Table 18.2Estimated HIV Transmission Risk per Exposure

Type of exposure Estimated risk HIV transmission per exposure
Receptive anal intercourse≤ 3.0 percent (1/125 to 1/31) (DeGruttola and others 1989)
Receptive vaginal intercourse≤ 0.1 percent (1/2,000 to 1/667) (Mastro and others 1994; Wiley, Herschkorn, and Padian 1989)
Insertive vaginal or anal intercourse≤ 0.1 percent (1/3,333 to 1/1,111) (Nagachinta and others 1997; Peterman and others 1988)
Needlestick injury= 0.3 percent (1/313) (Henderson and others 1990)
Use of contaminated injecting drug equipment= 0.6 percent (1/149) (Kaplan and Heimer 1992)
Mucous membrane= 0.1 percent (1/1,111) (Ippolito, Puro, and De Carli 1993)

Source: Authors.

From: Chapter 18, HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment

Cover of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition.
Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors.
Copyright © 2006, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group.

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