Table 5.

The Different Categories of Periodic Paralyses (PP) with Primitive Membrane Excitability Disorder and Associated Findings

Age at first attacksLate in 1st decade or in 2nd decade1st years of lifeVariable, dependent on onset of thyrotoxicosis
Main triggersThyrotoxicosis
Extramuscular expressionnonenoneNoneCardiac arrhythmia; DysmorphyPossible manifestations of thyrotoxicosis
Prevention of paralysis attacksACZACZACZ
Curative treatmentNoneNoneNoneNoneTreatment of thyroid disorder
Known causal or susceptibility gene(s)CACNA1S;
KCNJ18 (sporadic cases)
Defective ion channel(s)Cav 1.1;
Nav 1.4;
Kir 6.2
Nav 1.4Nav 1.4Kir 2.1Kir 6.2

ACZ = acetazolamide

From: Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

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Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors.
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