Table 17Characteristics of matched studies addressing KQ3 with biopsy and prostatectomy results

Author, YearBiopsy GS, %Clinical Stage,%Number of PP Gleason Scores, %Pathologic Stage, %“Low Risk” Prostate Cancer Category, %Conclusions – PCA3:
Auprich, 2011112<7, 50.8
≥7, 49.2
-305< 7, 27.9
≥ 7, 72.1
NRInsignificanta, 10Median scores lower with low TV and insignificant PrCb (p<0.001); improves multivariate AUC
Cao, 201194≤ 6, 50
= 7, 38
≥ 8, 12
≤T2a, 25;
T2b, 52;
T3, 23
---Low riskb, 8.1Has significant correlation with low risk group; no RP
de la Taille, 201195< 6, 1
= 6, 52
= 7, 42 > 7, 5
T1c, 86;
T2, 13;
T3, 1
---Indolentc, 25Median scores higher with GS ≥7, % positive cores > 33%, and significant PrC; no RP
Durand, 2012113= 6, 43.1
= 7, 50.6
> 7, 6.3
T1a/b, 0.6
T1c, 81.8
T2, 18.2
160= 6, 43.1
= 7, 50.6
≥ 8, 6.3
≤ pT2, 70.6
pT3, 27.5
pT4, 1.9
NRScore >35 correlates with (r=0.34, p < 0.01) and predicts (OR 2.7;p=0.04) TV; predicts positive surgical margins (OR 2.4, p=0.04) and GS >6 (p<0.001)
Hessels, 2010100≤ 6, 74.3
= 7, 22.9
≥ 7, 2.8
NR70<7, 43
≥7, 57
pT2, 59.0
p T3, 42.0
Indolentd / Insignificant, 8.5Predictive value for aggressiveness features not confirmed in this study
Kusuda, 201188--120≤ 6, 56.7
= 7, 33.3
≥ 8, 10.0
pT2, 55.8
pT3, 42.5
pT4, 1.7
NRPCA3 expression in LN tissue can predict biochemical recurrence-free survival after prostatectomy
Liss, 2011114≤ 6, 53.1
> 6, 47.9
NR98≤ 6, 29.9
> 6, 71.1
pT2, 77.3
pT3a, 16.5
≥pT3b, 6.2
NRAssociation with PNI (p=0.05), not pathological stage, GS > 6, or EPE
Nakanishi, 2008115= 6, 40.6
= 7, 53.1
= 8, 6.3
T1c, 70.8
≥ T2, 29.2
96= 6, 15.6
= 7, 77.1
= 8, 3.1 = 9, 4.2
pT2, 82.3
pT3a, 10.4
pT3b, 7.3
Low volume / low gradee, 11Median scores higher for low volume/low grade vs. significant PCa (p=0.007); correlation with TV (p=0.01)
Ploussard, 2011116= 6, 100106= 6, 58.4
= 7, 41.6
≤ pT2, 76.4
pT3, 23.6
Low risk cohortf in active surveillanceCorrelates with (r=0.41, p<0.001) and at > 25 predicts (p=0.01) TV and insignificant PrC (p=0.02)
Tosoian, 201089< 7, 57.9
≥ 7, 42.0
NR---Low riskg PrC patients in active surveillanceScore was not significantly associated with short-term biopsy progression.
van Poppel, 2011117≤ 6, 53
= 7, 43
> 7, 4
T1c, 79
T2-T2c, 21
T3a, 1
175< 7, 32.1
≥ 7, 67.9
T2a-c, 78.6
T3a-b, 21.4
Indolenth, 21.7Median scores lower with GS <7 (p<0.001) and stage pT2a-pT2c (p=0.01)
Vlaeminck-Guillem, 2011118= 6, 47
= 7, 45
= 8/9, 8
T1, 84
T2, 16
102NRNRLow volume / low gradej, 8.2Score correlated with TV (p< 0.001), multifocality (p = 0.012), and apical / basal invasion (p<0.05)
Whitman, 2008119= 6, 69.4
= 7, 20.8
= 8/9, 9.7
T1, 71.2
T2, 28.8
72= 6, 58.3
= 7, 31.9
= 8/9, 9.7
pT2, 70.9
pT3a, 20.8
pT3b, 8.3
-Correlated with TV (r=0.38, p < 0.01) and was an independent predictor of TV <0.05 (p=0.04) and ECE (p=0.01); improves multivariate AUC

AUC = area under the curve; ECE = extracapsular extension; GS = Gleason score; LN = lymph node; NR = not reported; P = prostatectomy; PCA3 = prostate cancer antigen 3 gene; PNI = perineural invasion;

SVI = seminal vesicle invasion; TV = tumor volume

a

Defined by Epstein criteria: organ confined, tumor volume less than 0.5 cc, absence of Gleason grade 4 or 5.

b

Defined as tPSA ≤ 10 ng/mL, GS ≤ 6, clinical stage ≤ T2a.

c

Defined by Epstein criteria: stage T1c, PSAD < 0.15 ng/mL, biopsy GS ≤ 6, percent positive cores ≤ 33%.

d

Defined as organ confined, TV < 0.5 mL and absence of Gleason grad 4 or 5 disease.

e

Defined as organ confined, dominant tumor volume less than 0.5 cc, and absence of Gleason grade 4 or 5.

f

Defined as tPSA ≤ 10, clinical stage T1c-T2a, GS 6 prior to radical prostatectomy.

f

Defined by Epstein criteria: stage T1c, PSAD < 0.15, biopsy GS ≤ 6, ≤ 2 positive cores, and no more than 50% involvement of any one core.

h

Defined by Epstein criteria: stage T1c, PSAD < 0.15 ng/mL, biopsy GS ≤ 6, percent positive cores ≤ 33%.

Organ confined cancer (pT2 or less) with a total tumor volume of less than 0.5 ml, and absence of Gleason grade 4 or 5 disease (contemporary Epstein criteria).

From: Results

Cover of PCA3 Testing for the Diagnosis and Management of Prostate Cancer
PCA3 Testing for the Diagnosis and Management of Prostate Cancer [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 98.
Bradley LA, Palomaki G, Gutman S, et al.

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