Table 7.1Evidence profile for intramuscular benzylpenicillin within 60–90 minutes of birth and then every 12 hours for 3 days versus no early treatment (treatment started12 hours after birth and then every 12 hours for 3 days) in babies with low birthweighta

Number of studiesNumber of babiesEffectQuality
Intramuscular benzylpenicillin within 60–90 minutes of birth and then every 12 hours for 3 daysNo early treatmentRelative (95% confidence interval)Absolute (95% confidence interval)
Blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture-proven early-onset group B streptococcal infection
1 (Pyati 1983)10/589
RR 0.73 (0.32 to 1.62)*6 fewer per 1000 (from 16 fewer to 15 more)*Moderate
Mortality (early-onset)b
1 (Pyati 1983)6/589
RR 0.76 (0.27 to 2.18)*24 fewer per 1000 (from 48 fewer to 12 more)*Moderate

RR relative risk


Calculated by the NCC-WCH technical team from data reported in the article


Details of no early treatment not reported in the article; it is unclear whether babies received no benzylpenicillin or did receive benzylpenicillin but not within 60–90 minutes of birth; low birthweight was used to indicate a high risk of group B streptococcal infection.


Early-onset infection defined as infection in the first 5 days of life

See the complete GRADE Table J 7.1

From: 7, Routine antibiotics after birth

Cover of Antibiotics for Early-Onset Neonatal Infection
Antibiotics for Early-Onset Neonatal Infection: Antibiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 149.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2012 Aug.
Copyright © 2012, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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