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Cover of Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine

Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine, 6th edition

Editors: Donald W Kufe, MD, Raphael E Pollock, MD, PhD, Ralph R Weichselbaum, MD, Robert C Bast, Jr, MD, Ted S Gansler, MD, MBA, James F Holland, MD, ScD (hc), and Emil Frei, III, MD.

Editor Information
Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; .
ISBN-10: 1-55009-213-8


The editors have strived to make every chapter in this book present the composite of relevant science and of clinical knowledge about each cancer. The evolution of disease in the patient is critical to appreciating the special molecular characteristics of that particular type of cancer cell.

The practice of cancer medicine in its broadest sense will move forward from the threshold most effectively when the science that has been accomplished and that is evolving is joined at the hip, inseparably, with clinical knowledge of the disease and how it disables the patient. Cancer Medicine-6 offers such a synthesis.


  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part I Cardinal Manifestations
    • Chapter 1. Cardinal Manifestations of Cancer
      James F. Holland, MD.
  • Part II Scientific Foundation
    • Section 1: Cancer Biology
      • Chapter 2. Molecular Biology, Genomics, and Proteomics
        Kornelia Polyak, MD and Matthew Meyerson, MD.
        • Overview: Gene Structure
        • General Techniques
        • Gene Analysis: DNA
        • Gene Expression: MRNA Transcript Analysis
        • Gene Expression: Protein Analysis
        • References
      • Chapter 3. Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
        Michael Andreeff, MD, David W. Goodrich, PhD, and Arthur B. Pardee, PhD.
        • Proliferation
        • Apoptosis and Proliferation
        • Differentiation
        • Acknowledgment
        • References
      • Chapter 4. Apoptosis and Cancer
        John C. Reed, MD.
        • Apoptosis Caused by Caspases
        • Caspase Activation Pathways: an Overview
        • Protein Domains Involved in Apoptosis Regulation
        • Signal Transduction and Apoptosis Dysregulation in Cancer
        • Therapeutic Opportunities from Apoptosis Research
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 5. Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Cancer
        Anna Bafico, PhD and Stuart A. Aaronson, MD.
        • Background
        • Growth Factor Receptors with Tyrosine Kinase Activity
        • Classification of Growth Factors and Their Receptors
        • Abnormalities Associated with Growth Factors in Cancer Cells
        • Aberrations Affecting Growth Factor Receptors in Tumor Cells
        • Signaling Pathways of Tyrosine Kinase Receptors
        • Implications for Cancer Therapy
        • References
      • Chapter 6. Oncogenes
        Marco A. Pierotti, PhD, Gabriella Sozzi, PhD, and Carlo M. Croce, MD.
        • Discovery and identification of oncogenes
        • Mechanisms of oncogene activation
        • Oncogenes in the initiation and progression of neoplasia
        • Summary and conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 7. Tumor-Suppressor Genes
        Ben Ho Park, MD and Bert Vogelstein, MD.
        • Genetic Basis for Tumor Development
        • Somatic Cell Genetic Studies of Tumorigenesis
        • Retinoblastoma—A Paradigm for Tumor-Suppressor Gene Function
        • The p53 Gene
        • The INK4A Locus and the p16 INK4A and p19 ARF Genes
        • The APC Gene
        • BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes
        • WT1 Gene
        • NF1 and NF2 Genes
        • VHL Gene
        • DNA Repair Pathway Genes
        • Candidate Tumor-Suppressor Genes
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 8. Recurring Chromosome Rearrangements in Human Cancer
        Denise A. Levitan, MD, Rita Nanda, MD, Janet D. Rowley, MD, and Olufunmilayo I. Olopade, MD.
        • Myeloproliferative Disorders
        • Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Associated with Prior Cytotoxic Therapy
        • How And Why Recurring Chromosomal Abnormalities Occur
        • Acknowledgment
        • References
      • Chapter 9. Biochemistry of Cancer
        Raymond W. Ruddon, MD.
        • Historical Perspectives
        • What Makes a Cancer Cell a Cancer Cell?
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 10. Invasion and Metastases
        Lance A. Liotta, MD and Elise C. Kohn, MD.
        • Tumor-Host and Tumor-Stromal Interactions
        • Adhesion
        • Proteolysis
        • Tumor Cell Migration
        • Angiogenesis
        • Genetic Regulation of Invasion and Metastasis
        • Novel Technologies Advance Identification of Metastasis and Invasion-Promoting Genes and Gene Products
        • Invasion as a Therapeutic Molecular Target
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 11. Tumor Angiogenesis
        Judah Folkman, MD and Raghu Kalluri, PhD.
        • Historic background
        • Beginning of angiogenesis research
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
    • Section 2: Cancer Immunology
      • Chapter 12. Tumor Antigens
        Hassane M. Zarour, MD, Albert DeLeo, PhD, Olivera J. Finn, PhD, and Walter J. Storkus, PhD.
        • Categories of Tumor Antigens
        • Melanoma Antigens
        • Cancer-Testis (CT) Antigens
        • Epithelial Tumor Antigens
        • Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins as Tumor Antigens
        • Idiotypes as Tumor Antigens
        • Application of Tumor Antigens for Clinical Immunotherapy
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 13. Tumor Markers and Immunodiagnosis
        William Bigbee, PhD and Ronald B. Herberman, MD.
        • Categories and Applications of Tumor Markers
        • Traditional Tumor Markers
        • Characteristics of the Ideal Tumor Marker
        • Risk Markers
        • Screening and Early Detection Markers
        • Diagnostic Markers
        • Prognostic Markers
        • Therapy Selection and Response Markers
        • Recurrence and Metastasis Markers
        • Organ Site-Specific Markers
        • New Approaches and Technologies
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 14. Effectors of Immunity and Rationale for Immunotherapy
        Theresa L. Whiteside, PhD and Ronald B. Heberman, MD.
        • Antitumor Effector Cells in Humans
        • T Lymphocytes
        • Assessment of T-Cell Effectors in Patients with Cancer
        • Implications of Effector Cell Dysfunction in Cancer
        • Rationale for Immunotherapy of Cancer
        • References
      • Chapter 15. Tumor-Associated Immunodeficiency and Implications for Tumor Development and Prognosis
        William H. Chambers, PhD, Hannah Rabinowich, PhD, and Ronald B. Herberman, MD.
        • Documentation of Immune Suppression in Cancer Patients
        • Mechanisms of Immunosuppression
        • Conclusions
        • References
    • Section 3: Cancer Etiology
      • Chapter 16. Genetic Predisposition to Cancer
        Marcia S. Brose, MD, Thomas C. Smyrk, MD, Barbara Weber, MD, and Henry T. Lynch, MD.
        • Genetic Basis of Cancer Syndromes
        • Cancer-Associated Genodermatoses
        • Other Cancers with Familial Clusterings
        • Clinical Translation
        • Conclusions/Future Directions
        • References
      • Chapter 17. Chemical Carcinogenesis
        Ainsley Weston, PhD and Curtis C. Harris, MD.
        • Multistage Carcinogenesis
        • Gene-Environment Interactions and Interindividual Variation
        • Carcinogen Metabolism
        • DNA Damage and Repair
        • Mutator Phenotype
        • Clonal Evolution
        • Oncogenes and Tumor-Suppressor Genes
        • Assessment of Causation by the Bradford-Hill Criteria
        • Implications for Molecular Epidemiology, Risk Assessment, and Cancer Prevention
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 18. Hormones and the Etiology of Cancer
        Brian E. Henderson, MD, Leslie Bernstein, PhD, and Ronald K. Ross, MD.
        • Breast Cancer
        • Endometrial Cancer
        • Ovarian Cancer
        • Prostate Cancer
        • Adolescent and Young Adult Genital Cancer
        • Cervical Cancer
        • Thyroid Cancer
        • Osteosarcoma
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 19. Ionizing Radiation
        John B. Little, MD.
        • Development of Radiation Injury
        • Principal Cellular and Tissue Effects of Radiation
        • Molecular Mechanisms
        • Experimental Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis
        • Human Epidemiologic Studies
        • Risk Assessment
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 20. Ultraviolet Radiation Carcinogenesis
        James E. Cleaver, PhD and David L. Mitchell, MS.
        • Historical Perspective
        • Epidemiology
        • Genetic Factors in Skin Carcinogenesis
        • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
        • Cockayne Syndrome
        • Trichothiodystrophy
        • Carcinogenesis
        • References
      • Chapter 21. Physical Carcinogens
        Morando Soffritti, MD, Franco Minardi, MD, and Cesare Maltoni, MD.
        • Known Physical Carcinogens
        • Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis
        • Electromagnetic Fields
        • Trauma
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 22. Tumor Viruses
        Robert C. Gallo, MD and Marvin S. Reitz Jr, PhD.
        • Classification
        • Structure
        • Replication Cycle
        • Mechanisms of Oncogenesis
        • Endogenous Retroviruses
        • Retroviral Vectors and Gene Therapy
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 23. Herpesviruses
        Jeffrey I. Cohen, MD.
        • Properties of Herpesviruses
        • Oncogenic Features of Herpesviruses
        • Epstein-Barr Virus: An Oncogenic Human Herpesvirus
        • Human Herpesvirus 8 and Malignancies
        • Viral Proteins
        • Clinical Aspects
        • Oncogenic Potential of Other Human Herpesviruses
        • References
      • Chapter 24. Papillomaviruses and Cervical Neoplasia
        Christopher P. Crum, MD and Catherine M. McLachlin, MD.
        • Definitions, Tissue Specificity, and Mechanisms of Infection and Transformation
        • HPV and Human Genital Neoplasia
        • References
      • Chapter 25. Hepatitis Viruses
        Max W. Sung, MD and Swan N. Thung, MD.
        • Hepatitis B Virus
        • Hepatitis C Virus
        • Hepatitis D Virus
        • Hepatitis A Virus
        • Hepatitis E Virus
        • Hepatitis F, G, and TT Viruses
        • References
      • Chapter 26. Parasites
        Piero Mustacchi, MD, ScD(hon)
        • Schistosomiasis and Cancer of the Bladder
        • Schistosomiasis and Cancer of Other Sites
        • East Asian Distomiasis
        • Malaria
        • American Burkitt Lymphoma
        • Cancer in Animals
        • References
    • Section 4: Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention, and Screening
      • Chapter 27. Cancer Epidemiology
        Michael J. Thun, MD and Ahmedin Jemal, PhD.
        • Measures of Disease Occurrence
        • Cancer Surveillance
        • Survival of Patients with Cancer
        • Studies of Cancer Etiology
        • Descriptive Studies
        • Analytic Epidemiology
        • Measures of Association
        • Case-Control Studies
        • What Constitutes “Proof” in Epidemiologic Studies?
        • IARC Classification of Carcinogens
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 28. Prevention of Tobacco-Related Cancer
        Paul F. Engstrom, MD, Margie L. Clapper, PhD, and Robert A. Schnoll, PhD.
        • Physiochemical Composition of Tobacco Smoke
        • Carcinogenic and Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco Constituents
        • Genetic Variation in Cancer Susceptibility
        • Approaches for Smoking Cessation
        • Prevention of Tobacco Use
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 29. Nutrition in the Etiology and Prevention of Cancer
        Steven K. Clinton, MD, Edward L. Giovannucci, MD, and Elizabeth C. Miller, MS.
        • Methodologic Issues in Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Studies
        • Public Health Guidelines for Cancer Prevention
        • Summary of Research Efforts Focusing on Specific Cancers
        • Current Research
        • Survivorship: Diet and Nutritional Guidance During and Following Cancer Treatment
        • References
      • Chapter 30. Chemoprevention of Cancer
        Michael B. Sporn, MD and Scott M. Lippman, MD.
        • Agents for Chemoprevention and Their Mechanism of Action
        • Chemoprevention Trials
        • Chemoprevention and Overall Cancer Incidence
        • References
      • Chapter 31. Cancer Screening and Early Detection
        Robert A. Smith, PhD, Curtis J. Mettlin, PhD, and Harmon Eyre, MD.
        • Key Criteria in the Decision to Screen
        • Methodologic Issues in the Evaluation of Early Detection Programs
        • Breast Cancer
        • Colorectal Cancer
        • Lung Cancer
        • Prostate Cancer
        • Testicular Cancer
        • Cervical Cancer
        • Endometrial Cancer
        • Ovarian Cancer
        • Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
        • Oral Cancer
        • The Cancer-Related Checkup
        • Conclusion
        • References
    • Section 5: Clinical Trials and Outcomes Assessment
      • Chapter 32. Theory and Practice of Clinical Trials
        Marvin Zelen, PhD.
        • Types of Clinical Trials
        • Planning Clinical Trials
        • Data Collection and Forms Design
        • Experimental Design
        • Role of Compliance
        • Interim Analyses, Multiple Looks at Data, and Early Stopping
        • Strategy of Experimentation
        • Reporting of Clinical Trials
        • Statistical Models
        • Meta-analysis
        • Falsification of Data
        • References
        • Additional Reading
      • Chapter 33. Statistical Innovations in Cancer Research
        Donald Berry, PhD.
        • Bayesian Updating
        • Analysis Issues
        • Decision Analysis and Choosing Sample Size
        • Adaptive Designs of Clinical Trials
        • Auxiliary Variables, Biomarkers, and Biological Agents
        • Acknowledgements
        • References
      • Chapter 34. Outcomes Assessment
        Jane C. Weeks, MD.
        • Historical Perspective
        • Outcome Measures
        • Study Designs
        • Outcomes Studies in Oncology
        • Outcomes Management
        • Summary
        • References
  • Part III Cancer Diagnosis
    • Section 6: Cancer Pathology
      • Chapter 35. Principles of Cancer Pathology
        James L. Connolly, MD, Stuart J. Schnitt, MD, Helen H. Wang, MD, Janina A. Longtine, MD, Ann Dvorak, MD, and Harold F. Dvorak, MD.
        • Tumor Structure and Tumor Stroma Generation
        • Role of the Surgical Pathologist in the Diagnosis and Management of the Cancer Patient
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • References
    • Section 7: Imaging
      • Chapter 36. Principles of Imaging
        Edward F. Patz Jr, MD.
      • Chapter 36a. Imaging Cancer of Unknown Primary Site
        Kitt Shaffer, MD.
      • Chapter 36b. Imaging Neoplasms of the Central Nervous System, Head, and Neck
        Christopher J. Hurt, David M. Yousem, MD, and Norman J. Beauchamp Jr, MD.
        • Central Nervous System
        • Head and Neck
        • Lymphadenopathy
        • Extramucosal Masses
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 36c. Imaging Neoplasms of the Thorax
        Jeremy J. Erasmus, MD and H. Page McAdams, MD.
        • Lung Cancer
        • Mediastinal Masses
        • Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 36d. Imaging Neoplasms of the Abdomen and Pelvis
        Haesun Choi, MD, Evelyne Loyer, MD, Harmeet Kaur, MD, and Paul M. Silverman, MD.
        • Gastrointestinal Tract
        • The Liver
        • Biliary Duct
        • Carcinoma of the Pancreas
        • Imaging of Renal and Adrenal Tumors
        • Tumors of the Female Reproductive Tract
        • Prostate
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 36e. Imaging of Musculoskeletal Neoplasms
        R. Lee Cothran, MD and Clyde A. Helms, MD.
      • Chapter 36f. Imaging the Breast
        Lawrence W. Bassett, MD, Karen Conner, and MS IV.
        • Types of Mammography
        • Standardized Mammography Reporting
        • The Normal Mammogram
        • The Abnormal Mammogram
        • Mammography for Preoperative Planning
        • Mammography of the Postsurgical Breast
        • Ultrasonography
        • Imaging-Guided Needle Biopsy of the Breast
        • Other Breast Imaging Modalities
        • References
      • Chapter 36g. Ultrasonography: Its Role in Oncologic Imaging
        Stephanie R. Wilson, MD.
        • Recent Advances
        • Tumor Detection and Characterization
        • Small Parts Scanning
        • The Abdominal Organs
        • Gynecologic Organs
        • Prostatic and Transrectal Sonography
        • Central Nervous System Ultrasonography
        • Intraoperative Ultrasonography
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 36h. Radionuclide Imaging in Cancer Medicine
        R. Edward Coleman, MD.
        • Single-Photon Techniques
        • Positron Emission Tomography
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 36i. Perspectives in Imaging: Present and Future Prospects of Clinical Molecular Imaging
        David Piwnica-Worms, MD.
        • Clinical Molecular Imaging Today: PET and SPECT
        • On the Horizon: Imaging Gene Expression in vivo with Reporter Genes
        • On the Horizon: Clinical Molecular Imaging with Optical and MRI
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 37. Interventional Radiology for the Cancer Patient
        Marshall Hicks, MD, Michael Wallace, MD, and Sanjay Gupta, MD.
        • Intra-arterial Therapy
        • Biopsy
        • Intratumoral Gene Therapy
        • Mechanical Devices
        • References
  • Part IV Therapeutic Modalities
    • Section 8: Surgical Oncology
      • Chapter 38. Principles of Surgical Oncology
        Raphael E. Pollock, MD and Donald L. Morton, MD.
        • Historical Considerations
        • The Contemporary Role of Surgical Oncology
        • Combined Modality Therapy
        • Surgical Components of Cancer Management
        • Special Situations
        • References
    • Section 9: Radiation Oncology
      • Chapter 39. Principles of Radiation Oncology
        Arno J. Mundt, MD, John C. Roeske, PhD, Theodore D. Chung, MD, and Ralph R. Weichselbaum, MD.
        • Physical Basis of Radiation Therapy
        • Treatment Planning and Delivery
        • Biologic Basis of Radiation Therapy
        • Future Directions
        • References
      • Chapter 40. Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer
        Tayyaba Hasan, PhD, Bernhard Ortel, MD, Anne C.E. Moor, PhD, and Brian W. Pogue, PhD.
        • History
        • Overview
        • Basics of Light and PDT-Related Photochemistry
        • Photosensitizers
        • Photosensitizer Transport and Distribution
        • Biologic Mechanisms of PDT
        • Photodynamic Therapy Dosimetry
        • Photodynamic Therapy with Targeted Molecular Delivery Systems
        • Perspectives
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 41. Hyperthermia
        Mark W. Dewhirst, DVM, Ellen Jones, MD, Thaddeus Samulski, PhD, Zeljko Vujaskovic, MD, Chuan Li, PhD, and Leonard Prosnitz, MD.
        • The Biology of Hyperthermia
        • Hyperthermia and Physiology
        • Physiologic Approaches to Enhance Thermal Cytotoxicity
        • Hyperthermia and Chemotherapy
        • Hyperthermia Physics
        • Clinical Hyperthermia
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
    • Section 10: Medical Oncology
      • Chapter 42. Principles of Medical Oncology
        James F. Holland, MD, Emil Frei III, MD, Donald W. Kufe, MD, and Robert C. Bast Jr, MD.
        • Medical Oncologist's Role
        • Clinical Responsibilities
        • Cancer Prevention
        • Clinical Research
        • Fundamental Science, Clinical Science, and Medical Art
        • Chemotherapy Trials
        • Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
        • Surrogate End Points
        • Palliative Therapy
        • Laws of Therapeutics
        • Truth Telling
        • Resuscitation
        • Burnout
        • Nomenclature: Systeme Internationale (SI) Units
        • Summary
        • References
    • Section 11: Chemotherapy
      • Chapter 43. Cytokinetics
        Chau Dang, MD, Teresa A. Gilewski, MD, Antonella Surbone, MD, and Larry Norton, MD.
        • Cell Proliferation
        • Growth Curve Analysis
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 44. Principles of Dose, Schedule, and Combination Therapy
        Emil Frei III, MD and Joseph Paul Eder, MD.
        • Dose
        • Schedule of Drug Administration
        • Combination Chemotherapy
        • References
      • Chapter 45. Preclinical and Early Clinical Development of New Anticancer Agents
        Daniel D. Von Hoff, MD and Axel-R. Hanauske, MD.
        • Evolution of the Discovery Process
        • Preparation of Agents for Clinical Trials
        • Early Clinical Trials
        • References
      • Chapter 46. Pharmacology
        Mark J. Ratain, MD and William K. Plunkett Jr, PhD.
        • General Mechanisms of Drug Action
        • Principles of Pharmacokinetics
        • Principles of Pharmacodynamics
        • References
      • Chapter 47. Regional Chemotherapy
        Maurie Markman, MD.
        • Pharmacokinetic Rationale for Regional Chemotherapy
        • Mathematical Model Describing Regional Anticancer Drug Delivery
        • Theoretical Concerns with Regional Antineoplastic Drug Therapy
        • Practical Issues Associated with Regional Anticancer Drug Delivery
        • Clinical Examples of Regional Antineoplastic Drug Delivery
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 48. Drug Resistance and Its Clinical Circumvention
        Jeffrey Moscow, MD, Charles S. Morrow, MD, and Kenneth H. Cowan, MD.
        • General Mechanisms of Drug Resistance
        • Resistance to Multiple Drugs
        • Resistance Factors Unique to Tumor Cells In Vivo: Host-Tumor-Drug Interactions
        • Potential Clinical Application of Strategies to Avert or Overcome Drug Resistance
        • Conclusion and Future Directions
        • References
    • Section 12: Chemotherapeutic Agents
      • Chapter 49. Folate Antagonists
        Barton A. Kamen, MD, Peter D. Cole, MD, and Joseph R. Bertino, MD.
        • Historical Overview
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Pharmacokinetics of MTX
        • Inadvertent Drug Interactions with MTX
        • Clinical Application
        • Adverse Effects
        • Resistance to Antifolates
        • Strategies to Overcome Resistance to MTX Using New (or Older) AntiFols
        • References
      • Chapter 50. Pyrimidine and Purine Antimetabolites
        Giuseppe Pizzorno, PhD, Robert B. Diasio, MD, and Yung-Chi Cheng, MD.
        • Pyrimidine Analogs
        • Purine Analogs
        • References
      • Chapter 51. Alkylating Agents and Platinum Antitumor Compounds
        Michael Colvin, MD.
        • Alkylating Agents
        • References
      • Chapter 52. Anthracyclines and DNA Intercalators/Epipodophyllotoxins/ Camptothecins/DNA Topoisomerases
        Eric H. Rubin, MD and William N. Hait, MD.
        • Topoisomerase Biology
        • How Drugs “Poison” Topoisomerases
        • Cellular Response to Topoisomerase-Mediated DNA Damage
        • Mechanisms of Resistance to Topoisomerase Targeting
        • Intercalating Drugs that Target Topoisomerases
        • Nonintercalating Topoisomerase-Targeting Drugs
        • References
      • Chapter 53. Microtubule-Targeting Natural Products
        Eric Rowinsky, MD.
        • Microtubules as Strategic Targets Against Cancer
        • The Vinca Alkaloids
        • The Taxanes
        • Novel Compounds Targeting Microtubules and Related Organelles
        • References
      • Chapter 54. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Kinases in the Treatment of Human Cancer
        Michael C. Heinrich, MD, Charles D. Blanke, MD, Christopher L. Corless, MD, and Brian J. Druker, MD.
        • Strategies to Inhibit Tyrosine Kinases
        • Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: Targeting Considerations
        • KIT as a Therapeutic Target
        • PDGF Receptors as Therapeutic Targets
        • ARG (Abelson-Related Gene) as a Therapeutic Target
        • Toxicity of TKIs
        • Considerations in Clinical Trial Design for Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
        • References
    • Section 13: Biotherapeutics
      • Chapter 55. Asparaginase
        Joanne Kurtzberg, MD, David Yousem, MD, and Norman Beauchamp Jr, MD.
        • Mechanism of Action, Chemistry, and In Vitro Activity
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 56. Interferons
        Ernest C. Borden, MD.
        • Molecules: Their Induction, Receptors, and Gene Regulation
        • Mechanisms of Antitumor Action
        • Angiogenesis Inhibition
        • Antitumor Effects in Humans
        • Perspective
        • References
      • Chapter 57. Cytokines: Biology and Applications in Cancer Medicine
        Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, PhD and Elizabeth A. Grimm, PhD.
        • Interleukin-2
        • Interleukin-12
        • Tumor Necrosis Factor-α
        • Interleukin-1
        • Interleukin-6
        • Interleukin-4
        • Colony-Stimulating Factors
        • Cytokines Considered for Clinical Application or in Early Trials
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 58. Hematopoietic Growth Factors
        Razelle Kurzrock, MD.
        • Hematopoiesis and the role of growth factors
        • Erythropoietin
        • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
        • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
        • Macrophage colony-stimulating factor
        • Stem cell factor
        • Thrombopoietin
        • Interleukin-1
        • Interleukin-2
        • Interleukin-3
        • Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13
        • Interleukin-5
        • Interleukin 6
        • Interleukin-7
        • Interleukin-8
        • Interleukin-9
        • Interleukin-11
        • Interleukin-15
        • Interleukin-16
        • Interleukin-17
        • Interleukin-18
        • Other Hematopoietic Growth Factors
        • Use of hematopoietic growth factors after chemotherapy
        • Hematopoietic growth factors in the transplantation setting
        • Thrombopoietic agents in the clinic: an overview
        • Hematopoietic growth factors in bone marrow failure states
        • Future perspectives
        • References
      • Chapter 59. Monoclonal Serotherapy
        Robert C. Bast Jr, MD, Christina A. Kousparou, PhD, Agamemnon A. Epenetos, PhD, Michael R. Zalutsky, PhD, Robert J. Kreitman, MD, Edward A. Sausville, MD, and Arthur E. Frankel, MD.
        • Therapy with Unmodified Monoclonal Antibodies
        • Barriers to Successful Serotherapy
        • Elimination of Malignant Cells from Bone Marrow Ex Vivo
        • Therapy with Drug-Monoclonal Antibody Conjugates
        • Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer
        • Targeted Toxins
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 60. Vaccines and Immunostimulants
        Jeffrey Schlom, PhD and Scott I. Abrams, PhD.
        • Targets for Vaccine Therapy
        • Issues in Cancer Vaccine Development
        • Problem Areas in Immunotherapy
        • Types of Vaccines
        • Diversified Prime and Boost Immunization Strategies
        • Immunostimulants/Cytokines
        • T-Cell Costimulation
        • Adoptive Transfer
        • Vaccine Clinical Trials
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
    • Section 14: Endocrine Therapy
      • Chapter 61. Hypothalamic and Other Peptide Hormones
        Andrew V. Schally, PhD and Ana Maria Comaru-Schally, MD.
        • Analogs of Peptide Hormones
        • Agonists of LHRH
        • LHRH Antagonists
        • Mode of Action of LHRH Analogs
        • Somatostatin Analogs
        • Antagonists of Bombesin and Gastrin-Releasing Peptide
        • Antagonists of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
        • Treatment of Various Tumors with Peptide Analogs
        • Tumors Producing Hypothalamic Hormones
        • References
      • Chapter 62. Corticosteroids
        Lorraine I. McKay, PhD and John A. Cidlowski, PhD.
        • Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
        • Control of Corticosteroid Secretion
        • Pharmacokinetics of Corticosteroids
        • Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors
        • Pharmaceutical Derivatives
        • Physiologic and Pharmacologic Effects of Corticosteroids
        • Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Neoplasms
        • References
      • Chapter 63. Estrogens and Antiestrogens
        Craig V Jordan, OBE.
        • Tamoxifen
        • New Agents
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 64. Aromatase Inhibitors
        Aman U. Buzdar, MD and Harold A. Harvey, MD.
        • Biology of Aromatase
        • Historical Development of Aromatase Inhibitors
        • Development of Improved Aromatase Inhibitors
        • Classification
        • Selection of Patients for Aromatase Inhibition Therapy
        • Future Perspectives in the Clinical Development of Aromatase Inhibitors
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 65. Progestins
        Kenneth S. McCarty Jr, MD, Mark Nichols, PhD, and Kenneth S. McCarty Sr, PhD.
        • Physiology
        • Pharmacology
        • Clinical Observations on Progestin Receptor and Target Tissue Responses to Progestins
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 66. Androgen Deprivation Strategies in the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer
        Samuel R. Denmeade, MD and John T. Isaacs, PhD.
        • Cellular Organization of the Normal Prostate
        • Definition of Androgen Responsiveness on a Cellular Basis
        • Mechanism of Androgen Action
        • Overview of Regulation of Systemic Androgen Levels
        • Pharmacologic Approaches to Lower Circulating Androgen
        • Androgen Deprivation Strategies for the Treatment of Recurrent and Metastatic Prostate Cancer
        • Alternative Strategies for Androgen Deprivation
        • Conclusion
        • References
    • Section 15: Gene Therapy
      • Chapter 67. Cancer Gene Therapy
        Sunil J. Advani, MD, Ralph R. Weichselbaum, MD, and Donald W. Kufe, MD.
        • Gene Delivery Systems
        • Therapeutic Genes
        • Selective Gene Expression
        • Viral Oncolysis
        • References
    • Section 16: Bone Marrow Transplantation
      • Chapter 68. Autologous Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation
        William P. Peters, MD, Roger Dansey, MD, and Roy D. Baynes, MD.
        • Rationale and Requirements for Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
        • Principles
        • Dose Intensity
        • Combination Chemotherapy
        • Volume of Disease
        • Procedure
        • Specific Diseases
        • Autoimmune Diseases
        • Toxicities
        • Immune Function Posttransplant
        • Organ Toxicity
        • Future Directions
        • References
      • Chapter 69. Hematopoietic Cellular Transplantation
        Richard Champlin, MD.
        • Hematopoietic Transplantation as Treatment for Malignancies
        • Donor Selection
        • Engraftment of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplants
        • Cell Sources for Hematopoietic Transplantation
        • Autologous Transplantation, Tumor Cell Contamination, and Purging
        • Selection of Autologous or Allogeneic Transplantation
        • Complications of Hematopoietic Transplantation
        • Indications for Hematopoietic Transplantation
        • Future Directions
        • References
  • Part V Multidisciplinary Management
    • Section 17: Psycho-Oncology
      • Chapter 70. Psycho-Oncology
        Jimmie C. Holland, MD and Jane Gooen-Piels, PhD.
        • Historical Perspective
        • Hearing the Diagnosis
        • Factors in Adaptation to Cancer
        • Psychosocial Problems
        • Guidelines for Recognition of Psychosocial Distress
        • Psychiatric Disorders
        • Summary
        • References
    • Section 18: Oncology Nursing
      • Chapter 71. Principles of Oncology Nursing
        Paula Trahan Rieger, RN and Connie Henke Yarbro, RN.
        • Oncology Nursing as a Specialty
        • Role of the Oncology Nurse
        • Survivorship
        • Advanced Practice in Oncology Nursing
        • Nursing Shortage
        • Summary
        • References
    • Section 19: Cancer Rehabilitation Medicine
      • Chapter 72. Principles of Cancer Rehabilitation Medicine
        Kristjan T. Ragnarsson, MD and David C. Thomas, MD.
        • Application of Rehabilitation Concepts
        • The Cancer Rehabilitation and Adaptation Team
        • Functional Assessment
        • The Rehabilitation Process
        • Cancer of the Brain
        • Cancer of the Spine
        • Cancer of the Head and Neck
        • Cancer of the Lung
        • Cancer of the Breast
        • Cancer of the Gastrointestinal Tract
        • Cancer of the Genitourinary System
        • Cancer of the Limbs
        • Conclusion
        • References
    • Section 20: Multidisciplinary Management
      • Chapter 73. Principles of Multidisciplinary Management
        James F. Holland, MD, Emil Frei III, MD, Donald W. Kufe, MD, Robert C. Bast Jr, MD, Raphael E. Pollock, MD, and Ralph R. Weichselbaum, MD.
        • The Primary Physician
        • The Radiologist
        • The Pathologist
        • The Surgical Oncologist
        • The Anesthesiologist
        • The Medical Oncologist
        • The Radiation Oncologist
        • The Gynecologic Oncologist
        • The Neurosurgeon
        • The Pediatric Oncologist
        • The Psycho-oncologist
        • The Rehabilitation Specialist
        • The Oncology Nurse
        • The Oncology Pharmacist
        • Nonmedical Professionals
        • Family Members
      • Chapter 74. Cancer and Pregnancy
        Richard L. Theriault, DO, Karin M.E.H. Gwyn, MD, and Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, MD.
        • Cancer and Pregnancy Epidemiology
        • Diagnosis and Staging
        • Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy
        • Specific Cancers
        • Outcome of Children Exposed to Cancer Therapy In Utero
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 75. Cancer and Aging
        Arti Hurria, MD, Hyman B. Muss, MD, and Harvey J. Cohen, MD.
        • Life Expectancy and Aging
        • The Biology of Cancer and Aging
        • Physiologic Changes with Aging
        • The Frail Older Patient
        • Evaluation of the Older Patient: Geriatric Assessment
        • Functional Status
        • CoMorbid Medical Conditions
        • Nutrition
        • Cognition
        • Psychological State and Social Support
        • Medication Review: Evaluation for Polypharmacy
        • Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
        • Knowledge about Older Cancer Patients: UnderRepresentation on Clinical Trials
        • Understanding Barriers to Clinical Trial Enrollment
        • Treatment Tolerance of the Older Patient
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 76. Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies
        Barrie R. Cassileth, PhD and Andrew Vickers, DPhil.
        • The Evolution of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
        • Terminology and Definitions
        • Impact on the Healthcare System
        • CAM Use and Users
        • Mainstream Acceptance of CAM
        • CAM Therapies and Practitioners
        • CAM Practitioners and Practices
        • CAM Research Issues
        • References
        • Recommended Books
    • Section 21: Pain and Palliation
      • Chapter 77. Palliative Care
        Natalie Moryl, MD, Alan C. Carver, MD, and Kathleen M. Foley, MD.
        • The Role of the Oncologist
        • Suffering in the Patient, Family, and Physician
        • Guidelines in the Care of the Dying Patient
        • A Legal Mandate for Palliative Care
        • Conclusion: The Need for Education and Training in End-of-Life Care
        • References
      • Chapter 78. Management of Cancer Pain
        Alan C. Carver, MD and Kathleen M. Foley, MD.
        • Scope of the Problem
        • Barriers to Cancer Pain Management
        • Mechanisms of Cancer Pain
        • Types of Pain
        • Strategy for Assessment and Treatment
        • Therapeutic Approaches to Cancer Pain
        • Psychological and Behavioral Approaches
        • Anesthetic Approaches
        • Neurosurgical Approaches
        • Sedation in the Imminently Dying
        • Defining the Cancer Pain Research Agenda
        • References
    • Section 22: Societal Oncology
      • Chapter 79. Ethics in Oncology
        Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD and Steven Joffe, MD.
        • Informed Consent
        • Human Subjects Research
        • Terminating Medical Care
        • Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia
        • Financial Incentives
        • Confidentiality
        • Ethical Issues in Cancer Genetics
        • References
      • Chapter 80. Cancer and the Law
        Joseph M. Taraska, JD.
        • Elements of Liability
        • Preventing Legal Complications
        • Consent
        • For Whose Acts Must the Physician Respond?
        • The Physician as an Expert Witness
        • Managed Care
        • Withdrawing Life Support/ Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia
        • References
      • Chapter 81. The Government and Cancer Medicine
        Anna D. Barker, PhD and Hamilton Jordan.
        • Cancer: A Major National Healthcare Priority
        • Legislative History of the National Cancer Program
        • Federal Support for the National Cancer Program
        • Return on Investment from Federal Funds
        • Public Attitudes Concerning Cancer
        • The Cancer Advocacy Movement
        • Federal Policies and Cancer Research
        • The Future
        • References
      • Chapter 82. Clinical Oncology in a Changing Healthcare Environment
        Martin N. Raber, MD and Joseph P. Bailes, MD.
        • Effects of Managed Care on the Providers of Care (Physicians and Hospitals)
        • Effects of Managed Care on Insurers
        • Effects of Managed Care on Employers
        • Effects of Managed Care on Government Programs
        • Effects of Managed Care on Patients and Patient Care
        • Implications for Cancer Care
        • Demands of Patients Facing Terminal Illnesses
        • Current Strategies for the Delivery of Cancer Care
        • Future Directions in Healthcare Reform
        • References
  • Part VI Cancer Management
    • Section 23: Central Nervous System
      • Chapter 83. Primary Neoplasms of the Central Nervous System
        Edward Pan, MD and Michael D. Prados, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk Factors
        • Molecular Genetics
        • Familial Tumors Syndromes of the Central Nervous system
        • Histopathology of Neuro-epithelial Central Nervous system Tumors
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnostic Neuroimaging
        • Surgical Diagnosis and Resection
        • Cortical Mapping and Interactive Image-Guided Resections
        • Postoperative Imaging
        • Clinical Trials
        • Glioblastoma Multiforme and Anaplastic Astrocytoma
        • Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma
        • Low-Grade Gliomas
        • Ependymoma
        • Spinal Cord Tumors
        • Adult Medulloblastomas
        • Other Primary Tumors of the Central Nervous System
        • Future Directions
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 84. Brain Metastases
        Lisa M. DeAngelis, MD and Jerome B. Posner, MD.
        • Pathophysiology of the Metastatic Process
        • Treatment
        • References
    • Section 24: The Eye
      • Chapter 85. Neoplasms of the Eye
        David H. Abramson, MD, Amy C. Schefler, BA, Ira J. Dunkel, MD, Beryl McCormick, MD, and Kip W. Dolphin, MD.
        • Pediatric Ophthalmic Oncology: Ocular Diseases
        • Pediatric Ophthalmic Oncology: Orbital Diseases
        • Adult Ophthalmic Oncology: Ocular Diseases
        • Adult Ophthalmic Oncology: Orbital Diseases
        • Adult Ophthalmic Oncology: Lid Disease
        • Ophthalmic Complications of Radiation and Chemotherapy
        • References
    • Section 25: Endocrine Glands
      • Chapter 86. Neoplasms of the Endocrine Glands: Pituitary Neoplasms
        Chirag D. Gandhi, MD and Kalmon D. Post, MD.
        • PrL-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas
        • GH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas
        • ACTH-Secreting Adenomas
        • Gonadotropin-Secreting and Nonsecreting Pituitary Adenomas
        • TSH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas
        • References
      • Chapter 87. Neoplasms of the Thyroid
        Steven I. Sherman, MD and Ann M. Gillenwater, MD.
        • Diagnostic Evaluation of the Solitary Thyroid Nodule
        • Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma
        • Medullary Thyroid Cancer
        • Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
        • References
      • Chapter 88. Neoplasms of the Adrenal Cortex
        David E. Schteingart, MD.
        • Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Imaging Characterization
        • Staging
        • Pathologic Diagnosis
        • Carcinoma Management
        • Long-term Treatment Outcome
        • Adrenal Function Inhibitors in Treatment
        • Future Prospects
        • References
      • Chapter 89. Neoplasms of the Diffuse Endocrine System
        Larry K. Kvols, MD.
        • Endocrine Neoplasms of the Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) System
        • Parathyroid carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes
        • Men 2A, 2B, and Non-Men Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
        • References
    • Section 26: Head and Neck
      • Chapter 90. Neoplasms of the Head and Neck
        Eduardo M. Diaz Jr, MD, Erich M. Sturgis, MD, George E. Laramore, PhD, Anita L. Sabichi, MD, Scott M. Lippman, and Gary Clayman, DDS.
        • Epidemiology
        • Anatomy
        • Pathologic Assessment
        • Diagnosis and Staging
        • Treatment
        • References
      • Chapter 91. Odontogenic Tumors
        Lewis Clayman, DMD.
        • Ectodermal Tumors
        • Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Mesoderm
        • Tumors Arising from the Periodontal Membrane
        • Mixed Ectodermal-Mesodermal Odontogenic Tumors
        • Ameloblastic Odontoma (Odontoameloblastoma)
        • Malignant Odontogenic Tumors
        • References
    • Section 27: The Thorax
      • Chapter 92. Cancer of the Lung
        Ara A. Vaporciyan, MD, Merrill S. Kies, MD, Craig W. Stevens, MD, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, and Jack A. Roth, MD.
        • Historical note
        • Factors associated with the development of lung cancer
        • Molecular pathogenesis
        • Natural history
        • Performance status
        • Therapy for NSCLC
        • Therapy for SCLC
        • Conclusion and Future Prospects
        • References
      • Chapter 93. Malignant Mesothelioma
        A. Philippe Chahinian, MD and Harvey I. Pass, MD.
        • Historical Perspective
        • Incidence and Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Other Etiologic Factors
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Features
        • Prognostic Factors
        • Other Types of Malignant Mesotheliomas
        • Benign Mesotheliomas
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prospectus and Prevention
        • References
      • Chapter 94. Thymomas and Thymic Tumors
        A. Philippe Chahinian, MD.
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Anatomic Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Features
        • Associated Paraneoplastic Syndromes
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Staging
        • Therapy
        • References
      • Chapter 95. Tumors of the Heart and Great Vessels
        A. Philippe Chahinian, MD, David E. Gutstein, MD, and Valentin Fuster, MD.
        • Cardiac Tumors
        • Tumors of the Great Vessels
        • References
      • Chapter 96. Primary Germ Cell Tumors of the Thorax
        John D. Hainsworth, MD and F. Anthony Greco, MD.
        • Benign Teratomas of the Mediastinum
        • Malignant Germ Cell Tumors
        • Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma of the Mediastinum
        • References
      • Chapter 97. Metastatic Tumors in the Thorax
        Donald L. Morton, MD and Katharine Yao, MD.
        • Molecular and Genetic Basis for Pulmonary Metastases
        • Diagnosis and Imaging
        • Nonsurgical Treatment of Pulmonary Metastases
        • Surgical Treatment of Pulmonary Metastases
        • Pediatric Tumors
        • Summary
        • References
    • Section 28: Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Chapter 98. Neoplasms of the Esophagus
        Stephen G. Swisher, MD, Jaffer A. Ajani, MD, Ritsuko K. Komaki, MD, and Mark K. Ferguson, MD.
        • Anatomy and histology
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Presentation
        • Treatment overview
        • Diagnosis
        • Pretreatment Assessment
        • Staging evaluation
        • Therapy
        • Single-agent chemotherapy
        • Palliative therapy of esophageal obstruction
        • References
      • Chapter 99. Gastric Cancer
        Paul F. Mansfield, MD, James C. Yao, MD, and Christopher H. Crane, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Proximal Gastric Cancer
        • Histology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Pattern of Spread
        • Molecular Biology of Gastric Cancer
        • Pathologic and Clinical Staging
        • Therapy of Locoregional Disease
        • Chemoradiotherapy for Gastric Cancer
        • Adjuvant Therapy
        • Preoperative Chemotherapy
        • Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy
        • Palliative Therapy for Advanced Disease
        • Symptom Management
        • Obstruction/Dysphagia/ Early Satiety
        • Nutrition
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 100. Primary Neoplasms of the Liver
        Paul F. Engstrom, MD, Elin R. Sigurdson, MD, Alison A. Evans, ScD, and James F. Pingpank, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk Factors
        • Molecular Pathogenesis
        • Prevention
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Pathologic Diagnosis
        • Staging and Prognosis
        • Imaging Modalities
        • Management (Figure 100-3)
        • Other Primary Hepatic Neoplasms
        • References
      • Chapter 101. Treatment of Liver Metastases
        Nancy E. Kemeny, MD and Yuman Fong, MD.
        • Imaging Techniques
        • Liver resection
        • Adjuvant chemotherapy
        • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
        • Systemic chemotherapy
        • Hepatic arterial chemotherapy
        • Cryosurgery
        • Radiofrequency ablation
        • Embolization
        • Chemoembolization
        • Radiation therapy
        • Percutaneous Ethanol Injection
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 102. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancer
        Steven A. Curley, MD.
        • Gallbladder Cancer
        • Bile Duct Cancer
        • References
      • Chapter 103a. Neoplasms of the Exocrine Pancreas
        Robert A. Wolff, MD, James Abbruzzese, MD, and Douglas B. Evans, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Symptom patterns
        • Diagnostic imaging
        • Biliary drainage
        • Treatment of localized, potentially resectable disease
        • Treatment of locally advanced disease
        • Treatment of metastatic disease
        • References
      • Chapter 103b. Neoplasms of the Ampulla of Vater
        Tina W.F. Yen, MD, Robert A. Wolff, MD, and Douglas B. Evans, MD.
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Associated Syndromes
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 104. Neoplasms of the Small Intestine
        Elizabeth G. Grubbs, MD and Douglas S. Tyler, MD.
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnostic Imaging
        • Treatment
        • References
      • Chapter 105. Neoplasms of the Vermiform Appendix and Peritoneum
        Elizabeth G. Grubbs, MD and Douglas S. Tyler, MD.
        • Tumors of the Appendix
        • Neoplasms of the Peritoneum
        • References
      • Chapter 106. Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum
        Miguel A. Rodriguez-Bigas, MD, Edward H. Lin, MD, and Christopher H. Crane, MD.
        • Pathology
        • Staging
        • Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer
        • Epidemiologic Risk Factors
        • Genetic Pathways in Colorectal Cancer
        • Tumor Markers
        • Molecular Markers for Prognosis
        • Colorectal Cancer Screening and Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer
        • Surgical Anatomy
        • Colorectal Cancer Management
        • Surgical Management of Colorectal Cancer
        • Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer
        • Immunotherapy
        • Stage IV Colorectal Cancer
        • Future Directions
        • References
      • Chapter 107. Neoplasms of the Anus
        Brenda Shank, MD, Warren E. Enker, MD, and Marshall S. Flam, MD.
        • Gross and Microscopic Anatomy
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Pathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging
        • Treatment
        • Melanoma
        • References
    • Section 29: Genitourinary Tract
      • Chapter 108. Renal Cell Carcinoma
        Jerome P. Richie, MD and Philip W. Kantoff, MD.
        • Pathogenesis
        • Incidence
        • Etiology
        • Molecular Biology
        • Clinical Features
        • Radiographic Evaluation
        • Staging and Grading
        • Surgical Treatments
        • Adjuvant Therapy
        • Treatment of Metastatic Disease
        • Surgical Considerations for Metastatic Disease
        • Sarcomas of Renal Origin
        • Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
        • Renal Oncocytoma
        • References
      • Chapter 109. Neoplasms of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter
        Jerome P. Richie, MD and Philip W. Kantoff, MD.
        • Etiologic Factors
        • Histopathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Secondary Tumors of the Ureter
        • References
      • Chapter 110. Bladder Cancer
        Timothy D. Gilligan, MD, Graeme S. Steele, MD, Anthony L. Zietman, MD, and Philip W. Kantoff, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Biology
        • Pathology
        • Signs and Symptoms
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Staging
        • Superficial Bladder Carcinoma
        • Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
        • Chemotherapy for Metastatic Disease
        • Adenocarcinoma of the Bladder
        • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
        • References
      • Chapter 111. Neoplasms of the Prostate
        William K. Oh, MD, Mark Hurwitz, MD, Anthony V. D'Amico, MD, Jerome P. Richie, MD, and Philip W. Kantoff, MD.
        • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
        • Biology of Prostate Cancer
        • Screening for Prostate Cancer
        • Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer
        • Prognostic Factors in Localized Prostate Cancer
        • Management of Localized Prostate Cancer
        • Radiation Therapy
        • Comparison of Treatment Options for Localized Prostate Cancer
        • Management of Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer
        • Management of Disseminated Cancer
        • Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer
        • New Approaches to Prostate Cancer Therapy
        • References
      • Chapter 112. Tumors of the Penis and Urethra
        Donald F. Lynch Jr, MD.
        • Cancer of the Penis
        • Carcinoma of the Urethra
        • References
      • Chapter 113. Testis Cancer
        Nasser Hanna, MD, Robert Timmerman, MD, Richard S. Foster, MD, Bruce J. Roth, MD, Lawrence H. Einhorn, MD, and Craig R. Nichols, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Staging
        • Therapy
        • Therapy for Disseminated Disease
        • Treatment of Good-Risk Disseminated Germ Cell Tumors
        • Treatment of Patients with “Poor-Risk” Disseminated Disease
        • High-Dose Chemotherapy as Initial Salvage Therapy
        • Treatment of Multiply Recurrent Germ Cell Cancer
        • Special Situations
        • Long-Term Toxicity of Chemotherapy
        • Long-Term Toxicity of Radiation Therapy
        • Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors
        • Unrecognized Germ Cell Tumor Syndrome
        • Acknowledgment
        • References
    • Section 30: Female Reproductive Organs
      • Chapter 114. Neoplasms of the Vulva and Vagina
        Jacob Rotmensch, MD and S. Diane Yamada, MD.
        • Cancer of the Vulva
        • Cancer of the Vagina
        • References
      • Chapter 115. Neoplasms of the Cervix
        Anuja Jhingran, MD, Patricia J. Eifel, MD, J. Taylor Wharton, MD, and Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Histologic classification of epithelial tumors
        • Natural history of carcinomas of the uterine cervix
        • Diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions
        • Diagnosis and treatment of invasive lesions
        • Radiation therapy
        • Current practice by disease stage
        • Future opportunities
        • References
      • Chapter 116. Endometrial Cancer
        Jamal Rahaman, MD and Carmel J. Cohen, MD.
        • Risk Factors
        • Pathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging
        • Prognostic Factors
        • Oncogene Activation and Loss of Tumor-Suppressor Function
        • Treatment of Primary Disease
        • Treatment of Recurrent Disease
        • Future
        • References
      • Chapter 117. Neoplasms of the Fallopian Tube
        Carmel J. Cohen, MD and Jamal Rahaman, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Preoperative Diagnosis
        • Clinicopathologic Classification and Staging
        • Patterns of Spread
        • Prognostic Factors
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Other Malignant Fallopian Tube Neoplasms
        • References
      • Chapter 118. Ovarian Cancer
        Jonathan S. Berek, MD and Robert C. Bast Jr, MD.
        • Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
        • Nonepithelial Ovarian Cancer
        • References
      • Chapter 119. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
        Ross S. Berkowitz, MD and Donald P. Goldstein, MD.
        • Historical Perspective
        • Epidemiology
        • Histopathologic Classification of GTD
        • Molecular Pathogenesis
        • Natural History
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging
        • Therapy
        • Results of Therapy
        • Subsequent Pregnancies
        • Second Cancers
        • References
      • Chapter 120. Gynecologic Sarcomas
        Jamal Rahaman, MD and Carmel J. Cohen, MD.
        • Clinical Profile
        • Diagnosis
        • Sarcoma-Like Variants
        • Patterns of Spread
        • Prognostic Factors and Prognosis
        • Nonuterine Gynecologic Sarcomas (Figure 120-1)
        • Surgical Treatment
        • Postsurgical Therapy for Gynecologic Sarcomas
        • Hormone Therapy
        • Radiation Therapy for Leiomyosarcoma
        • Radiation Therapy for Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors
        • Chemotherapy
        • Combination Therapy
        • References
    • Section 31: The Breast
      • Chapter 121. Neoplasms of the Breast
        Richard G. Margolese,, MD, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi,, MD, and Thomas A. Buchholz,, MD.
        • Pathology
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk Factors
        • Breast Cancer Biology
        • Natural History and Prognostic Markers
        • Diagnosis and Screening
        • Staging and Classification
        • Psychosocial Aspects of Breast Cancer
        • Surgical Biology
        • The Role of Radiation for invasive Breast Cancer
        • Systemic Therapy of Breast Cancer
        • Systemic Adjuvant Therapy
        • Endocrine Therapy
        • Management of Metastatic Breast Cancer
        • Special Issues Regarding Therapy
        • Prevention of Invasive Breast Cancer in Women with Intraductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
        • Prevention of Invasive Breast Cancer in Women at Increased Risk
        • Perspectives
        • References
        • Additional Readings
    • Section 32: The Skin
      • Chapter 122. Malignant Melanoma
        Donald L. Morton, MD, Richard Essner, MD, John M. Kirkwood, MD, and Robert C. Wollman, MD.
        • History of Melanoma
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Familial Melanoma
        • Precursor Lesions
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Prognostic Features of Clinically Localized Disease
        • Prognostic Features of Regional Lymph Node Metastases
        • Prognostic Features of Distant Metastases
        • Management of Primary Melanoma
        • Management of Regional Lymph Nodes
        • Management of Distant Metastases
        • Future Horizons
        • References
      • Chapter 123. Other Skin Cancers
        Victor A. Neel, MD and Arthur J. Sober, MD.
        • Ultraviolet Radiation in the Genesis of Skin Cancers
        • Tumors Arising from the Epidermis
        • Tumors Arising from Mucosa
        • Tumors Arising from Dermis
        • Tumors Arising from Appendages
        • Benign Cutaneous Tumors Associated with Cancer Syndromes
        • Metastatic Tumors to the Skin
        • References
    • Section 33: Bone And Soft Tissue
      • Chapter 124. Bone Tumors
        Dempsey Springfield, MD and Gerald Rosen, MD.
        • Staging
        • Biopsy
        • Surgery
        • Chemotherapy
        • Radiation therapy
        • Specific bone tumors
        • References
      • Chapter 125. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas
        Peter W.T. Pisters, MD and Brian O'Sullivan, MD.
        • Etiology
        • Screening
        • Clinical Presentation, Classification, and Diagnosis
        • Staging and Prognostic Factors
        • Treatment of Localized Primary Disease of the Extremities
        • Treatment of Locally Advanced Disease
        • Treatment of Metastatic Disease
        • Management of Local Recurrence
        • Signal Transduction Inhibition for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors and Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
        • Retroperitoneal Sarcomas
        • Additional Issues in Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Management
        • Summary
        • References
    • Section 34: Hematopoietic System
      • Chapter 126. The Myelodysplastic Syndrome
        Lewis R. Silverman, MD.
        • History
        • Classification
        • Etiology
        • Pathobiology
        • Clinical Management
        • Future Directions
        • References
      • Chapter 127. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adults
        Charles A. Schiffer, MD and Richard M. Stone, MD.
        • Pathogenesis and Etiology
        • Morphologic Classification and Clinical and Laboratory Correlates
        • Presenting Signs and Symptoms
        • Therapy
        • Other Supportive Care and Therapeutic Approaches
        • Complications
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 128. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
        Richard T. Silver, MD.
        • Incidence and Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Clinical and Hematologic Characteristics
        • Terminal Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
        • Pathophysiology
        • Cytogenetics
        • Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Test
        • Molecular Biology of CML
        • Treatment
        • Treatment of Blast Crisis Other than with Imatinib Mesylate
        • Bone Marrow Transplantation
        • Imatinib Mesylate
        • Management of CML in 2003
        • References
      • Chapter 129. Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
        Guillermo Garcia-Manero, MD, Hagop M. Kantarjian, MD, and Charles A. Schiffer, MD.
        • Classification
        • Genetic and Molecular Alterations
        • Cytogenetic-Molecular Differences in Childhood and Adult ALL
        • Evaluation of Minimal Residual Disease
        • Pharmacogenomics and Mechanism of Drug Resistance
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Clinical Presentation and Laboratory Characteristics
        • Treatment
        • Central Nervous System Prophylaxis and Therapy
        • Prognosis Factors in Adult ALL
        • Salvage Therapy for refractory or Relapsed ALL
        • Summary and Future Directions in Adult ALL
        • References
      • Chapter 130. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
        Kanti R. Rai, MD and Michael J. Keating, MD.
        • Historical Perspective
        • Pathogenesis and Etiology
        • Immunobiology and Immunophenotype of CLL cells
        • Clinical Consequences of Defective B- and T-Cell Functions
        • Natural History and Terminal Events
        • Clinical Staging and Other Prognostic Features
        • Treatment
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 131. Hairy Cell Leukemia
        Harvey M. Golomb, MD and James W. Vardiman, MD.
        • Epidemiology and etiology
        • Diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia
        • Clinical manifestation
        • Differential diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Future prospects
        • References
      • Chapter 132. Mast Cell Leukemia and Other Mast Cell Neoplasms
        Richard M. Stone, MD and Steven H. Bernstein, MD.
        • Mast Cell Biology
        • Mast Cell Leukemia and Other Mast Cell Neoplasms
        • References
      • Chapter 133. Hodgkin's Disease
        Peter M. Mauch, MD, Lawrence Weiss, MD, and James O. Armitage, MD.
        • History
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Pathology
        • Treatment of Stage I-II Hodgkin's Disease
        • Treatment of Advanced Hodgkin's Disease
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 134. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas
        Arnold S. Freedman, MD and Lee M. Nadler, MD.
        • Epidemiology and etiology
        • Pathology, immunobiology, and natural history of NHL
        • Cytogenetics and molecular basis of NHL
        • Differential diagnosis and sites of disease at presentation
        • Staging and disease detection
        • Disease parameters influencing prognosis and assessment of response
        • Therapeutic approaches according to REAL/WHO classification
        • New therapeutic approaches
        • References
      • Chapter 135. Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary Syndrome
        Richard T. Hoppe, MD and Youn H. Kim, MD.
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Pathology/Pathogenesis
        • Natural History
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging and Prognosis
        • Therapy
        • References
      • Chapter 136. Plasma Cell Tumors
        Noopur Raje, MD, Teru Hideshima, MD, and Kenneth C. Anderson, MD.
        • Multiple Myeloma
        • Biology
        • Prognostic Factors
        • Treatment
        • Other Plasma Cell Dyscrasias
        • References
      • Chapter 137. The Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders: Essential Thrombocythemia, Myelofibrosis with Myeloid Metaplasia, and Polycythemia Vera
        David P. Steensma, MD and Ayalew Tefferi, MD.
        • Essential Thrombocythemia
        • Myelofibrosis with Myeloid Metaplasia
        • Polycythemia Vera
        • References
    • Section 35: Neoplasms in Aids
      • Chapter 138. Neoplasms in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
        David T. Scadden, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Kaposi Sarcoma
        • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
        • Hodgkin Disease
        • Squamous Cell Neoplasia
        • References
    • Section 36: Unknown Primary Site
      • Chapter 139. Neoplasms of Unknown Primary Site
        John D. Hainsworth, MD and F. Anthony Greco, MD.
        • Poorly Differentiated Neoplasms
        • Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Primary Site
        • Squamous Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site
        • Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving Inguinal Lymph Nodes
        • Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site
        • Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site
        • Summary and Future Directions
        • References
  • Part VII Pediatric Oncology
    • Section 37: Pediatric Oncology
      • Chapter 140a. Pediatric Oncology: Principles and Practice
        Gregory H. Reaman, MD.
      • Chapter 140b. Incidence, Origins, Epidemiology
        Leslie L. Robison, PhD.
        • Acute leukemia
        • Central nervous system tumors
        • Lymphomas
        • Neuroblastoma
        • Retinoblastoma
        • Wilms tumor
        • Bone tumors
        • Rhabdomyosarcoma
        • References
      • Chapter 140c. Late Effects of Treatment of Cancer in Children and Adolescents
        Daniel M. Green, MD.
        • Central Nervous System
        • Vision
        • Hearing
        • Teeth
        • Salivary Glands
        • The Heart
        • Lungs
        • Kidneys
        • The Bladder
        • the Liver
        • The Intestine
        • Musculoskeletal System
        • Endocrine System
        • Second Malignant Tumors
        • References
      • Chapter 141a. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
        Paul S. Gaynon, MD, Anne L. Angiolillo, MD, Janet L. Franklin, MD, and Gregory H. Reaman, MD.
        • Heterogeneity
        • Induction
        • Morphological Response and Outcome
        • Minimal Residual Disease
        • Post Induction Intensification
        • Parenteral Methotrexate and Rescue
        • Presymptomatic Central Nervous System Therapy
        • Bone Marrow Transplantation in First Remission
        • Relapse
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 141b. Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children
        Richard Aplenc, MD and Beverly Lange, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Classification and Diagnosis
        • Presentation
        • Therapy
        • Prognosis
        • Complications
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 141c. Primary Central Nervous System Tumors of the Infant and Child
        Tobey J. MacDonald, MD and Brian R. Rood, MD.
        • General Epidemiology
        • Tumor Biology
        • Treatment
        • Astrocytic Tumors
        • Embryonal Tumors
        • Ependymal Tumors
        • Germ Cell Tumors
        • References
      • Chapter 141d. Hodgkin's Disease
        James Nachman, MD.
        • Biology
        • Clinical Presentation and Staging
        • Treatment
        • Second Malignant Neoplasms
        • Cardiac Disease
        • Pulmonary Toxicity
        • Fertility Issues
        • Hypothyroidism
        • References
      • Chapter 141e. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children
        Mitchell S. Cairo, MD, Elizabeth Raetz, MD, and Sherrie Perkins, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology of Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
        • Clinical Presentation and Staging
        • General Principles of Treatment
        • Summary/Future Considerations
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 142a. Less-Frequently Encountered Tumors of Childhood
        Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, MD and Alberto S. Pappo, MD.
        • Retinoblastoma
        • Principles of Treatment
        • Germ Cell Tumors
        • Tumors of the Liver
        • Carcinomas and Melanoma
        • References
      • Chapter 142b. Renal Tumors of Childhood
        Paul E. Grundy, MD, Michael L. Ritchey, MD, Elizabeth J. Perlman, MD, and John A. Kalapurakal, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Molecular Biology and Genetics
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Preoperative Evaluation
        • Staging
        • Therapy
        • Prognostic Factors
        • Long-Term Follow-Up
        • Acknowledgment
        • References
      • Chapter 142c. Neuroblastoma
        John M. Maris, MD and Suzanne Shusterman, MD.
        • Epidemiology
        • Molecular Pathogenesis
        • Pathology
        • Diagnosis and Staging
        • Diagnosis and Evaluation
        • Staging
        • Prognostic Considerations
        • Principles of Initial Therapy
        • The Concept of Risk-Related Therapy
        • Conclusions and Future Considerations
        • References
      • Chapter 142d. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas
        William H. Meyer, MD.
        • Rhabdomyosarcoma
        • NRSTS
        • Future Research
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 142e. Bone Tumors
        Richard G. Gorlick, MD, Jeffrey A. Toretsky, MD, Neyssa Marina, MD, Suzanne L. Wolden, MD, R. Lor Randall, MD, Mark C. Gebhardt, MD, Lisa A. Teot, MD, and Mark Bernstein, MD.
        • Osteosarcoma
        • Ewing sarcoma
        • Chondrosarcoma
        • Radiation oncology
        • Surgery
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 143a. Unique Pathologic Features of Childhood Cancer
        Kadria Sayed, MD and David M. Parham, MD.
        • Distinct morphologic features
        • Resemblance to embryonal tissue
        • Frequent occurrence of undifferentiated tumors
        • Infrequent association of childhood neoplasms with precursor lesions
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 143b. Special Considerations for Young Adults and Older Adolescents
        W. Archie Bleyer, MD and Karen Albritton, MD.
        • Definition of Older Adolescent and Young Adult
        • Epidemiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Lack of Participation in Clinical Trials
        • Survival
        • Summary
        • References
  • Part VIII Complications
    • Section 38: Complications of Cancer and its Treatment
      • Chapter 144. Cancer Anorexia and Cachexia
        Takao Ohnuma, MD.
        • Incidence
        • Etiology
        • Manifestations of Cachexia
        • Treatment of Cachexia
        • Epilogue
        • References
      • Chapter 145. Antiemetic Therapy with Chemotherapy
        Richard Gralla, MD.
        • Physiology and pharmacology in controlling emesis
        • Emetic problems
        • Control of emesis and patient characteristics
        • Treatment of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis
        • Controlling emesis in special situations
        • Pharmacoeconomics, quality of life, and antiemetics
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 146. Neurologic Complications
        Lisa M. DeAngelis, MD and Jerome B. Posner, MD.
        • Metastases
        • Nonmetastatic Complications
        • References
      • Chapter 147. Dermatologic Complications of Cancer Chemotherapy
        Narin Apisarnthanarax, MD and Madeleine M. Duvic, MD.
        • Alopecia
        • Stomatitis
        • Nail Reactions
        • Extravasation Reactions
        • Hyperpigmentation
        • Radiation-associated Reactions
        • Photosensitivity Reactions
        • Inflammation of Keratoses
        • Hypersensitivity Reactions
        • Acral Erythema
        • Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis
        • Eccrine Squamous Syringometaplasia
        • Cutaneous Eruption of Lymphocyte Recovery
        • Miscellaneous Reactions
        • References
      • Chapter 148. Skeletal Complications
        Samuel Kenan, MD and Jeffrey I. Mechanick, MD.
        • Skeletal Metastases
        • Steroid-Induced Skeletal Complications
        • Methotrexate-Induced Osteopathy
        • Skeletal Complications Secondary to Radiation Therapy
        • References
      • Chapter 149. Hematologic Complications and Blood Bank Support
        Richard M. Kaufman, MD and Kenneth C. Anderson, MD.
        • Normal Hematopoiesis
        • Hematopoiesis
        • Causes of Pancytopenia
        • Abnormalities of Red Cells and Red Cell Support
        • Abnormalities of White Cells and White Cell Support
        • Abnormalities of Platelets and Platelet Support
        • Other Therapeutic Modalities
        • Effects of Transfusion on the Immune System
        • Transfusion-Associated Graft-Versus-Host Disease
        • Transfusion-Related Infectious Diseases
        • Future Directions in Blood Component Therapy
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 150. Coagulopathic Complications of Cancer Patients
        Maria T. DeSancho, MD and Jacob H. Rand, MD.
        • Physiology of Normal Hemostasis
        • Relationship of Coagulation System and Cancer
        • Bleeding Disorders
        • Anticancer Effects of Anticoagulation Treatment
        • Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia
        • Novel Drugs for Treatment of Bleeding and Thrombotic Disorders
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 151. Urologic Complications
        Christopher J. Logothetis, MD, Vasily Assikis, MD, and Jose E. Sarriera, MD.
        • Complications Resulting from Primary Cancer Progression
        • Algorithm for the Management of Urinary Obstruction
        • Radiation Nephritis
        • Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Nephrotoxicity of Cancer Therapeutic Agents
        • Monitoring for Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity
        • References
      • Chapter 152. Cardiac Complications
        Michael S. Ewer, MD, Robert S. Benjamin, MD, and Edward T.H. Yeh, MD.
        • Evaluation of the cardiovascular system in the cancer patient
        • Metastatic involvement of cardiac structures
        • Cardiac effects of mediator release from tumors
        • Cardiac dysrhythmia in the cancer patient
        • Cardiac complications of cancer treatment
        • References
      • Chapter 153. Respiratory Complications
        John C. Ruckdeschel, MD, John Greene, MD, K. Eric Sommers, MD, and Karen K. Fields, MD.
        • Respiratory infections in patients with cancer
        • Surgical complications causing dyspnea in cancer patients
        • References
      • Chapter 154. Liver Function and Hepatotoxicity in Cancer
        Laurie D. DeLeve, MD.
        • Alterations in Hepatic Metabolism of Drugs
        • Liver Toxicity and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
        • Hepatotoxicity by Anticancer Therapy
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 155. Gastrointestinal Complications
        Frank A. Sinicrope, MD.
        • Esophageal Carcinoma
        • Esophagitis
        • Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
        • Pseudomembranous Colitis
        • Typhlitis
        • Ileus and Bowel Obstruction
        • Acute Colonic Pseudoobstruction
        • Diarrhea Chemotherapy and Radiation-Related Diarrhea
        • Biliary Obstruction
        • Hepatic Complications of Bone Marrow Transplantation
        • Ascites
        • Acute Pancreatitis
        • Radiation Coloproctitis and Proctitis
        • Anorectal Complications
        • References
      • Chapter 156. Oral Complications
        Stephen T. Sonis, DMD and Joseph W. Costa Jr, DMD.
        • Pretreatment Assessment
        • Oral Complications of Radiotherapy
        • Oral Complications of Cancer Chemotherapy
        • Oral Complications Associated with Bone Marrow Transplantation
        • References
      • Chapter 157. Gonadal Complications
        Catherine E. Klein, MD.
        • The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
        • Historical Background
        • Preclinical Studies
        • Effects of Chemotherapy on Gonadal Function
        • Effects of Radiation Therapy on Gonadal Function
        • Protective Measures
        • Outcomes of Pregnancy
        • Psychosocial Issues
        • References
      • Chapter 158. Endocrine Complications and Paraneoplastic Syndromes
        Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD and Robert F. Gagel, MD.
        • Endocrine Complications
        • Endocrine Paraneoplastic Syndromes (“Ectopic” Hormone Production)
        • References
      • Chapter 159. Secondary Cancers: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management
        Susan R. Rheingold, MD, Alfred I. Neugut, MD, and Anna T. Meadows, MD.
        • Incidence of Secondary Cancer
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Shared Environmental Risk Factors
        • Genetic Risk Factors
        • Therapy-Related Secondary Cancers
        • Conclusion
        • References
    • Section 39: Infection in the Cancer Patient
      • Chapter 160. Infections in Patients with Cancer
        Kenneth V.I. Rolston, MD and Gerald P. Bodey, MD.
        • Factors Responsible for Increased Susceptibility to Infections
        • Bacterial Infections
        • Fungal Infections
        • Viral Infections
        • Protozoal Infections
        • Other Parasitic Infections
        • Abdominal Infection
        • Perianal Infections
        • Skin Infections
        • Therapy of Infections in Neutropenic Patients
        • Infection Prevention
        • Perspectives
        • References
    • Section 40: Oncologic Emergencies
      • Chapter 161. Oncologic Emergencies
        Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD and Carmen P. Escalante, MD.
        • Approach to Acutely Ill Cancer Patients
        • Circulatory Oncologic Emergencies
        • Respiratory Oncologic Emergencies
        • Neurologic Oncologic Emergencies
        • Other Oncologic Emergencies
        • References
  • Part IX Informatics
    • Section 41: Oncology and Informatics
      • Chapter 162. Oncology Informatics
        Edward P. Ambinder, MD.
        • Healthcare Policy and Information Technology
        • Medical and Oncologic Informatics
        • Overview of Computers
        • Internet
        • Information Management
        • Major Internet Resources of Interest to the Oncologist
        • Clinical and Research Uses of Computers in Medical Oncology
        • References

An approved publication of the American Cancer Society

Notice: The authors and publisher have made every effort to ensure that the patient care recommended herein, including choice of drugs and drug dosages, is in accord with the accepted standard and practice at the time of publication. However, since research and regulation constantly change clinical standards, the reader is urged to check the product information sheet included in the package of each drug, which includes recommended doses, warnings, and contraindications. This is particular important with new or infrequently used drugs. Any treatment regimen, particularly one involving medication, involves inherent risk that must be weighed on a case-by-case basis against the benefits anticipated. The reader is cautioned that the purpose of this book is to inform and enlighten; the information contained herein is not intended as, and should not be employed as, a substitute for individual diagnosis and treatment.

By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.

Copyright © 2003, BC Decker Inc.
Bookshelf ID: NBK12354


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