Appendix CLiterature search strategies

Publication Details

Introduction

Search strategies used for the Incontinence in Neurological Disease guideline were run in accordance with the NICE Guidelines Manual 2009: http://www.nice.org.uk/media/5F2/44/The_guidelines_manual_2009_-_All_chapters.pdf

All searches were run up to 10/01/12. Any studies added to the databases after this date were not included unless specifically stated in the text.

Clinical searches

Searches for clinical reviews were run in Medline (OVID), Embase (OVID), the Cochrane Library (Wiley) and Cinahl (EBSCO). Typically, searches were constructed in the following way:

A PICO format was used for intervention searches. Population (P) terms were combined with Intervention (I) and sometimes Comparison (C) terms (as indicated in the tables under each individual question in Section C.3). An intervention can be a drug, a procedure or a diagnostic test. Outcomes (O) are rarely used in search strategies for interventions. Study type filters were added where appropriate (see Section C.1).

Patient searches

In addition to the databases outlined above, the search for patient information (C.3.8.3) was run in PsycINFO (OVID).

Economic searches

Searches for economic reviews were run in Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), the NHS Economic Evaluations Database (NHS EED), the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database (HEED). NHS EED and HTA were searched via the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) interface. For Medline and Embase an economic filter (C.1.4) was added to the standard population terms (Section C.2). All other searches were conducted using only population terms.

C.1. Study design search terms

C.1.1. Systematic review (SR) search terms

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

C.1.2. Randomised controlled studies (RCTs) search terms

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

C.1.3. Observational studies search terms

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

C.1.4. Health economic search terms

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

C.3. Searches by specific questions

C.3.1. Clinical assessment

C.3.1.1. Clinical assessment

Q.

Does the use of clinical assessment, urine culture, a residucal urine estimate or a bladder diary/frequency volume chart change the management of patients with neurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.1.2. Urodynamics

Q.

Does the use of urodynamics (filling cystometry, leak point pressure measurements, pressure-flow studies of voiding, video urodynamics) direct treatment or stratify risk of renal complications (such as hydronephrosis)?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.1.3. Information and Support

Q.

Does the provision of information and support regarding the different management systems improve patient outcomes?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

PsycINFO search terms

C.3.2. Treatment to improve bladder storage

C.3.2.1. Behavioural treatments

Q.

Do behavioural management programmes (times voiding, voiding on request, prompted voiding, bladder retraining, habit retraining, urotherapy) compared with a) each other b) usual care, improve outcomes?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.2.2. Antimuscarinics

Q.

What is the safety and efficacy of antimuscarinics compared with a) placebo or treatment as usual b) other antimuscarinics for the treatment of incontinence due to neurological disease/overactive bladder due to neurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.2.3. Botulinum toxin

Q.

What is the safety and efficacy of detrusor injections of Botulinum toxin type A or B compared with a) usual care b) antimuscarinics in neurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.2.4. Augmentation cystoplasty

Q.

What is the safety and efficacy of augmentation cystoplasty compared with a) botulinum toxin b) usual care in neurological disease c) urinary diversion?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.3. Treatment for stress incontinence

C.3.3.1. Pelvic floor treatments

Q.

Does pelvic floor muscle training with or without electrical stimulation or biofeedback compared with treatment as usual, improve outcomes?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.3.2. Urethral tape and sling surgery

Q.

What is the safety and efficacy of urethral tape and sling surgery compared with a) bladder neck closure b) usual care in neurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.3.3. Artificial urinary sphincter

Q.

What is the safety and efficacy of artificial urinary sphincters compared with other treatments inneurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.4. Treatment to improve bladder emptying

C.3.4.1. Alpha andrenergic antagonists

Q.

What is the safety and efficacy of alpha adrenergic antagonists compared with a) other adrenergic antagonists b) placebo/usual care for the treatment of incontinence due to neurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.5. Management with catheter valves AND Potential complications: providing information and initial management

C.3.5.1. Catheter valves AND Intermittent Catheteriation, Indwelling Catheters and Penile Sheath Urine Collection

Searches for the following two questions were run as one search:

Q1.

What are the long term risks associated with the long term use of intermittent catheterisation, indwelling catheters and penile sheaths?

Q2.

What is the safety and efficacy of catheter valves compared with urinary drainage bags in neurological disease?

Searches constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.6. Management with Ileal conduit diversion

C.3.6.1. Ileal conduit diversion

Q.

What is the efficacy of the ileal conduit diversion compared with usual care in neurological disease?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.7. Treatment to prevent urinary tract infections

C.3.7.1. Antibiotic prophylaxis

Q.

Do prophylactic antibiotics compared with a) no treatment b) other antibiotic reduce the risk of symptomatic urinary tract infections?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.8. Monitoring and surveillance protocols

C.3.8.1. Monitoring and surveillance protocols

Q.

Does monitoring, or do surveillance protocols, improve patient outcomes?

Two searches were run for this question. Both searches used the same intervention terms (as outlined in C.3.7.1), but the population was adjusted for the second search (C.3.7.2).

C.3.8.2. Search using STANDARD population

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.8.3. Search using ADJUSTED population

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

For this additional search the interventions outlined in C.3.7.1 were run with the following adjusted populations:

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.9. Access to and interaction with services

C.3.9.1. Access to and interaction with services

Q.

For people with lower urinary tract dysfunction associated with neurological disorders, and their carers, what are the experiences of access to and interaction with services that address these issues?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.3.9.2. Transfer from child to adult services

Q.

What interventions or configuration of services improve outcomes when a patient is transferred from child to adult services?

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

Medline search terms

Embase search terms

Cinahl search terms

Cochrane search terms

C.4. Economic searches

Economic searches were run in Medline and Embase by combining the standard population with the economic filter and limiting by date range. Economic searches were executed in the NHS EED and HTA (CRD) databases by simply running the standard population without a date limitation. Search terms for the CRD and HEED databases are given below.

Search constructed by combining the columns in the following table using the AND Boolean operator

Table

HEED search terms

CRD search terms