry of Health; United States Agency for International Development; Jhpiego. National infection prevention and control guidelines for healthcare services in Tanzania. Dodoma: Tanzania Ministry of Health; 2005.
Aide-memoire for infection prevention and control in a health care facility. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www​​/toolbox​/docs/en/AideMemoireInfectionControl​.pdf.
Management of solid health-care waste at primary health-care centres A decision-making guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. http://www​​_sanitation_health​/medicalwaste/decisionmguide​_rev_oct06.pdf.
Healthcare waste and its safe management. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www​.healthcarewaste​.org/en/115_overview.html.
EPINet. Exposure Prevention Information Network. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Health System; 2006. http://www​.healthsystem​​/epinet/forms/epinet3.cfm.
Body substance precautions and protective clothing. Mancester: Manchester Primary Care Trust; 2006.
Components of personal protective equipment (PPE). St Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Health; 2006.
Post-exposure prophylaxis. Geneva: United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; 2006.
Hepatitis B position paper. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. http://www​​/wer7928HepB​_July04_position_paper.pdf.
Universal blood and body fluid precautions. Houston, Texas: The University of Texas Health Science Center; 2006.
Standard precautions (body substance isolation/universal precautions). San Francisco: University of California San Francisco Medical Center; 2006.
Draft provider initiated counselling and testing for HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
Joint ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS: Fact sheet No. 4. Geneva: International Labour Organization; 2005.
Copyright © 2010, World Health Organization.

All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: tni.ohw@sredrokoob). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: tni.ohw@snoissimrep).

Bookshelf ID: NBK138497


Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...