Table 44.1Convincing and Probable Relationships between Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Chronic Diseases

Dietary and lifestyle factorsCVDType 2 diabetesCancerDental diseaseFractureCataractBirth defectsObesityMetabolic syndromeDepressionSexual dysfunction
Avoid smoking
Pursue physical activity
Avoid overweight
Consume healthy types of fatsa
Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables
Replace refined grains with whole grains
Limit sugar intakeb
Limit excessive calories
Limit sodium intake

Source: Authors' summary of a review by the WHO and FAO 2003; Bacon and others 2003; Fox 1999; IARC 2002.

Note: Bold = convincing; Standard = probable relation; ↑ = increase in risk; ↓ = decrease in risk.

a. Replace trans and saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fats, including a regular source of N-3 fatty acids.

b. Includes limiting sugar-based beverages.

From: Chapter 44, Prevention of Chronic Disease by Means of Diet and Lifestyle Changes

Cover of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition.
Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors.
Copyright © 2006, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group.

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