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Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK). Hyperglycaemia in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Management of Hyperglycaemia in People with Acute Coronary Syndromes. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK); 2011 Oct. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 130.)

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Hyperglycaemia in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Management of Hyperglycaemia in People with Acute Coronary Syndromes.

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Appendix DHow this guideline was developed

This guideline was developed in accordance with the process for short clinical guidelines set out in ‘The guidelines manual’ (2009) (see www.nice.org.uk/GuidelinesManual). There is more information about how NICE clinical guidelines are developed on the NICE website (www.nice.org.uk/HowWeWork). A booklet, ‘How NICE clinical guidelines are developed: an overview for stakeholders, the public and the NHS’ (fourth edition, published 2009), is available from NICE publications (phone 0845 003 7783 or email ku.gro.ecin@snoitacilbup and quote reference N1739).

Search strategies

The evidence reviews used to develop the guideline recommendations were underpinned by systematic literature searches, following the methods described in ‘The guidelines manual’ (2009). The aim of the systematic searches was to comprehensively identify the published evidence to answer the review questions developed by the Guideline Development Group and Short Clinical Guidelines Technical Team.

The search strategies for the review questions were developed by the Information Services Team with advice from the Short Clinical Guidelines Technical Team. Structured questions were developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) model and translated into search strategies using subject heading and free text terms. The strategies were run across a number of databases with no date restrictions imposed on the searches.

The NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and the Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED) were searched for economic evaluations. Search filters for economic evaluations and quality of life studies were used on bibliographic databases. There were no date restrictions imposed on the searches.

Guideline Development Group members were also asked to alert the Short Clinical Guidelines Technical Team to any additional evidence, published, unpublished or in press, that met the inclusion criteria.

The searches were undertaken between June 2010 and September 2010.

Scoping searches

Scoping searches were undertaken in May 2010 using the following websites and databases (listed in alphabetical order); browsing or simple search strategies were employed. The search results were used to provide information for scope development and project planning.

The below is a list of the related guidance used in the scoping searches

Guidance/guidelinesSystematic reviews/economic evaluations
American Diabetes Association

British Medical Association

Canadian Medical Association Infobase

Clinical Knowledge Summaries

Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST)

Department of Health

Diabetes UK

Guidelines International Network (GIN)

National Guideline Clearinghouse (US)

National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia)

New Zealand Guidelines Group

NHS Evidence

Royal College of Physicians

Royal Pharmaceutical Society

SIGN

University of Warwick

World Health Organisation
Clinical Evidence

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR)

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)

Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED)

Health Technology Assessment database (HTA)

NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED)

NHS R&D Service Delivery and Organisation Programme

National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme (NIHR)

TRIP Database

Main searches

The following sources were searched for the topics presented in the sections below.

  • Current Controlled Trials
  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews – CDSR (Wiley)
  • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials – CENTRAL (Wiley)
  • Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects – DARE (CRD)
  • Health Technology Assessment Database – HTA (CRD)
  • CINAHL (EBSCO)
  • EMBASE (Ovid)
  • MEDLINE (Ovid)
  • MEDLINE In-Process (Ovid)
  • National Research Register Archive
  • UK Clinical Research Network

What is the optimal inpatient metabolic management of patients presenting with hyperglycaemia and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who have diagnosed diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia?

The following sources were searched to answer questions relating to:

Databases searched:

  • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley)
  • CINAHL (NHS Evidence)
  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Wiley)
  • Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (CRD)
  • Embase (OVID)
  • Health Technology Assessment database (CRD)
  • Medline (OVID)
  • Medline In-Process (OVID)

The searches were conducted on 10 August 2010.

Medline 1950 to July Week 4 2010

The Medline search strategy is presented below. It was translated for use in all of the other databases. Where appropriate, search filters for systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials were appended to the search strategies to retrieve high quality papers.

  1. exp Hyperglycemia/
  2. hyperglycemi$.tw.
  3. hyperglycaemi$.tw.
  4. (high$ adj3 plasma$ glucose$).tw.
  5. (high$ adj3 blood$ glucose$).tw
  6. (impair$ adj3 glucose$ regulation$).tw.
  7. (high$ adj3 blood$ sugar$).tw.
  8. (impair$ adj3 blood$ sugar$ regulation$).tw.
  9. or/1-8
  10. Acute Coronary Syndrome/
  11. (acute$ adj3 coronary$ syndrome$).tw.
  12. acs.tw.
  13. exp Myocardial Infarction/
  14. (myocardial$ adj3 infarction$).tw.
  15. mi.tw.
  16. (heart$ adj attack$).tw.
  17. (heart$ adj3 infarction$).tw.
  18. exp Angina, Unstable/
  19. (unstable$ adj3 angina$).tw.
  20. (preinfarction$ adj3 angina$).tw.
  21. (myocardial$ adj3 preinfarction$).tw.
  22. (unstable$ adj3 angina$ pectoris$).tw.
  23. Myocardial Ischemia/
  24. (myocardial$ adj3 ischemia$).tw.
  25. (myocardial$ adj3 ischaemia$).tw.
  26. (ischemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.
  27. (ischaemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.
  28. (heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischemia$).tw.
  29. (heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischaemia$).tw.
  30. or/10-29
  31. exp Insulin/
  32. (intensive$ adj3 insulin$ therap$).tw.
  33. (intensive$ adj3 insulin$ infusion$).tw.
  34. Glucose/
  35. glucose$.tw.
  36. (glucose$ adj3 therap$).tw.
  37. (glucose$ adj3 infusion$).tw.
  38. potassium.tw.
  39. or/31-38
  40. Randomized Controlled Trial.pt.
  41. Controlled Clinical Trial.pt.
  42. Clinical Trial.pt.
  43. exp Clinical Trials as Topic/
  44. Placebos/
  45. Random Allocation/
  46. Double-Blind Method/
  47. Single-Blind Method/
  48. Cross-Over Studies/
  49. ((random$ or control$ or clinical$) adj2 (trial$ or stud$)).tw.
  50. (random$ adj2 allocat$).tw.
  51. placebo$.tw.
  52. ((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj (blind$ or mask$)).tw.
  53. (crossover$ or (cross adj over$)).tw.
  54. or/40-53
  55. animals/ not humans/
  56. 54 not 55
  57. Meta-Analysis.pt.
  58. Meta-Analysis as Topic/
  59. Review.pt.
  60. exp Review Literature as Topic/
  61. (metaanaly$ or metanaly$ or (meta adj2 analy$)).tw.
  62. (review$ or overview$).ti.
  63. (systematic$ adj4 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  64. ((quantitative$ or qualitative$) adj4 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  65. ((studies or trial$) adj1 (review$ or overview$)).tw.
  66. (integrat$ adj2 (research or review$ or literature)).tw.
  67. (pool$ adj1 (analy$ or data)).tw.
  68. (handsearch$ or (hand adj2 search$)).tw.
  69. (manual$ adj2 search$).tw.
  70. or/57-69
  71. animals/ not humans/
  72. 70 not 71
  73. 54 or 72
  74. 9 and 30 and 39 and 73
  75. limit 74 to english language

At what stage should patients with hyperglycaemia and ACS without diagnosed diabetes be referred for subsequent investigations for possible diabetes?

Databases searched:

  • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley)
  • CINAHL (NHS Evidence)
  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Wiley)
  • Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (CRD)
  • Embase (OVID)
  • Health Technology Assessment database (CRD)
  • Medline (OVID)
  • Medline In-Process (OVID)

The searches were conducted on 06 October 2010.

The Medline search strategy is presented below. It was translated for use in all of the other databases.

Medline 1950 to September Week 3 2010

  1. exp Hyperglycemia/
  2. hyperglycemi$.tw.
  3. hyperglycaemi$.tw.
  4. (high$ adj3 plasma$ glucose$).tw.
  5. (high$ adj3 blood$ glucose$).tw.
  6. (impair$ adj3 glucose$ regulation$).tw.
  7. (high$ adj3 blood$ sugar$).tw.
  8. (impair$ adj3 blood$ sugar$ regulation$).tw.
  9. or/1-8
  10. Acute Coronary Syndrome/
  11. (acute$ adj3 coronary$ syndrome$).tw.
  12. acs.tw.
  13. exp Myocardial Infarction/
  14. (myocardial$ adj3 infarction$).tw.
  15. mi.tw.
  16. (heart$ adj attack$).tw.
  17. (heart$ adj3 infarction$).tw.
  18. exp Angina, Unstable/
  19. (unstable$ adj3 angina$).tw.
  20. (preinfarction$ adj3 angina$).tw.
  21. (myocardial$ adj3 preinfarction$).tw.
  22. (unstable$ adj3 angina$ pectoris$).tw.
  23. Myocardial Ischemia/
  24. (myocardial$ adj3 ischemia$).tw.
  25. (myocardial$ adj3 ischaemia$).tw.
  26. (ischemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.
  27. (ischaemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.
  28. (heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischemia$).tw.
  29. (heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischaemia$).tw.
  30. or/10-29
  31. exp Diabetes Mellitus/
  32. diabet$.tw.
  33. or/31-32
  34. Risk Factors/
  35. (risk$ adj3 factor$).tw.
  36. Blood Pressure/
  37. (blood$ adj3 pressure$).tw.
  38. Blood Glucose/
  39. (blood$ adj3 glucose$).tw.
  40. (plasma$ adj3 glucose$).tw.
  41. (blood$ adj3 sugar$).tw.
  42. exp Hematologic Tests/
  43. (hematologic$ adj3 test$).tw.
  44. (haematologic$ adj3 test$).tw.
  45. (blood$ adj3 examination$).tw.
  46. Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/
  47. (glycosylated$ adj3 (hemoglobin$ or haemoglobin$)).tw.
  48. hb a1c.tw.
  49. hb a1.tw.
  50. exp Obesity/
  51. (obesity or obese).tw.
  52. exp Cholesterol/
  53. cholesterol$.tw.
  54. or/34-53
  55. 9 and 30 and 33 and 54
  56. limit 55 to english language

What information should patients with peri ACS and hyperglycaemia (who are at high risk of developing diabetes) be provided while waiting for a referral for diagnostic investigations for diabetes?

Databases searched:

  • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley)
  • CINAHL (NHS Evidence)
  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Wiley)
  • Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (CRD)
  • Embase (OVID)
  • Health Technology Assessment database (CRD)
  • Medline (OVID)
  • Medline In-Process (OVID)

The searches were conducted on 2 November 2010.

The Medline search strategy is presented below. It was translated for use in all of the other databases. Where appropriate, search filters for patient information were appended to the search strategies to retrieve high quality papers.

Medline 1950 to October Week 3 2010

  1. exp Hyperglycemia/
  2. hyperglycemi$.tw.
  3. hyperglycaemi$.tw.
  4. (high$ adj3 plasma$ glucose$).tw.
  5. (high$ adj3 blood$ glucose$).tw.
  6. (impair$ adj3 glucose$ regulation$).tw.
  7. (high$ adj3 blood$ sugar$).tw.
  8. (impair$ adj3 blood$ sugar$ regulation$).tw.
  9. or/1-8
  10. Acute Coronary Syndrome/
  11. (acute$ adj3 coronary$ syndrome$).tw.
  12. acs.tw.
  13. exp Myocardial Infarction/
  14. (myocardial$ adj3 infarction$).tw.
  15. mi.tw.
  16. (heart$ adj attack$).tw.
  17. (heart$ adj3 infarction$).tw.
  18. exp Angina, Unstable/
  19. (unstable$ adj3 angina$).tw.
  20. (preinfarction$ adj3 angina$).tw.
  21. (myocardial$ adj3 preinfarction$).tw.
  22. (unstable$ adj3 angina$ pectoris$).tw.
  23. Myocardial Ischemia/
  24. (myocardial$ adj3 ischemia$).tw.
  25. (myocardial$ adj3 ischaemia$).tw.
  26. (ischemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.
  27. (ischaemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.
  28. (heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischemia$).tw.
  29. (heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischaemia$).tw.
  30. or/10-29
  31. Qualitative Research/
  32. Nursing Methodology Research/
  33. exp Interviews as topic/
  34. Questionnaires/
  35. Narration/
  36. Health Care Surveys/
  37. (qualitative$ or interview$ or focus group$ or questionnaire$ or narrative$ or narration$ or survey$).tw.
  38. (ethno$ or emic or etic or phenomenolog$ or grounded theory or constant compar$ or (thematic$ adj3 analys$) or theoretical sampl$ or purposive sampl$).tw.
  39. (hermeneutic$ or heidegger$ or husserl$ or colaizzi$ or van kaam$ or van manen$ or giorgi$ or glaser$ or strauss$ or ricoeur$ or spiegelberg$ or merleau$).tw.
  40. (metasynthes$ or meta-synthes$ or metasummar$ or meta-summar$ or metastud$ or meta-stud$).tw.
  41. or/31-40
  42. exp Patients/px
  43. exp Parents/px
  44. exp Family/px
  45. Caregivers/px
  46. Stress, Psychological/
  47. (mental$ adj3 stress$).tw.
  48. Adaptation, psychological/
  49. (adaptive$ adj3 behaviour$).tw.
  50. (adaptive$ adj3 behavior$).tw.
  51. Emotions/
  52. Anxiety/
  53. Fear/
  54. exp Consumer Satisfaction/
  55. ((patient$ or parent$ or famil$ or carer$ or caregiver$ or care-giver$ or inpatient$ or in-patient$) adj2 (experience$ or belief$ or stress$ or emotion$ or anx$ or fear$ or concern$ or uncertain$ or unsure or thought$ or feeling$ or felt$ or view$ or opinion$ or perception$ or perspective$ or attitud$ or satisfact$ or know$ or understand$ or aware$)).tw.
  56. or/42-55
  57. Pamphlets/
  58. Needs Assessment/
  59. Information Centers/
  60. Information Services/
  61. Health Education/
  62. Information Dissemination/
  63. Counseling/
  64. Social Support/
  65. Self-Help Groups/
  66. Self Care/
  67. Patient Education as Topic/
  68. Patient Education Handout/
  69. Consumer Health Information/
  70. Life Style/
  71. patient* diar*.tw.
  72. (educat$ or informat$ or communicat$ or pamphlet$ or handout$ or hand-out$ or hand out$ or booklet$ or leaflet$ or support$ or need$ or advice$ or advis$).ti.
  73. (counsel$ or selfhelp$ or self-help$ or self help$ or selfcar$ or self-car$ or self car$).ti.
  74. or/57-73
  75. 41 or 56 or 74
  76. 9 and 30 and 75
  77. limit 76 to english language

Economic search

The following sources were searched to identify economic evaluations and quality of life data.

Databases searched:

  • Health Economic Evaluations Database (Wiley)
  • NHS Economic Evaluation Database (CRD)
  • Embase(OVID)
  • Medline (OVID)
  • Medline In-Process (OVID)

The searches were conducted on 25 August 2010.

Medline1950 to August Week 2 2010

The Medline search strategy is presented below. It was translated for use in other databases except for Embase. Where appropriate, search filters for economic evaluations and quality of data were appended to the search strategies to retrieve high quality papers.

1.

Acute Coronary Syndrome/

2.

(acute$ adj3 coronary$ syndrome$).tw.

3.

acs.tw.

4.

exp Myocardial Infarction/

5.

(myocardial$ adj3 infarction$).tw.

6.

mi.tw.

7.

(heart$ adj attack$).tw.

8.

(heart$ adj3 infarction$).tw.

9.

exp Angina, Unstable/

10.

(unstable$ adj3 angina$).tw.

11.

(preinfarction$ adj3 angina$).tw.

12.

(myocardial$ adj3 preinfarction$).tw.

13.

unstable$ adj3 angina$ pectoris$).tw.

14.

Myocardial Ischemia/

15.

(myocardial$ adj3 ischemia$).tw.

16.

(myocardial$ adj3 ischaemia$).tw.

17.

(ischemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.

18.

(ischaemic$ adj3 heart$ disease$).tw.

19.

(heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischemia$).tw.

20.

(heart$ adj3 muscle$ ischaemia$).tw.

21.

or/1-20

22.

exp Insulin/

23.

(intensive$ adj3 insulin$ therap$).tw.

24.

(intensive$ adj3 insulin$ infusion$).tw.

25.

Glucose/

26.

glucose$.tw.

27.

(glucose$ adj3 therap$).tw.

28.

(glucose$ adj3 infusion$).tw.

29.

potassium.tw.

30.

or/22-29

31.

21 and 30

32.

Economics/ use mesz

33.

exp “Costs and Cost Analysis”/

34.

Economics, Dental/

35.

exp Economics, Hospital/

36.

exp Economics, Medical/

37.

Economics, Nursing/

38.

Economics, Pharmaceutical/

39.

Budgets/

40.

exp Models, Economic/

41.

Markov Chains/

42.

Monte Carlo Method/

43.

Decision Trees/

44.

econom$.tw.

45.

cba.tw.

46.

cea.tw.

47.

cua.tw.

48.

markov$.tw.

49.

(monte adj carlo).tw.

50.

(decision adj2 (tree$ or analys$)).tw.

51.

(cost or costs or costing$ or costly or costed).tw.

52.

(price$ or pricing$).tw.

53.

budget$.tw.

54.

expenditure$.tw.

55.

(value adj2 (money or monetary)).tw.

56.

(pharmacoeconomic$ or (pharmaco adj economic$)).tw.

57.

or/23-56

58.

“Quality of Life”/ use mesz

59.

quality of life.tw.

60.

“Value of Life”/ use mesz

61.

Quality-Adjusted Life Years/ use mesz

57.

quality adjusted life.tw.

62.

(qaly$ or qald$ or qale$ or qtime$).tw.

63.

disability adjusted life.tw.

64.

daly$.tw.

65.

Health Status Indicators/ use mesz

66.

(sf36 or sf 36 or short form 36 or shortform 36 or sf thirtysix or sf thirty six or shortform thirtysix or shortform thirty six or short form thirtysix or short form thirty six).tw.

67.

(sf6 or sf 6 or short form 6 or shortform 6 or sf six or sfsix or shortform six or short form six).tw.

68.

(sf12 or sf 12 or short form 12 or shortform 12 or sf twelve or sftwelve or shortform twelve or short form twelve).tw.

69.

(sf16 or sf 16 or short form 16 or shortform 16 or sf sixteen or sfsixteen or shortform sixteen or short form sixteen).tw.

70.

(sf20 or sf 20 or short form 20 or shortform 20 or sf twenty or sftwenty or shortform twenty or short form twenty).tw.

71.

(euroqol or euro qol or eq5d or eq 5d).tw.

72.

(qol or hql or hqol or hrqol).tw.

73.

(hye or hyes).tw.

74.

health$ year$ equivalent$.tw.

75.

utilit$.tw.

76.

(hui or hui1 or hui2 or hui3).tw.

77.

disutili$.tw.

78.

rosser.tw.

79.

quality of wellbeing.tw.

80.

quality of well-being.tw.

81.

qwb.tw.

82.

willingness to pay.tw.

83.

standard gamble$.tw.

84.

time trade off.tw.

85.

time tradeoff.tw.

86.

tto.tw.

87.

or/57-86

88.

57 or 87

89.

31 and 88

90.

limit 89 to english language

Review questions and review protocols

Review questions

  • What is the optimal inpatient metabolic management of hyperglycaemia in a person presenting with acute coronary syndrome and hyperglycaemia and who also has a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?
  • What is the optimal inpatient metabolic management for a person presenting with acute coronary syndrome and hyperglycaemia and who does not have a previous diagnosis of diabetes?
  • What risk factors are associated with the development of diabetes in people with hyperglycaemia in ACS?
  • What information should patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia (who are at high risk for developing diabetes) be provided before diagnostic investigations for diabetes?

Review protocols

REVIEW QUESTION 1
DetailsComments
REVIEW QUESTION 1What is the optimal inpatient metabolic management of patients presenting with hyperglycaemia and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who have diagnosed diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia?
OBJECTIVESTo compare the effectiveness and safety of standard practice with intensive insulin therapy in the management of hyperglycaemia in ACS in patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes

To determine how and when glucose, potassium and/or insulin should be given to patients with hyperglycaemia and ACS

To investigate clinically acceptable targets of whole blood glucose level or plasma glucose level required to achieve normoglycemia

To determine when and how often whole blood or plasma glucose level should be measured in hospital
The wording of the objective was amended to include safety as adverse events such as hypoglycaemia were included as outcomes.
CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIESInclusion:

Hyperglycaemia & ACS

Adults (> 18 years only)

Previous diagnosis of diabetes (type 1 or type2)

RCTs and MINAP

Treatment in first 48 hours only (acute phase)

Assessment of mortality and/or other primary/secondary outcome

Exclusion:

Other observational studies
POPULATIONAdults with hyperglycaemia and ACS with diagnosed diabetes mellitus
INTERVENTIONIntensive insulin therapy/infusion
COMPARATORSStandard practice/conventional treatment
OUTCOMESAll cause mortality

Cardiovascular mortality

Cardiovascular events associated with hyperglycaemia such as non fatal reinfarction, heart failure and stroke

Measures of whole blood or plasma glucose levels

Health related quality of life

Adverse events associated with metabolic management of hyperglycaemia including hypoglycaemia and hypokalemia

Resource use and costs such as length of stay
REVIEW QUESTION 2
DetailsComments
REVIEW QUESTION 2What is the optimal inpatient metabolic management of patients presenting with hyperglycaemia and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?
OBJECTIVESTo compare the effectiveness and safety of standard practice with intensive insulin therapy in the management of hyperglycaemia in ACS in patients without a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

To determine how and when glucose, potassium and/or insulin should be given to patients with hyperglycaemia and ACS

To investigate clinically acceptable targets of whole blood glucose level or plasma glucose level required to achieve normoglycemia

To determine when and how often whole blood or plasma glucose level should be measured in hospital
The wording of the objective was amended to include safety as adverse events such as hypoglycaemia were included as outcomes
CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIESInclusion:

Hyperglycaemia & ACS

Adults (> 18 years only)

No previous diagnosis of diabetes

RCTs and MINAP

Treatment in first 48 hours only (acute phase)

Assessment of mortality and/or other primary/secondary outcome

Exclusion:

Other observational studies
POPULATIONAdults with hyperglycaemia and ACS without diagnosed diabetes mellitus
INTERVENTIONIntensive insulin therapy/infusion
COMPARATORSStandard practice/ conventional treatment
OUTCOMESAll cause mortality

Cardiovascular mortality

Cardiovascular events associated with hyperglycaemia such as non fatal reinfarction, heart failure and stroke

Measures of whole blood or plasma glucose levels

Health related quality of life

Adverse events associated with metabolic management of hyperglycaemia including hypoglycaemia and hypokalemia

Resource use and costs such as length of stay
REVIEW QUESTION 3
DetailsComments
REVIEW QUESTION 3What risk factors are associated with diabetes in patients with hyperglycaemia and ACS who have not previously been diagnosed?The GDG reworded this question to focus on the risk factors for progression to diabetes rather than the time at which patients should be referred.
OBJECTIVESTo investigate if the presence of additional risk factors which would prompt referral for investigations for diabetes
CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIESInclusion:

Adults (> 18 years only)

No previous diagnosis of diabetes

No restrictions on study design

Risk factors for diabetes (in ACS)

Signs and symptoms

Exclusion:

Already diagnosed with diabetes
POPULATIONAdults with hyperglycaemia and ACS without diagnosed diabetes mellitus
INTERVENTIONIntensive insulin therapy/infusion
COMPARATORSStandard practice/ conventional treatment
OUTCOMESClinical signs and symptoms that lead to a referral for further investigation of possible diabetes

Measures of whole blood or plasma glucose levels

Health related quality of life

Resource use and costs such as length of stay

Appropriate referral for subsequent investigations to confirm possible diabetes in patients without an existing diagnosis of diabetes.
REVIEW QUESTION 4
DetailsComments
REVIEW QUESTION 4What information should patients with peri ACS and hyperglycaemia (who are at high risk of developing diabetes) be provided while waiting for a referral for diagnostic investigations for diabetes?
OBJECTIVESTo determine what information should be provided relating to the types of diagnostic investigations for diabetes

To determine what lifestyle advice should be provided
CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIESInclusion:

Adults (> 18 years only)

No previous diagnosis of diabetes

No restrictions on study design

Patient information/support

Exclusion:

Already diagnosed with diabetes
POPULATIONAdults with hyperglycaemia and ACS without diagnosed diabetes mellitus
INTERVENTIONIntensive insulin therapy/infusion
COMPARATORSStandard practice/ conventional treatment
OUTCOMESPatient and carer information and support needs

Health related quality of life

Appropriate referral for subsequent investigations to confirm possible diabetes in patients without an existing diagnosis of diabetes.

Flow diagram of excluded studies for hyperglycaemia review Question 1

The flow diagram below shows an overview of the studies that were identified, included and excluded for review question 2, which focuses on the metabolic management of patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia who have diagnosed diabetes.

Image appdfu1

Excluded studies

List of excluded studies for review question 1 (diabetes)

  • Bianchi C, Miccoli R, Daniele G, Penno G, Del PS. Is there evidence that oral hypoglycemic agents reduce cardiovascular morbidity/mortality? Yes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32 Suppl-8 [Review] [53 refs] Ref ID: 12A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PMC free article: PMC2811446] [PubMed: 19875578]
  • Mannucci E, Monami M, Lamanna C, Gori F, Marchionni N. Prevention of cardiovascular disease through glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Nutrition Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2009;19(9):604–612. Ref ID: 13A. EXC-REVIEW WITHOUT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND FOCUS ON TYPE 2 DIABETES. [PubMed: 19427768]
  • Goyal A, Mehta SR, Diaz R, Gerstein HC, Afzal R, Xavier D, Liu L, Pais P, Yusuf S. Differential clinical outcomes associated with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2009;120(24):2429–2437. Ref ID: 15A. EXC-FOCUS ON PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA ON ADMISSION. [PubMed: 19948980]
  • Avanzini F, Marelli G, Donzelli W, Sorbara L, Palazzo E, Bellato L, Colombo EL, Roncaglioni MC, Riva E, De MM., DDD study group. Hyperglycemia during acute coronary syndrome: a nurse-managed insulin infusion protocol for stricter and safer control. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2009;8(3):182–189. Ref ID: 18A. EXC-PROTOCOL FOR INTENSIVE INSULIN AND NOT AN RCT. [PubMed: 19179114]
  • Monteiro S, Monteiro P, Providencia LA. Optimization of blood glucose control in MI patients: state of the art and a proposed protocol for intensive insulin therapy. Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia. 2009;28(1):49–61. [Review] [28 refs] Ref ID: 22A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVEIW. [PubMed: 19388493]
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  • Marso SP, Kennedy KF, House JA, McGuire DK. The effect of intensive glucose control on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. 2010;7(2):119–130. [Review] [30 refs] Ref ID: 1189. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 20382775]
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  • Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Wijesuriya S, Sivakumaran R, Nethercott S, Preiss D, Erqou S, Sattar N. Effect of intensive control of glucose on cardiovascular outcomes and death in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2009;373(9677):1765–1772. Ref ID: 1262. EXC-REVIEW-NO FOCUS ON THE ACUTE PHASE OF ACS. [PubMed: 19465231]
  • Malmberg K, Ryden L. Effect of insulin-glucose infusion on mortality following acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes: the diabetes and insulin-glucose infusion in acute myocardial infarction studies. Seminars in Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery. 2006;18(4):326–329. [Review] [15 refs] Ref ID: 1464. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 17395029]
  • Schipke JD, Friebe R, Gams E. Forty years of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) in cardiac surgery: a review of randomized, controlled trials. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2006;29(4):479–485. [Review] [70 refs] Ref ID: 1531. EXC-REVIEW OF CARDIAC SURGERY. [PubMed: 16481185]
  • Turel B, Gemici K, Baran I, Yesilbursa D, Gullulu S, Aydinlar A, Serdar A, Kazazoglu AR, Kumbay E, Cordan J. Effects of glucose-insulin-potassium solution added to reperfusion treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi. 2005;5(2):90–94. Ref ID: 1642. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND NO BASELINE RECORD OF BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 15939681]
  • Timmer JR, van der Horst IC, Ottervanger JP, De LG, van 't Hof AW, Bilo HJ, Zijlstra F. Glucose-insulin-potassium infusion as adjunctive therapy in myocardial infarction: current evidence and potential mechanisms. Italian Heart Journal: Official Journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology. 2004;5(10):727–731. Ref ID: 1682. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 15626267]
  • Apstein CS. The benefits of glucose-insulin-potassium for acute myocardial infarction (and some concerns) Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2003;42(5):792–795. [Review] [30 refs] Ref ID: 1796. EXC-EDITORIAL COMMENT. [PubMed: 12957422]
  • Janiger JL, Cheng JW. Glucose-insulin-potassium solution for acute myocardial infarction. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2002;36(6):1080–1084. [Review] [14 refs] Ref ID: 1887. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 12022912]
  • Ceremuzynski L, Budaj A, Czepiel A, Burzykowski T, Achremczyk P, Smielak-Korombel W, Maciejewicz J, Dziubinska J, Nartowicz E, Kawka-Urbanek T, Piotrowski W, Hanzlik J, Cieslinski A, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Gessek J, Wrabec K. Low-dose glucose-insulin-potassium is ineffective in acute myocardial infarction: results of a randomized multicenter Pol-GIK trial. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy. 1999;13(3):191–200. Ref ID: 2044. EXC-NO PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 10439881]
  • Apstein CS, Opie LH. Glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) for acute myocardial infarction: a negative study with a positive value. Cardiovascular Drugs & Therapy. 1999;13(3):185–189. [Review] [38 refs] Ref ID: 2045. EXC-EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 10439880]
  • Fath-Ordoubadi F, Beatt KJ. Glucose-insulin-potassium in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1999;353(9168):1968. Ref ID: 2050. EXC-CORRESPONDENCE. [PubMed: 10371590]
  • Fisher M. Diabetes and myocardial infarction. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1999;13(2):331–343. [Review] [56 refs] Ref ID: 2078. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 10761870]
  • Apstein CS. Glucose-insulin-potassium for acute myocardial infarction: remarkable results from a new prospective, randomized trial. Circulation. 1998;98(21):2223–2226. [Review] [27 refs] Ref ID: 2102. EXC-EDITIORIAL. [PubMed: 9826307]
  • Williams R. Intensive insulin treatment after acute myocardial infarction in diabetes mellitus. Evidence exists from study of non-insulin dependent diabetes in Japan. BMJ. 1997;315(7107):544. Ref ID: 2168. EXC-EDITORIAL. [PMC free article: PMC2127347] [PubMed: 9329313]
  • Surawicz B. Evaluation of treatment of acute myocardial infarction with potassium, glucose and insulin. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 1968;10(6):545–560. [Review] [110 refs] Ref ID: 2692. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 4870314]
  • Rogers WJ, McDaniel HG, Mantle JA, Rackley CE. Glucose-insulin-potassium infusion in acute myocardial infarction - results of a prospective randomized study. Clinical Research. 1982;30(2):216A. Ref ID: 2877. EXC-ABSTRACT ONLY.
  • Stanley J, Prather JW, Snow RM. Glucose-insulin-potassium, acute myocardial infarction and patient mortality: Results from an ongoing prospective randomized study. Clinical Research. 1979;27(5):734A. Ref ID: 2921. EXC-ABSTRACT ONLY.
  • Puskarich M, Jones A, Kline J, Runyon M, Trzeciak S. Critical Care, Conference: 29th International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium; Conference Start: 20090324 Conference End: 20090327; 2009. Conference: 29th International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium. Conference Start: 20090324 Conference End: 20090327. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) S54. Ref ID: 3462. EXC-BRITISH LIBRARY CANNOT PROVIDE A COPY.
  • Cefalu WT, Watson K. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease observations from the ACCORD study: Now what can a clinician possibly think? Diabetes. 2008;57(5):1163–1165. Ref ID: 3525. EXC-EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 18443374]
  • Goyal A, Nerenberg K, Gerstein HC, Umpierrez G, Wilson PWF. Insulin therapy in acute coronary syndromes: An appraisal of completed and ongoing randomised trials with important clinical end points. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research. 2008;5(4):276–284. Ref ID: 3585. EXC-REVIEW. [PMC free article: PMC3746495] [PubMed: 18958837]
  • Goyal A, Diaz R, Mehta SR. Glucose-insulin-potassium therapy in patients with STEMI: Reply. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008;299(20):2387–2388. Ref ID: 3696. EXC-LETTER. [PubMed: 18505944]
  • Opie LH. Glucose-insulin-potassium therapy in patients with STEMI [2] JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. 2008;299(20):2385–2386. Ref ID: 3697. EXC-LETTER. [PubMed: 18505941]
  • Ranasinghe AM, Quinn DW, Pagano D, Edwards N, Faroqui M, Graham TR, Keogh BE, Mascaro J, Riddington DW, Rooney SJ, Townend JN, Wilson IC, Bonser RS. Glucose-insulin-potassium and tri-iodothyronine individually improve hemodynamic performance and are associated with reduced troponin I release after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation. 2006;114(SUPPL. 1):I245–I250. Ref ID: 4253. EXC-PARTCIPANTS UNDERGOING CABG. [PubMed: 16820580]
  • Yazici M, Demircan S, Durna K, Yasar E, Acar Z, Sahin M. Effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on myocardial damage due to percutaneous coronary revascularization. American Journal of Cardiology. 2005;96(11):1517–1520. Ref ID: 4456. EXC-NO FOCUS ON PRIMARY OUTCOMES. [PubMed: 16310433]
  • Effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Comments. Indian Heart Journal. 2005;57(2):187. Ref ID: 4535. EXC-COMMENT. [PubMed: 15671428]
  • van der Horst ICC, De LG, Ottervanger JP, de BMJ, Hoorntje JCA, Suryapranata H, Dambrink JH, Gosselink ATM, Zijlstra F, Van 't Hof AWJ. ST-segment elevation resolution and outcome in patients treated with primary angioplasty and glucose-insulin-potassium infusion. American heart journal. 2005;149(6):1135. Ref ID: 4555. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND NO EVALUATION OF BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 15976800]
  • van der Horst ICC, Timmer JR, Ottervanger JP, Bilo HJG, Gans ROB, de BMJ, Zijlstra F. Glucose-insulin-potassium and reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction: Rationale and design of the Glucose-Insulin-Potassium Study-2 (GIPS-2) American heart journal. 2005;149(4):585–591. Ref ID: 4601. EXC-NO MENTION OF BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 15990738]
  • Zhang L, Li YH, Zhang HY, Chen ML, Gao MM, Hu AH, Yang HS, Liu LS. High-dose glucose-insulin-potassium treatment reduces myocardial apoptosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. European journal of clinical investigation. 2005;35(3):164–170. Ref ID: 4630. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND NO EVALUATION OF BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 15733070]
  • Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Diaz R, Paolasso E, Pais P, Xavier D, Xie C, Ahmed RJ, Khazmi K, Zhu J, Liu L. Challenges in the conduct of large simple trials of important generic questions in resource-poor settings: The CREATE and ECLA trial program evaluating GIK (glucose, insulin and potassium) and low-molecular-weight heparin in acute myocardial infarction. American heart journal. 2004;148(6):1068–1078. Ref ID: 4705. EXC-RELATES TO STUDY DESIGN. [PubMed: 15632895]
  • Kastrati A, Bellandi F. Trial finds routine intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium does not improve myocardial salvage in people with acute myocardial infarction. Evidence-based Cardiovascular Medicine. 2004;8(4):339–342. Ref ID: 4707. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 16379968]
  • Lazar HL, Chipkin SR, Fitzgerald CA, Bao Y, Cabral H, Apstein CS. Tight Glycemic Control in Diabetic Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients Improves Perioperative Outcomes and Decreases Recurrent Ischemic Events. Circulation. 2004;109(12):1497–1502. Ref ID: 4850. EXC-PARTICIPANTS UNDERGOING CABG. [PubMed: 15006999]
  • Castro PF, Larrain G, Baeza R, Corbalan R, Nazzal C, Greig DP, Miranda FP, Perez O, Acevedo M, Marchant E, Olea E, Gonzalez R. Effects of glucose-insulin-potassium solution on myocardial salvage and left ventricular function after primary angioplasty. Critical care medicine. 2003;31(8):2152–2155. Ref ID: 5004. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 12973173]
  • Stefanidis A, Melidonis A, Tournis S, Zairis M, Handanis S, Olympios C, Asimacopoulos P, Foussas S. Intensive insulin treatment reduces transient ischaemic episodes during acute coronary events in diabetic patients. Acta Cardiologica. 2002;57(5):357–364. Ref ID: 5150. EXC-HYPERGLYCAEMIC POPULATION NOT WELL DEFINED AND DOES NOT DEFINE BLOOD GLUCOSE ON RECRUITMENT. [PubMed: 12405574]
  • Diaz-Araya G, Nettle D, Castro P, Miranda F, Greig D, Campos X, Chiong M, Nazzal C, Corbalan R, Lavandero S. Oxidative stress after reperfusion with primary coronary angioplasty: Lack of effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion. Critical care medicine. 2002;30(2):417–421. Ref ID: 5220. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND OXIDATIVE STRESS NOT A PRIMARY OUTCOME. [PubMed: 11889322]
  • Fath-Ordoubadi F, Markides V, Beatt KJ. Meta-analysis of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy for myocardial infarction. Cardiology Review. 1998;15(4):41–44. Ref ID: 5511. EXC-REVIEW ARTICLE NOT FOCUSING ON PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA.
  • Fath-Ordoubadi F, Beatt KJ. Glucose-insulin-potassium therapy for treatment of acute myocardial infarction: An overview of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Circulation. 1997;96(4):1152–1156. Ref ID: 5571. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 9286943]
  • Mellbin LG, Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L. The impact of glucose lowering treatment on long-term prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction: A report from the DIGAMI 2 trial. European heart journal. 2008;29(2):166–176. Ref ID: 5618. EXC-FOCUS ON TREATMENT FOLLOWING DISCHARGE (NOT ACUTE PHASE) [PubMed: 18156614]
  • Rasoul S, Ottervanger JP, Timmer JR, Svilaas T, Henriques JPS, Dambrink JH, van der Horst ICC, Zijlstra F. One year outcomes after glucose-insulin-potassium in ST elevation myocardial infarction. The Glucose-insulin-potassium study II. International journal of cardiology. 2007;122(1):52–55. Ref ID: 5703. EXC-NO CUT OFF POINT FOR HYPERGLYCAEMIA OR BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 17223212]
  • Marano L, Bestetti A, Lomuscio A, Tagliabue L, Castini D, Tarricone D, Dario P, Tarolo GL, Fiorentini C. Effects of infusion of glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial function after a recent myocardial infarction. Acta Cardiologica. 2000;55(1):9–15. Ref ID: 5804. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND NO EVALUATION OF BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 10707753]
  • Wistbacka JO, Lepojarvi MVK, Karlqvist KEV, Koistinen J, Kaukoranta PK, Nissinen J, Peltola T, Rainio P, Ruokonen A, Nuutinen LS. Amino acid-enriched glucose-insulin-potassium infusion improves hemodynamic function after coronary bypass surgery. A double-blind study in patients with unstable angina and/or compromised left ventricular function. Infusionstherapie und Transfusionsmedizin. 1995;22(2):82–90. Ref ID: 5996. EXC-PATIENTS UNDERGOING CABG. [PubMed: 7787408]
  • Pache J, Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Bollwein H, Ndrepepa G, Schuhlen H, Martinoff S, Seyfarth M, Nekolla S, Dirschinger J, Schwaiger M, Schomig A. A randomized evaluation of the effects of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with reperfusion therapy. American heart journal. 2004;148(1) Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6048. EXC-NO PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 15215812]
  • The OASIS-6 trial group. Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction The OASIS-6 randomized trial. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1519–1530. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6049. EXC-RESULTS FOR GIK INFUSION NOT REPORTED HERE NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 16537725]
  • Brunkhorst FM, Engel C, Bloos F, Meier-Hellmann A, Ragaller M, Weiler N, Moerer O, et al. Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. The New England journal of medicine. 2008;358:125–139. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6050. EXC-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PubMed: 18184958]
  • Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. The New England journal of medicine. 2001;345(19):1359–1367. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6051. EXC-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PubMed: 11794168]
  • Van der Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Meersseman W, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU. The New England journal of medicine. 2006;354(5) Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6052. EXC-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PubMed: 16452557]
  • Diaz R, Paolasso EA, Piegas LS, Tajer CD, Moreno MG, Corvalan R, Isea JE, Romero G. Metabolic modulation of acute myocardial infarction: The ECLA glucose- insulin-potassium pilot trial. Circulation. 1998;98(21):2227–2234. Ref ID: 6013. EXC-NO DEFINITION OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 9867443]

Flow diagram of excluded studies for hyperglycaemia review Question 2

The flow diagram below shows an overview of the studies that were identified, included and excluded for review question 2 which focuses on the metabolic management of patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia without diagnosed diabetes.

Image appdfu2

Excluded studies

List of excluded studies for review question 2 (non-diabetes)

  • Bianchi C, Miccoli R, Daniele G, Penno G, Del PS. Is there evidence that oral hypoglycemic agents reduce cardiovascular morbidity/mortality? Yes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32 Suppl-8 [Review] [53 refs] Ref ID: 12A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PMC free article: PMC2811446] [PubMed: 19875578]
  • Mannucci E, Monami M, Lamanna C, Gori F, Marchionni N. Prevention of cardiovascular disease through glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Nutrition Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2009;19(9):604–612. Ref ID: 13A. EXC-REVIEW WITHOUT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND FOCUS ON TYPE 2 DIABETES. [PubMed: 19427768]
  • Goyal A, Mehta SR, Diaz R, Gerstein HC, Afzal R, Xavier D, Liu L, Pais P, Yusuf S. Differential clinical outcomes associated with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2009;120(24):2429–2437. Ref ID: 15A. EXC-FOCUS ON PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA ON ADMISSION. [PubMed: 19948980]
  • Avanzini F, Marelli G, Donzelli W, Sorbara L, Palazzo E, Bellato L, Colombo EL, Roncaglioni MC, Riva E, De MM., DDD study group. Hyperglycemia during acute coronary syndrome: a nurse-managed insulin infusion protocol for stricter and safer control. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2009;8(3):182–189. Ref ID: 18A. EXC-PROTOCOL FOR INTENSIVE INSULIN AND NOT AN RCT. [PubMed: 19179114]
  • Monteiro S, Monteiro P, Providencia LA. Optimization of blood glucose control in MI patients: state of the art and a proposed protocol for intensive insulin therapy. Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia. 2009;28(1):49–61. [Review] [28 refs] Ref ID: 22A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVEIW. [PubMed: 19388493]
  • Anantharaman R, Heatley M, Weston CF. Hyperglycaemia in acute coronary syndromes: risk-marker or therapeutic target? Heart. 2009;95(9):697–703. [Review] [65 refs] Ref ID: 26A. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 18697807]
  • Gan RM, Wong V, Cheung NW, McLean M. Effect of insulin infusion on electrocardiographic findings following acute myocardial infarction: importance of glycaemic control. Diabetic Medicine. 2009;26(2):174–176. Ref ID: 30A. EXC-FOCUS ON ECG CHANGES AS AN OUTCOME. [PubMed: 19236622]
  • Goyal A, Nerenberg K, Gerstein HC, Umpierrez G, Wilson PW. Insulin therapy in acute coronary syndromes: an appraisal of completed and ongoing randomised trials with important clinical end points. Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. 2008;5(4):276–284. [Review] [58 refs] Ref ID: 35A. EXC-REVIEW. [PMC free article: PMC3746495] [PubMed: 18958837]
  • Cheung NW. Glucose control during acute myocardial infarction. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;38(5):345–348. [Review] [20 refs] Ref ID: 49A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 18402561]
  • Braatvedt GD. Glucose control peri-myocardial infarction. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;38(5):341–344. [Review] [17 refs] Ref ID: 50A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 18402560]
  • Pinto DS, Kirtane AJ, Pride YB, Murphy SA, Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM., CLARITY, T.I.M.I. Association of blood glucose with angiographic and clinical outcomes among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the CLARITY-TIMI-28 study) American Journal of Cardiology. 2008;101(3):303–307. Ref ID: 53A. EXC-FOCUS ON USE OF CLOPIDOGREL. [PubMed: 18237589]
  • Diaz R, Goyal A, Mehta SR, Afzal R, Xavier D, Pais P, Chrolavicius S, Zhu J, Kazmi K, Liu L, Budaj A, Zubaid M, Avezum A, Ruda M, Yusuf S. Glucose-insulin-potassium therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2007;298(20):2399–2405. Ref ID: 62A. EXC-COMBINED ANALYSIS OF CREATE ECLA AND OASIS-6. CREATE ECLA PAPER HAS BEEN EXCLUDED. [PubMed: 18042917]
  • Chaudhuri A, Janicke D, Wilson M, Ghanim H, Wilding GE, Aljada A, Dandona P. Effect of modified glucose-insulin-potassium on free fatty acids, matrix metalloproteinase, and myoglobin in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology. 2007;100(11):1614–1618. Ref ID: 63A. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 18036357]
  • Hafidh SA, Reuter MD, Chassels LJ, Aradhyula S, Bhutto SS, Alpert MA. Effect of intravenous insulin therapy on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2007;333(6):354–361. [Review] [56 refs] Ref ID: 70A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 17570988]
  • Zarich SW, Nesto RW. Implications and treatment of acute hyperglycemia in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2007;115(18):e436–e439. [Review] [23 refs] Ref ID: 73A. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 17485582]
  • Cheung NW, Wong VW, McLean M. Insulin infusion therapy for myocardial infarction. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2006;7(18):2495–2503. [Review] [41 refs] Ref ID: 91A. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 17150004]
  • Wade AO, Cordingley JJ. Glycaemic control in critically ill patients with cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Critical Care. 2006;12(5):437–443. [Review] [51 refs] Ref ID: 95A. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 16943722]
  • Bhadriraju S, Ray KK, DeFranco AC, Barber K, Bhadriraju P, Murphy SA, Morrow DA, McCabe CH, Gibson CM, Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Association between blood glucose and long-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the OPUS-TIMI 16 trial. American Journal of Cardiology. 2006;97(11):1573–1577. Ref ID: 100A. EXC-ORAL INTERVENTION-NOT INTENSIVE INSULIN THERAPY. [PubMed: 16728216]
  • Milicevic Z, Raz I, Strojek K, Skrha J, Tan MH, Wyatt JW, Beattie SD, Robbins DC, Study D. Hyperglycemia and its effect after acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (HEART2D) Study design. Journal of Diabetes & its Complications. 2005;19(2):80–87. Ref ID: 129A. EXC-NOT ACUTE EPISODE. [PubMed: 15745837]
  • Zarich SW. The role of intensive glycemic control in the management of patients who have acute myocardial infarction. Cardiology Clinics. 2005;23(2):109–117. [Review] [65 refs] Ref ID: 131A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 15694741]
  • Imran SA, Malmberg K, Cox JL, Ransom TP, Ur E. An overview of the role of insulin in the treatment of hyperglycemia during acute myocardial ischemia. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2004;20(13):1361–1365. [Review] [65 refs] Ref ID: 136A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 15565201]
  • Pittas AG, Siegel RD, Lau J. Insulin therapy for critically ill hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004;164(18):2005–2011. Ref ID: 139A. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 15477435]
  • Furnary AP, Gao G, Grunkemeier GL, Wu Y, Zerr KJ, Bookin SO, Floten HS, Starr A. Continuous insulin infusion reduces mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery. 2003;125(5):1007–1021. Ref ID: 164A. EXC-PARTICIPANTS UNDERGOING CABG. [PubMed: 12771873]
  • Dandona P, Aljada A, Bandyopadhyay A. The potential therapeutic role of insulin in acute myocardial infarction in patients admitted to intensive care and in those with unspecified hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(2):516–519. [Review] [60 refs] Ref ID: 172A. EXC-COMMENTARY. [PubMed: 12547892]
  • McNulty PH. Glucose and insulin management in the post-MI setting. Current Diabetes Reports. 2002;2(1):37–44. [Review] [51 refs] Ref ID: 174A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 12643121]
  • Davies MJ, Lawrence IG. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction): theory and practice. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 2002;4(5):289–295. [Review] [60 refs] Ref ID: 177A. EXC-OVERVIEW OF DIGAMI STUDY. [PubMed: 12190991]
  • Walker EF. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia during myocardial infarction: review of the literature. Intensive & Critical Care Nursing. 1999;15(5):259–265. [Review] [23 refs] Ref ID: 209A. EXC-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 10808822]
  • Rogers WJ, Stanley AW Jr., Breinig JB, Prather JW, McDaniel HG, Moraski RE, Mantle JA, Russell RO Jr., Rackley CE. Reduction of hospital mortality rate of acute myocardial infarction with glucose-insulin-potassium infusion. American Heart Journal. 1976;92(4):441–454. Ref ID: 250A. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND NO BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS. [PubMed: 785990]
  • Hermanides J, Engstrom AE, Wentholt IM, Sjauw KD, Hoekstra JB, Henriques JP, DeVries JH. Sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy to treat hyperglycemia at the coronary care unit: a randomized clinical pilot trial. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2010;12(7):537–542. Ref ID: 253A. EXC-NO FOCUS ON PRIMARY OUTCOMES. [PubMed: 20597828]
  • Langley J, Adams G. Insulin-based regimens decrease mortality rates in critically ill patients: a systematic review. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 2007;23(3):184–192. Ref ID: 275A. EXC-SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS- NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 17089369]
  • Devine MJ, Chandrasekara WM, Hardy KJ. Management of hyperglycaemia in acute coronary syndrome. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease. 2010;10(2):59–66. Ref ID: 287A. EXC-REVIEW.
  • Rensing KL, Kastelein JJ, Twickler M. Is insulin the preferred compound in lowering glucose levels in patients after a myocardial infarction? Archives of Internal Medicine. 2009;169(17):1636–1639. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 9;169(5):438-46. Ref ID: 292A. EXC-COMMENT. [PubMed: 19786687]
  • Dandona P, Chaudhuri A, Ghanim H. Acute myocardial infarction, hyperglycemia, and insulin. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009;53(16):1437–1440. Ref ID: 297A. EXC-EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 19371827]
  • Kloner RA, Nesto RW. Glucose-insulin-potassium for acute myocardial infarction: continuing controversy over cardioprotection. Circulation. 2008;117(19):2523–2534. Ref ID: 305A. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 18474824]
  • Smith RJ, McLean M. Managing high blood glucose levels in coronary care. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;38(5):305–307. Ref ID: 306A. EXC-EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 18402558]
  • Opie LH. Metabolic management of acute myocardial infarction comes to the fore and extends beyond control of hyperglycemia. Circulation. 2008;117(17):2172–2178. Ref ID: 308A. EXC-EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 18443246]
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  • Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Diaz R, Paolasso E, Pais P, Xavier D, Xie C, Ahmed RJ, Khazmi K, Zhu J, Liu L. Challenges in the conduct of large simple trials of important generic questions in resource-poor settings: The CREATE and ECLA trial program evaluating GIK (glucose, insulin and potassium) and low-molecular-weight heparin in acute myocardial infarction. American heart journal. 2004;148(6):1068–1078. Ref ID: 4705. EXC-RELATES TO STUDY DESIGN. [PubMed: 15632895]
  • Kastrati A, Bellandi F. Trial finds routine intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium does not improve myocardial salvage in people with acute myocardial infarction. Evidence-based Cardiovascular Medicine. 2004;8(4):339–342. Ref ID: 4707. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 16379968]
  • Lazar HL, Chipkin SR, Fitzgerald CA, Bao Y, Cabral H, Apstein CS. Tight Glycemic Control in Diabetic Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients Improves Perioperative Outcomes and Decreases Recurrent Ischemic Events. Circulation. 2004;109(12):1497–1502. Ref ID: 4850. EXC-PARTICIPANTS UNDERGOING CABG. [PubMed: 15006999]
  • Castro PF, Larrain G, Baeza R, Corbalan R, Nazzal C, Greig DP, Miranda FP, Perez O, Acevedo M, Marchant E, Olea E, Gonzalez R. Effects of glucose-insulin-potassium solution on myocardial salvage and left ventricular function after primary angioplasty. Critical care medicine. 2003;31(8):2152–2155. Ref ID: 5004. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 12973173]
  • Stefanidis A, Melidonis A, Tournis S, Zairis M, Handanis S, Olympios C, Asimacopoulos P, Foussas S. Intensive insulin treatment reduces transient ischaemic episodes during acute coronary events in diabetic patients. Acta Cardiologica. 2002;57(5):357–364. Ref ID: 5150. EXC-HYPERGLYCAEMIC POPULATION NOT WELL DEFINED AND DOES NOT DEFINE BLOOD GLUCOSE ON RECRUITMENT. [PubMed: 12405574]
  • Diaz-Araya G, Nettle D, Castro P, Miranda F, Greig D, Campos X, Chiong M, Nazzal C, Corbalan R, Lavandero S. Oxidative stress after reperfusion with primary coronary angioplasty: Lack of effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion. Critical care medicine. 2002;30(2):417–421. Ref ID: 5220. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND OXIDATIVE STRESS NOT A PRIMARY OUTCOME. [PubMed: 11889322]
  • Fath-Ordoubadi F, Markides V, Beatt KJ. Meta-analysis of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy for myocardial infarction. Cardiology Review. 1998;15(4):41–44. Ref ID: 5511. EXC-REVIEW ARTICLE NOT FOCUSING ON PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA.
  • Fath-Ordoubadi F, Beatt KJ. Glucose-insulin-potassium therapy for treatment of acute myocardial infarction: An overview of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Circulation. 1997;96(4):1152–1156. Ref ID: 5571. EXC-REVIEW. [PubMed: 9286943]
  • Mellbin LG, Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L. The impact of glucose lowering treatment on long-term prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction: A report from the DIGAMI 2 trial. European heart journal. 2008;29(2):166–176. Ref ID: 5618. EXC-FOCUS ON TREATMENT FOLLOWING DISCHARGE (NOT ACUTE PHASE) [PubMed: 18156614]
  • Rasoul S, Ottervanger JP, Timmer JR, Svilaas T, Henriques JPS, Dambrink JH, van der Horst ICC, Zijlstra F. One year outcomes after glucose-insulin-potassium in ST elevation myocardial infarction. The Glucose-insulin-potassium study II. International journal of cardiology. 2007;122(1):52–55. Ref ID: 5703. EXC-NO CUT OFF POINT FOR HYPERGLYCAEMIA OR BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 17223212]
  • Marano L, Bestetti A, Lomuscio A, Tagliabue L, Castini D, Tarricone D, Dario P, Tarolo GL, Fiorentini C. Effects of infusion of glucose-insulin-potassium on myocardial function after a recent myocardial infarction. Acta Cardiologica. 2000;55(1):9–15. Ref ID: 5804. EXC-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND NO EVALUATION OF BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE. [PubMed: 10707753]
  • Wistbacka JO, Lepojarvi MVK, Karlqvist KEV, Koistinen J, Kaukoranta PK, Nissinen J, Peltola T, Rainio P, Ruokonen A, Nuutinen LS. Amino acid-enriched glucose-insulin-potassium infusion improves hemodynamic function after coronary bypass surgery. A double-blind study in patients with unstable angina and/or compromised left ventricular function. Infusionstherapie und Transfusionsmedizin. 1995;22(2):82–90. Ref ID: 5996. EXC-PATIENTS UNDERGOING CABG. [PubMed: 7787408]
  • Pache J, Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Bollwein H, Ndrepepa G, Schuhlen H, Martinoff S, Seyfarth M, Nekolla S, Dirschinger J, Schwaiger M, Schomig A. A randomized evaluation of the effects of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with reperfusion therapy. American heart journal. 2004;148(1) Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6048. EXC-NO PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 15215812]
  • The OASIS-6 trial group. Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction The OASIS-6 randomized trial. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1519–1530. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6049. EXC-RESULTS FOR GIK INFUSION NOT REPORTED HERE NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 16537725]
  • Brunkhorst FM, Engel C, Bloos F, Meier-Hellmann A, Ragaller M, Weiler N, Moerer O, et al. Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. The New England journal of medicine. 2008;358:125–139. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6050. EXC-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PubMed: 18184958]
  • Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. The New England journal of medicine. 2001;345(19):1359–1367. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6051. EXC-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PubMed: 11794168]
  • Van der Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Meersseman W, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU. The New England journal of medicine. 2006;354(5) Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 6052. EXC-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PubMed: 16452557]
  • Diaz R, Paolasso EA, Piegas LS, Tajer CD, Moreno MG, Corvalan R, Isea JE, Romero G. Metabolic modulation of acute myocardial infarction: The ECLA glucose- insulin-potassium pilot trial. Circulation. 1998;98(21):2227–2234. Ref ID: 6013. EXC-NO DEFINITION OF HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 9867443]
  • Malmberg K, Rydén L, Efendic S, Herlitz J, Nicol P, Waldenström A, Wedel H, Welin L. Randomized trial of insulin-glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI study): effects on mortality at 1 year. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1995;26(1):57–65. Ref ID: 396. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 7797776]
  • Malmberg K, Rydén L, Hamsten A, Herlitz J, Waldenström A, Wedel H. Effects of insulin treatment on cause-specific one-year mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. DIGAMI Study Group. Diabetes Insulin-Glucose in Acute Myocardial Infarction. European heart journal. 1996;17(9):1337–1344. Ref ID: 378. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 8880018]
  • Malmberg K, Ryden L, Hamsten A, Herlitz J, Waldenstrom A, Wedel H. Mortality prediction in diabetic patients with myocardial infarction: experiences from the DIGAMI study. Cardiovascular research. 1997;34(1):248–253. [Erratum appears in Cariovasc Res 1997 Dec;36(3):460] Ref ID: 2181. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 9217897]
  • Malmberg K. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Study Group. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 1997;314(7093):1512–1515. Ref ID: 367. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PMC free article: PMC2126756] [PubMed: 9169397]
  • Mellbin LG, Malmberg K, Waldenstrom A, Wedel H, Ryden L. Prognostic implications of hypoglycaemic episodes during hospitalisation for myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes: A report from the DIGAMI 2 trial. Heart. 2009;95(9):721–727. Ref ID: 3363. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 19029171]
  • Malmberg K. Role of insulin-glucose infusion in outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: the diabetes and insulin-glucose infusion in acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI) study. Endocrine Practice. 2004;10 Suppl-6 Ref ID: 144. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 15251635]
  • Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L. Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long-term results from the Diabetes and Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) study. Circulation. 1999;99(20):2626–2632. Ref ID: 207. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 10338454]
  • Malmberg K, Ryd+®n L, Wedel H, Birkeland K, Bootsma A, Dickstein K, Efendic S, Fisher M, Hamsten A, Herlitz J, Hildebrandt P, MacLeod K, Laakso M, Torp-Pedersen C, Waldenstr+Âm A. Intense metabolic control by means of insulin in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI 2): effects on mortality and morbidity. European heart journal. 2005;26(7):650–661. available from: http://eurheartj​.oxfordjournals​.org/content/26/7/650​.abstract. Ref ID: 6053. EXC-ASSESSED FOR RQ1 (PATIENTS WITH DIABETES) [PubMed: 15728645]

Flow diagram of excluded studies for hyperglycaemia review question 3

The flow diagram below shows an overview of the studies that were identified, included and excluded for review question 3, which focuses on risk factors for diabetes in patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia.

Image appdfu3

Excluded studies

Full list of excluded studies for RQ3-Risk factors for diabetes

  • Newsline: another risk factor turns up for diabetes. Clinical Advisor for Nurse Practitioners. 2007;10(10):11–12. Ref ID: 1964. EXCLUDE-NEWS ARTICLE.
  • Adler AI, Neil HAW, Manley SE, Holman RR, Turner RC. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia at diagnosis of diabetes and their association with subsequent cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 47) American Heart Journal. 1999;138(5 I):S353–S359. Ref ID: 1100. EXCLUDE-PARTICIPANTS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH DIABETES. [PubMed: 10539797]
  • Alajbegovic S, Metelko Z, Alajbegovic A, Suljic E, Resic H. Hyperglycemia and acute myocardial infarction in a nondiabetic population. Diabetologia Croatica. 2003;32(4):169–174. Ref ID: 905. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON PREVALANCE OF DIABETES NOT RISK FACTORS FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT.
  • Aquilante CL, Griend JRV. Understanding metabolic syndrome: Knowing the risks. Pharmacy Times. 2008;74(7):61–68. Ref ID: 386. EXCLUDE-REVIEW.
  • Bangalore S, Parkar S, Grossman E, Messerli FH. A meta-analysis of 94,492 patients with hypertension treated with beta blockers to determine the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Cardiology. 2007;100(8):1254–1262. Ref ID: 1902. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 17920367]
  • Barry H. How often does diabetes occur within 3 months of an acute myocardial infarction? Evidence-Based Practice. 2002;5(10) NaN. Ref ID: 2023. EXCLUDE-NOT ACCESSIBLE.
  • Basile JN. Antihypertensive therapy, new-onset diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2009;63(4):656–666. Ref ID: 211 EXCLUDE-REVIEW ARTICLE. [PMC free article: PMC2705820] [PubMed: 19220522]
  • Belknap S. Review: beta-blockers for hypertension increase risk of new onset diabetes: Commentary. Evidence-Based Medicine. 2008;13(2):50. Ref ID: 418 EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 18375703]
  • Bestermann W, Houston MC, Basile J, Egan B, Ferrario CM, Lackland D, Hawkins RG, Reed J, Rogers P, Wise D, Moore MA. Addressing the global cardiovascular risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome in the Southeastern United States, part II: Treatment recommendations for management of the global cardiovascular risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2005;329(6):292–305. Ref ID: 769. EXCLUDE-REVIEW FOCUSING ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK. [PubMed: 15958871]
  • Betteridge DJ. The interplay of cardiovascular risk factors in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. European Heart Journal, Supplement. 2004;6(7):G3–G7. Ref ID: 828. EXCLUDE-REVIEW FOCUSING ON RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.
  • Braatvedt GD. Glucose control peri-myocardial infarction. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;38(5):341–344. Ref ID: 415. EXCLUDE-REVIEW FOCUSING ON EFFECT ON MORTALITY. [PubMed: 18402560]
  • Brancati F. Resolving the glucose response curve: The underestimated importance of postprandial glucose. American Journal of Managed Care. 2000;6(21 SUPPL.):S1082–S1088. Ref ID: 1071. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RISK OF MORTALITY. [PubMed: 11187396]
  • Califf RM, Boolell M, Haffner SM, Bethel MA, McMurray J, Duggal A, Holman RR. Prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: Rationale and design of the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) Trial. American Heart Journal. 2008;156(4):623–632. Ref ID: 369. EXCLUDE-DETAILS OF TRIAL DESIGN. [PubMed: 18946890]
  • Capes SE, Hunt D, Malmberg K, Gerstein HC. Stress hyperglycaemia and increased risk of death after myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes: A systematic overview. Lancet. 2000;355(9206):773–778. Ref ID: 1093. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RISK OF MORTALITY NOT PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 10711923]
  • Chioncel V, Mincu D, Anastasiu M, Sinescu C. The prognostic value of blood glucose level on admission in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. Journal of medicine and life. 2009;2(3):271–278. Ref ID: 51. EXCLUDE-NO FOCUS ON DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETES. [PMC free article: PMC5052499] [PubMed: 20112471]
  • Colagiuri S, Cull CA, Holman RR. Are lower fasting plasma glucose levels at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes associated with improved outcomes?: U.K. prospective diabetes study 61. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(8):1410–1417. Ref ID: 996. EXCLUDE-PATIENTS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES. [PubMed: 12145243]
  • Conaway DG, O'Keefe JH. Fequency of undiagnosed and untreated diabetes mellitus in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 2006;4(4):503–507. Ref ID: 647. EXCLUDE-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 16918268]
  • Davis TME, Colagiuri S. The continuing legacy of the United Kingdom prospective diabetes study. Medical Journal of Australia. 2004;180(3):104–105. Ref ID: 895. EXCLUDE-EDITORIAL WITH NO FOCUS ON SUBSEQUENT DEVLEOPMENT OF DIABETES. [PubMed: 14748669]
  • Del PS, Bianchi C, Miccoli R, Penno G. Pharmacological intervention in prediabetes: Considering the risks and benefits. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2007;9(SUPPL1):17–22. Ref ID: 501. EXCLUDE-REVIEW NOT FOCUSING ON PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 17877543]
  • Edavalath M, Rees A. Therapy and clinical trials: Glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Lipidology. 2009;20(6):530–531. Ref ID: 66. EXCLUDE-COMMENT. [PubMed: 19935205]
  • Edelman L, McGinn T, Korenstein D. Just a spoonful of sugar: does presenting hyperglycemia impact prognosis in non-diabetics with acute myocardial infarction? Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 2009;76(3):294–296. Ref ID: 1295. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETES. [PubMed: 19421972]
  • Engberg S, Vlstisen D, Lau C, Glumer C, Joorgensen T, Pedersen O, Borch-Johnsen K. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based inter99 study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(4):606–611. Ref ID: 167. EXCLUDE-PATIENTS FROM GENERAL POPULATION WITH HYPERGLYCAEMIA WITHOUT ACS. HIGH RISK GROUP HAVE ABSOLUTE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE. [PMC free article: PMC2660484] [PubMed: 19114617]
  • Fisman EZ, Motro M, Tenenbaum A, Boyko V, Mandelzweig L, Behar S. Impaired fasting glucose concentrations in nondiabetic patients with ischemic heart disease: a marker for a worse prognosis. American Heart Journal. 2001;141(3):485–490. Ref ID: 1664. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY. [PubMed: 11231448]
  • Fonseca V. Newly diagnosed diabetes/hyperglycemia in hospitals: What should we do? Endocrine Practice. 2006;12(SUPPL. 3):108–111. Ref ID: 599. ASSESS FOR RQ4 (PATIENT INFO) [PubMed: 16905526]
  • Goyal A, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, Nicolau JC, Hochman JS, Weaver WD, Theroux P, Oliveira GBF, Todaro TG, Mojcik CF, Armstrong PW, Granger CB. Prognostic significance of the change in glucose level in the first 24 h after acute myocardial infarction: Results from the CARDINAL study. European Heart Journal. 2006;27(11):1289–1297. Ref ID: 667. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RISK OF MORTALITY NOT PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 16611669]
  • Guptha SH, Suman S, Matthews AA. Screening for diabetes in medical inpatients with hyperglycaemia. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2004;80(943):302. Ref ID: 871. EXCLUDE-LETTER. [PMC free article: PMC1742996] [PubMed: 15138327]
  • Hanna-Moussa A, Gardner MJ, Romayne KL, Sowers JR. Dysglycemia/prediabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2009;10(4):202–208. Ref ID: 12. EXCLUDE-REVIEW FOCUSING ON RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE NOT PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 20065930]
  • Herman WH, Hoerger TJ, Hicks K, Brandle M, Sorensen SW, Zhang P, Engelgau MM, Hamman RF, Marrero DG, Ackermann RT, Ratner RE. Managing people at high risk for diabetes [4] Annals of Internal Medicine. 2006;144(1):66–67. Ref ID: 587. EXCLUDE-LETTER. [PubMed: 16389262]
  • Hristova K, Milanov S, Petrov D. Circulation, Conference: World Congress of Cardiology Scientific Sessions 2010, WCC 2010 Beijing China; Conference Start: 20100616 Conference End: 20100619; 2010. Conference: World Congress of Cardiology Scientific Sessions 2010, WCC 2010 Beijing China. Conference Start: 20100616 Conference End: 20100619. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) e195. Ref ID: 276. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE PAPER.
  • Husband DJ, Alberti KGMM, Julian DG. ‘Stress’ hyperglycaemia during acute myocardial infarction: An indicator of pre-existing diabetes. Lancet. 1983;2(8343):179–181. Ref ID: 1231. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON RISK FACTORS FOR DEVLEOPMENT OF DIABETES. [PubMed: 6135025]
  • Inzucchi SE. Hyperglycaemia and its therapy during acute coronary syndromes. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research. 2008;5(4):259. Ref ID: 358. EXCLUDE-EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 18958834]
  • Jessani S, Gangopadhyay K, Patel JV, Lip GY, Millane T. Should oral glucose tolerance testing be mandatory following acute myocardial infarction? International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2007;61(4):680–683. Ref ID: 1403. EXCLUDE-NO FOCUS ON RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETES. [PubMed: 17394440]
  • Klein BE, Klein R, Lee KE. Components of the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in beaver dam. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(10):1790–1794. Ref ID: 990. EXCLUDE-DATA FOR PROGRESSION TO DIABETES IN PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED GLYCAEMIA BUT NO ACS. [PubMed: 12351479]
  • Lakhdar A. The diagnosis of preexisting diabetes associated with acute myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(3):461. Ref ID: 1108. EXCLUDE-LETTER. [PubMed: 9540033]
  • Lavernia F. Treating hyperglycemia and diabetes with insulin therapy: Transition from inpatient to outpatient care. MedGenMed Medscape General Medicine. 2008;10(9) Ref ID: 374. EXCLUDE-NOT ACCESSIBLE. [PMC free article: PMC2580096] [PubMed: 19008977]
  • Madsen JK, Haunsoe S, Helquist S. Prevalence of hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Acta Medica Scandinavica. 1986;220(4):329–332. Ref ID: 1214. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON PREVALANCE OF DIABETES NOT RISK FACTORS FOR PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 3799239]
  • Melidonis A, Koutsovasilis A, Tsourous G, Nikolaou A, Chrysomallis I, Dragoumanos V, Iraklianou S, Foussas S. Diabetologia, Conference: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, EASD 2010 Stockholm Sweden; Conference Start: 20100920 Conference End: 20100924; 2010. Conference: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, EASD 2010 Stockholm Sweden. Conference Start: 20100920 Conference End: 20100924. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) S495. Ref ID: 299. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • Monteiro S, Monteiro P, Goncalves F, Freitas M, Providencia LA. Hyperglycaemia at admission in acute coronary syndrome patients: Prognostic value in diabetics and non-diabetics. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. 2010;17(2):155–159. Ref ID: 8. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RISK OF MORTALITY NOT PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 20110816]
  • Mozaffarian D, Marfisi R, Levantesi G, Silletta MG, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Valagussa F, Marchioli R. Incidence of new-onset diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with recent myocardial infarction and the effect of clinical and lifestyle risk factors. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):667–675. Ref ID: 1388. EXCLUDE-FOCUSED ON RISK FACTORS FOR PROGRESSION TO DIABETES IN PATIENTS WITH ACS (NO SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO BASELINE BLOOD GLUCOSE) [PubMed: 17720018]
  • Nesto RW. Prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes in clinical settings. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2006;7(SUPPL. 2):S18–S24. Ref ID: 582. EXCLUDE-REVIEW FOCUSING ON PREVALENCE OF DIABETES NOT RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETES. [PubMed: 17224873]
  • Nichols GA, Koro CE, Kolatkar NS. The epidemiology of congestive heart failure in hyperglycemia below the threshold for diabetes: A critical review. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews. 2007;1(4):273–278. Ref ID: 486. EXCLUDE-REVIEW FOCUSING ON RISK OF CHRONIC HEART DISEASE.
  • Nielson C, Lange T, Hadjokas N. Blood glucose and coronary artery disease in nondiabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(5):998–1001. Ref ID: 657. EXCLUDE-PATIENTS WITH HYPERGLYCAEMIA NOT INCLUDED. [PubMed: 16644627]
  • Nilsson PM. ACCORD and risk-factor control in type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;362(17):1628–1630. Ref ID: 11. EXCLUDE-EDITORIAL AND PATIENTS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH DIABETES. [PubMed: 20228405]
  • Oswald GA, Corcoran S, Yudkin JS. Prevalence and risks of hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1984;1(8389):1264–1267. Ref ID: 1223. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON RISK FACTORS FOR PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 6144976]
  • Oswald GA, Yudkin JS. Hyperglycaemia following acute myocardial infarction: The contribution of undiagnosed diabetes. Diabetic Medicine. 1987;4(1):68–70. Ref ID: 1200. EXCLUDE-TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE. [PubMed: 2951225]
  • Petursson P, Herlitz J, Caidahl K, From-Attebring M, Sjoland H, Gudbjornsdottir S, Hartford M. Association between glycometabolic status in the acute phase and 2 1/2 years after an acute coronary syndrome. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. 2006;40(3):145–151. Ref ID: 644. EXCLUDE-NOT SPECIFIC TO PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. FOCUSES ON GLYCOMETABOLIC DISTURBANCE IN GENERAL WHICH INCLUDES BOTH IFG OR DIABETES. [PubMed: 16798661]
  • Rasmussen SS, Lauritzen T, Sandbaeck A, Borch-Johnsen K. Diabetologia, Conference: 45th EASD Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Vienna Austria; Conference Start: 20090930 Conference End: 20091002; 2009. Conference: 45th EASD Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Vienna Austria. Conference Start: 20090930 Conference End: 20091002. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) S327. Ref ID: 109. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE PAPER.
  • Ravid M, Berkowicz M, Sohar E. Hyperglycemia during acute myocardial infarction A six-year follow-up study. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 1975;233(7):807–809. Ref ID: 1239. EXCLUDE-FOCUSED ON PREVALANCE OF DIABETES NOT RISK FACTORS FOR PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 1173880]
  • Ryden L, Standl E, Bartnik M, Van Den Berghe G, Betteridge J, De BMJ, Cosentino F, Jonsson B, Laakso M, Malmberg K, Priori S, Ostergren J, Tuomilehto J, Thrainsdottir I, Vanhorebeek I, Stramba-Badiale M, Lindgren P, Qiao Q, Priori SG, Blanc JJ, Budaj A, Camm J, Dean V, Deckers J, Dickstein K, Lekakis J, McGregor K, Metra M, Morais J, Osterspey A, Tamargo J, Zamorano JL, Deckers JW, Bertrand M, Charbonnel B, Erdmann E, Ferrannini E, Flyvbjerg A, Gohlke H, Juanatey JRG, Graham I, Monteiro PF, Parhofer K, Pyorala K, Raz I, Schernthaner G, Volpe M, Wood D. Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: Full text. Diabetes, Stoffwechsel und Herz. 2007;16(7):C3–C74. Ref ID: 455. EXCLUDE-GUIDELINE. [PubMed: 17220161]
  • Salmasi AM, Frost P, Dancy M. Left ventricular diastolic function in normotensive subjects 2 months after acute myocardial infarction is related to glucose intolerance. American Heart Journal. 2005;150(1):168–174. Ref ID: 755. EXCLUDE-UNCLEAR IF PARTICIPANTS WERE HYPERGLYCAEMIC ON ADMISSION. [PubMed: 16084165]
  • Santaguida PL, Balion C, Hunt D, Morrison K, Gerstein H, Raina P, Booker L, Yazdi H. Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment. 2005. p. 312. available from: http://www​.ahrq.gov/clinic/tp/impglutp​.htm. Ref ID: 1914. EXCLUDE-NOT SPECIFIC TO ACS. [PMC free article: PMC4780988] [PubMed: 16194123]
  • Savage M. Screening for glucose intolerance post myocardial infarction. Diabetic Medicine, Supplement. 2004;21(4):12–13. Ref ID: 850. EXCLUDE-CASE STUDY/EDITORIAL. [PubMed: 15315519]
  • Sen K, Mukherjee AK, Dharchowdhury L, Chatterjee A. A study to find out the proportion of prediabetes in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a Medical College of Kolkata. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2008;106(12):776–778. Ref ID: 323. EXCLUDE-NOT ACCESSIBLE. [PubMed: 19370946]
  • Singh RB, Vargoa V, Mechirova V, Pella D. Acute coronary syndrome: A progression of pre-metabolic syndrome. World Heart Journal. 2008;1(4):307–308. Ref ID: 251. EXCLUDE-NOT ACCESSIBLE.
  • Stranders I, Diamant M, Van Gelder RE, Spruijt HJ, Twisk JWR, Heine RJ, Visser FC. Admission Blood Glucose Level as Risk Indicator of Death after Myocardial Infarction in Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004;164(9):982–988. Ref ID: 876. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RISK OF MORTALITY. [PubMed: 15136307]
  • Tenerz A, Lonnberg I, Berne C, Nilsson G, Leppert J. Myocardial infarction and prevalence of diabetes mellitus: Is increased casual blood glucose at admission a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes? European Heart Journal. 2001;22(13):1102–1110. Ref ID: 1050. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON PREVALANCE OF DIABETES NOT RISK FACTORS FOR PROGRESSION TO DIABETES. [PubMed: 11428850]
  • Venskutonyte L, Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Ryden L. Journal of Diabetes, Conference: 3rd International Congress on Prediabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome Nice France; Conference Start: 20090401 Conference End: 20090404; 2009. Conference: 3rd International Congress on Prediabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome Nice France. Conference Start: 20090401 Conference End: 20090404. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) A66. Ref ID: 255. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE PAPER.
  • Wallander M, Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Ryden L, Tenerz A. Oral glucose tolerance test: a reliable tool for early detection of glucose abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction in clinical practice: a report on repeated oral glucose tolerance tests from the GAMI study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):36–38. Ref ID: 1368. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RELIABILITY OF OGTT. [PubMed: 17909086]
  • Wannamethee SG. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in the British regional heart study. International Journal of Obesity. 2008;32(SUPPL 2):S25–S29. Ref ID: 403. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA FOCUS ON RISK OF CHRONIC HEART DISEASE AND DIABETES IN PARTICIPANTS WITHOUT HISTORY OF THESE CONDITIONS. [PubMed: 18469839]
  • Zareba W. Hyperglycemia as a risk factor in postinfarction patients. Cardiology Journal. 2008;15(5):399–401. Ref ID: 365. EXCLUDE-NARRATIVE REVIEW. [PubMed: 18810713]

Flow diagram of excluded studies for hyperglycaemia review question 4

The flow diagram below shows an overview of the studies that were identified, included and excluded for review question 4, which focuses on the information or support that should be provided for patients with ACS and hyperglycaemia (who are at high risk for developing diabetes) while they are waiting for a referral for diabetic investigations.

Image appdfu4

Excluded studies

List of excluded studies for review question 4 (patient information)

  • Summaries for patients. Levels of risk factors associated with heart attacks. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005;142(6):I23. [Original report in Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 15;142(6):393-402; PMID: 15767617] Ref ID: 64. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON RISK FACTORS FOR CHRONIC HEART DISEASE NOT PATIENT INFORMATION. [PubMed: 15767613]
  • Newsline: another risk factor turns up for diabetes. Clinical Advisor for Nurse Practitioners. 2007;10(10):11–12. Ref ID: 546. EXCLUDE-NEWS ARTICLE.
  • Antman EMA. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction - Executive summary: A report of the American College of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1999 guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction) Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2004;20(10):977–1025. Ref ID: 445. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON PATIENT INFORMATION FOR HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 15332148]
  • Basina MK. Effectiveness of diabetes management: Is improvement feasible? American Journal of Medicine. 2002;112(8):670–672. Ref ID: 492. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON MANAGEMENT OF DIAGNOSED DIABETES. [PubMed: 12034419]
  • Clark CM Jr. The National Diabetes Education Program: Changing the way diabetes is treated. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1999;130(4 I):324–326. Ref ID: 508. EXCLUDED-OVERVIEW OF DIABETES EDUCATION PROGRAM. [PubMed: 10068393]
  • De Mulder MO. European Heart Journal, Conference: European Society of Cardiology, ESC Congress 2010 Stockholm Sweden; Conference Start: 20100828 Conference End: 20100901; 2010. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) 349. Ref ID: 266. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • Del Prato S, Bianchi Pharmacological intervention in prediabetes: Considering the risks and benefits. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2007;9(SUPPL.1):17–22. Ref ID: 328. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 17877543]
  • Engberg S, Vistisen D, Lau C, Glumer C, Jorgensen T, Pedersen O, Borch-Johnsen K. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(4):606–611. [Erratum appears in Diabetes Care. 2009 Sep;32(9):1751] Ref ID: 10. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PMC free article: PMC2660484] [PubMed: 19114617]
  • Engelgau M, C S, R A, B.-J K, N K. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Issues and Strategies for Identifying Persons for Interventions. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2004;6:874–882. Ref ID: 656. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 15684642]
  • Gavin JRP III. Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Message from the National Diabetes Education Program. American Family Physician. 2003;68(8):1569–1578. Ref ID: 470. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON PATIENT INFO FOR POTENTIAL DIABETES. [PubMed: 14596445]
  • Hanna-Moussa A, Gardner MJ, Romayne KL, Sowers JR. Dysglycemia/prediabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2009;10(4):202–208. Ref ID: 12. EXCLUDE-NOR FOCUSED ON PATIENT INFORMATION/ADVICE. [PubMed: 20065930]
  • Heinig RE. The patient with diabetes: Preventing cardiovascular complications. Clinical Cardiology. 2006;29(10 SUPPL.):II13–II20. Ref ID: 371. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON PATIENTS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH DIABETES. [PubMed: 17436822]
  • Hristova KM. Circulation, Conference: World Congress of Cardiology Scientific Sessions 2010, WCC 2010 Beijing China; Conference Start: 20100616 Conference End: 20100619; 2010. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) e195. Ref ID: 244. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • Jaber LA, Halapy H, Fernet M, Tummalapalli S, Diwakaran H. Evaluation of a pharmaceutical care model on diabetes management. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 1996;30(3):238–243. available from: http://www​.mrw.interscience​.wiley.com/cochrane​/clcentral/articles​/791/CN-00130791/frame.html. Ref ID: 654. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON PATIENT INFORMATION. [PubMed: 8833557]
  • Kane JSK. Diabetes, Conference: 69th Annual Meeting of the American Diabetes Association New Orleans, LA United States; Conference Start: 20090605 Conference End: 20090609; 2009. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) Ref ID: 164. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • Lansdown AJR. Diabetic Medicine, Conference: Diabetes UK Annual Professional Conference Liverpool United Kingdom; Conference Start: 20100303 Conference End: 20100305; 2010. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) 90. Ref ID: 155. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • MacFarlane IAW. Focus on smoking and diabetes. Practical Diabetes International. 2007;24(3):117–118. Ref ID: 322. EXCLUDE-FOCUS ON LINK BETWEEN SMOKING AND DIABETES NOT PATIENT INFORMATION.
  • Mozaffarian D, Marfisi R, Levantesi G, Silletta MG, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Valagussa F, Marchioli R. Incidence of new-onset diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with recent myocardial infarction and the effect of clinical and lifestyle risk factors. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):667–675. Ref ID: 28. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 17720018]
  • Murray E, Burns J, See TS, Lai R, Nazareth I. Interactive Health Communication Applications for people with chronic disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Reviews. 2005;(4) 2005. available from: http://www​.mrw.interscience​.wiley.com/cochrane​/clsysrev/articles/CD004274/frame​.html. Ref ID: 623. EXCLUDE-NOT SPECIFIC TO PATIENTS WITH ACSAND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 16235356]
  • Noknoy S, Chamnan P, Anothaisintawee T. Theory-based behavioural interventions for prediabetic state and people with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Protocols. 2009;(4) 2009. available from: http://www​.mrw.interscience​.wiley.com/cochrane​/clsysrev/articles/CD008082/frame​.html. Ref ID: 613. EXCLUDE-PROTOCOL.
  • Orozco LJ, Buchleitner AM, Gimenez PG, Figuls M, Richter B, Mauricio D. Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Reviews. 2008;(3) 2008. available from: http://www​.mrw.interscience​.wiley.com/cochrane​/clsysrev/articles/CD003054/frame​.html. Ref ID: 617. EXCLUDE-PAPERS DONT INCLUDE PATIENTS WITH ACS (HYPERGLYCAEMIA ONLY) [PubMed: 18646086]
  • Rasmussen SSL. Diabetologia, Conference: 45th EASD Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Vienna Austria; Conference Start: 20090930 Conference End: 20091002; 2009. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) S327. Ref ID: 180. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • Ratner R, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Marcovina S, Orchard T, Fowler S, Temprosa M., Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of intensive lifestyle and metformin therapy on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(4):888–894. Ref ID: 63. EXCLUDE-NOT SPECIFIC TO PATIENTS WITH ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PMC free article: PMC1307521] [PubMed: 15793191]
  • Rosenstock J. Reflecting on type 2 diabetes prevention: More questions than answers! Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2007;9(SUPPL.1):3–11. Ref ID: 502. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 17877541]
  • Tenerz A, L I. Myocardial infarction and prevalence of diabetes mellitus: Is increased casual blood glucose at admission a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes? European Heart Journal. 2001;22(13):1102–1110. Ref ID: 500. EXCLUDE-NOT FOCUSED ON PATIENT INFORMATION. [PubMed: 11428850]
  • Tuomilehto J, L J. The major diabetes prevention trials. Current diabetes review. 2003;3:115–122. Ref Type: Generic. Ref ID: 655. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 12728637]
  • Unger J, Moriarty C. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Primary Care - Clinics in Office Practice. 2008;35(4):645–662. Ref ID: 362. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 18928823]
  • Uusitupa MI. Early lifestyle intervention in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. Annals of medicine. 1996;28(5):445–449. available from: http://www​.mrw.interscience​.wiley.com/cochrane​/clcentral/articles​/538/CN-00134538/frame.html. Ref ID: 653. EXCLUDE-NOT PERI ACS AND HYPERGLYCAEMIA. [PubMed: 8949977]
  • Vancea DM, Vancea JN, Pires MI, Reis MA, Moura RB, Dib SA. Effect of frequency of physical exercise on glycemic control and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia. 2009;92(1):23–30. available from: http://www​.mrw.interscience​.wiley.com/cochrane​/clcentral/articles​/403/CN-00721403/frame.html. Ref ID: 637. EXCLUDE-PATIENTS ALREADY DIAGNOSED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES. [PubMed: 19219261]
  • Varadhan LW. Diabetes, Conference: 69th Annual Meeting of the American Diabetes Association New Orleans, LA United States; Conference Start: 20090605 Conference End: 20090609; 2009. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) Ref ID: 159. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
  • Zhao ZYW. Cardiology, Conference: International Heart Forum Beijing China; Conference Start: 20100811 Conference End: 20100813; 2010. Conference Publication: (var.pagings) 44. Ref ID: 260. EXCLUDE-CONFERENCE ABSTRACT.
Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

All rights reserved. This material may be freely reproduced for educational and not-for-profit purposes. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations, or for commercial purposes, is allowed without the express written permission of NICE.

Bookshelf ID: NBK116550

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