Table G4Prolonged exposure compared with inactive control condition

Outcome: Number of Studies; Number of Subjects; DesignRisk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecisionMagnitude of Effect: Summary Effect Size (95% CI)Strength of Evidence
Incidence of PTSD at 4 weeks: 1; 137; RCTMediumUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. Assessment only, PSS-I, 41% vs. 51%, p=0.60Insufficient
Incidence of PTSD at end of treatment: 1; 60; RCTMediumaUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. WL, CAPS-2, 33% vs. 77%, p<0.001Insufficient
Incidence of PTSD at 5 months: 1; 128; RCTMediumcUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. WL, CAPS, 21.6% vs. 57.1%, p<0.003dInsufficient
PTSD symptom severity at end of treatment: 1; 60; RCTMediumaUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. WL, CAPS-2 total, 31.5 vs. 55.9, p<0.001; IES-I, 12.4 vs. 22.1, p<0.002; IES-A, 11.7 vs. 22.6, p<0.001Insufficient
PTSD symptom severity at 5 months: 1; 135; RCTUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. WL, CAPS total, 28.6 vs. 50.6, p=NR; CAPS re-experiencing, 7.3 vs. 11.8, p=NR; CAPS avoidance, 11.4 vs. 22.3, p=NR; CAPS hyperarousal, 9.9 vs. 16.5, p=NR; PSS-SR total, 11.0 vs. 22.1, p=NRInsufficient
Incidence of depression at 4 weeks: 1; 137MediumUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. Assessment only, BDI-2 > 13, 49% vs. 68%, p=0.08Insufficient
Depression symptom severity at 4 weeks: 1; 137MediumUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. Assessment only, BDI-2, 15.4 vs. 21.4, p<0.05Insufficient
Depression symptom severity at end of treatment: 1; 60; RCTMediumaUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. WL, BDI-2, 12.1 vs. 21.9, p=0.03Insufficient
Anxiety symptom severity at end of treatment: 1; 60; RCTMediumaUnknown, single studyDirectImprecisebPE vs. WL, BAI, 13.4 vs. 19.6, p=0.03Insufficient
Incidence of comorbid conditions: 0; 0NANANANANAInsufficient
Quality of Life: 0; 0NANANANANAInsufficient
Return to work/return to active duty or ability to work: 0; 0NANANANANAInsufficient
Incidence of self-injurious or suicidal thoughts, attempts, or behaviors (including suicide): 0; 0NANANANANAInsufficient
Incidence of aggressive or homicidal thoughts, attempts, or behaviors (including homicide) 0; 0NANANANANAInsufficient
Perceived utility: 0; 0NANANANANAInsufficient
a

Attrition was high for the study overall (> 20%) and differed across groups by > 15%

b

Small sample size (< 300 observations)

c

No ITT; completer analysis of 156 randomized participants; high attrition; differential attrition across groups

d

Stratified pairwise comparison

Abbreviations: BAI = Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI-2 = Beck Depression Inventory-2; CAPS/CAPS-2 = Clinician Administered PTSD Scale/Clinician Administered PTSD Scale-2; CI = confidence interval; CR = Cognitive restructuring; CT = Cognitive therapy; IES-A = Impact of Event-Avoidance subscale; IES-I = Impact of Event-Intrusion subscale; ITT = intent to treat analysis; NA = not applicable; NR = not reported; NS = not significant; PE = Prolonged exposure therapy; PSS-I = PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview; PSS-SR = PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-Report; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; RCT = randomized controlled trial; WL = Waitlist

From: Appendix G, Psychological, Pharmacological, and Emerging Interventions: Strength-of-Evidence Grades

Cover of Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma
Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 109.
Gartlehner G, Forneris CA, Brownley KA, et al.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.