Table 43.1Selected Industrial Sectors and Their Contribution to Air and Water Pollution and to Workplace Hazards

Industrial sectorAirWaterWorkplacea
Base metal and iron ore miningPMToxic metal sludgeSilica
Cement manufacturingPMSludgeSilica
Coalmining and productionPM, coal dustSludgeCoal dust, silica
Copper smeltingArsenicArsenicArsenic, cadmium
Electricity generationPM, SO2Hot waterSO2
FoundriesPMSolventsSilica, solvents
Iron and steel smeltingPMSludgeCarbon monoxide, nickel
Lead and zinc smeltingPM, SO2, lead, cadmium, arsenicLead, cadmium, arsenicPM, SO2, lead, cadmium, arsenic
Meat processing and renderingOdorHigh biological oxygen demandInfections
Oil and gas developmentSO2, carcinogensOilHydrocarbons
Pesticide manufacturingPesticides and toxic intermediatesPesticides and toxic intermediatesPesticides and toxic intermediates
Petrochemicals manufacturingSO2OilHydrocarbons
Petroleum refiningSO2Sludge, hydrocarbonsHydrocarbons
Phosphate fertilizer plantsPMNutrients
Pulp and paper millsOdorHigh biological oxygen demand, mercuryChlorine
Tanning and leather finishingOdorChromium, acidsChromium, acids
Textile manufacturingToxic dyes

a. In all the cases, the workplaces are subject to risk of injury, noise, dust, and excessively hot or cold temperatures.

From: Chapter 43, Air and Water Pollution: Burden and Strategies for Control

Cover of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition.
Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors.
Copyright © 2006, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group.

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