Priority levelResearch questionTotal number of stars
HighWhat is the cost-effectiveness of breathing technique interventions compared to usual asthma care?8
What is the effectiveness of specific breathing techniques (e.g., the Buteyko breathing method) on other health outcomes (beyond asthma) including sleep apnea, anxiety, panic attacks, rhinitis, sinusitis, allergies, or headaches/migraines?7
MediumWhat is the prevalence of hyperventilation in the primary care population?5
What are the mechanism(s) by which breathing techniques interventions affect asthma outcomes?5
To what extent does decreased hyperventilation mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?5
What is the prevalence of asthma misdiagnosis in the primary care population?4
Does anxiety mediate the relationship between breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?4
LowTo what extent does anti-inflammatory effects mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?3
What effects do breathing techniques have on the autonomic nervous system? Do effects on the autonomic nervous system mediate the relationship between breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?2
To what extent does stress management mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?2
To what extent does improved pulmonary function mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?2
Does the exact respiration rate or depth of respiration matter in producing improvements in pulmonary function?2
What is the etiology of hyperventilation?1
What is the effectiveness or comparative effectiveness of breathing techniques among individuals with comorbid conditions (e.g., depression, heart disease) (with and without asthma)?1
To what extent does increased baroreflex gain mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?1
To what extent does endorphin effect mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?1
What is the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of acute asthma symptoms?1
What specific evidence-based breathing techniques should school-based asthma education programs (e.g., Open Airways, Power Breathing) incorporate?1
What are the breathing characteristics (e.g., respiratory rate, etc.) of primary care subgroups (e.g., females, older adults, etc.)?0
To what extent does mechanical dilation of airways mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?0
To what extent does increased gas exchange mediate or modify the relationship between specific breathing techniques and asthma outcomes?0

From: Appendix E, Prioritized Research Questions Not Within Scope of Original CER

Cover of Future Research Needs for the Comparative Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises and/or Retraining Techniques in the Treatment of Asthma
Future Research Needs for the Comparative Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises and/or Retraining Techniques in the Treatment of Asthma [Internet].
Future Research Needs Papers, No. 18.
Patnode CD, Burda BU, Whitlock EP.

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