NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Chou R, Cottrell EB, Wasson N, et al. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Nov. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 69.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults

Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults [Internet].

Show details

References

1.
Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(10):705–14. [PubMed: 16702586]
2.
Davis GL, Alter MJ, El–Serag H, et al. Aging of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons in the United States: a multiple cohort model of HCV prevalence and disease progression. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(2):513–21. e6. [PubMed: 19861128]
3.
Wasley A, Grytdal S, Gallagher K, et al. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis--United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(2):1–24. [PubMed: 18354374]
4.
National Center for HIV/AIDS VH, STD & TB Prevention. Disease Burden from Viral Hepatitis A, B, and C in the United States [pdf]. Center for Disease Control; 2011. [Accessed on May 31, 2012]. www​.cdc.gov/hepatitis​/Statistics/2009Surveillance​/PDFs/2009HepSurveillanceRpt​.pdf.
5.
Ly KN, Xing J, Klevens RM, et al. The increasing burden of mortality from viral hepatitis in the United States between 1999 and 2007. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(4):271–8. [PubMed: 22351712]
6.
Busch MP. Insights into the epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection from studies of infected donors and blood product recipients. Transfusion Clinique et Biologique. 2001;8(3):200–6. [PubMed: 11499958]
7.
Kim WR. The burden of hepatitis C in the United States. Hepatology. 2002;36(5 Suppl 1):S30–4. [PubMed: 12407574]
8.
El-Serag HB. Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent trends in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2004;127(5 Suppl 1):S27–34. [PubMed: 15508094]
9.
Foster G, Goldin R, Thomas H. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection causes a significant reduction in quality of life in the absence of cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1998;27:209–12. [PubMed: 9425939]
10.
Rowan PJ, Al-Jurdi R, Tavakoli-Tabasi S, et al. Physical and psychosocial contributors to quality of life in veterans with hepatitis C not on antiviral therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39(8):731–6. [PubMed: 16082286]
11.
Koff RS. Impaired health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C: the how, but not the why. Hepatology. 1999;29(1):277–9. [PubMed: 9862878]
12.
Rodger AJ, Jolley D, Thompson SC, et al. The impact of diagnosis of hepatitis C virus on quality of life. Hepatology. 1999 Nov;30(5):1299–301. [PubMed: 10534353]
13.
Kenny-Walsh E. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(16):1228–33. [PubMed: 10210705]
14.
Hagan H, Pouget ER, Des Jarlais DC, et al. Meta-regression of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to time since onset of illicit drug injection: the influence of time and place. CORD Conference Proceedings. 2008;168(10):1099–109. [PMC free article: PMC2727245] [PubMed: 18849303]
15.
Alter H. Discovery of non-A, non-B hepatitis and identification of its etiology. Am J Med. 1999;107(6B):16S–20S. [PubMed: 10653450]
16.
Kaur S, Rybicki L, Bacon BR, et al. Performance characteristics and results of a large-scale screening program for viral hepatitis and risk factors associated with exposure to viral hepatitis B and C: results of the National Hepatitis Screening Survey. National Hepatitis Surveillance Group. Hepatology. 1996 Nov;24(5):979–86. [PubMed: 8903363]
17.
Yawn BP, Gazzuola L, Wollan PC, et al. Development and maintenance of a community-based hepatitis C registry. Am J Manage Care. 2002 Mar;8(3):253–61. [PubMed: 11915975]
18.
Austin GE, Jensen B, Leete J, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among hospitalized US veterans. Am J Med Sci. 2000;319(6):353–9. [PubMed: 10875289]
19.
Cheung R. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in American veterans. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(3):740–7. [PubMed: 10710068]
20.
Garfein RS, Vlahov D, Galai N, et al. Viral Infections in short-term injection drug users: The prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotorpic viruses. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(5):655–61. [PMC free article: PMC1380472] [PubMed: 8629715]
21.
Rein DB, Smith BD, Wittenborn JS, Lesesne SB, Wagner LD, Roblin DW, et al. The cost-effectiveness of birth-cohort screening for hepatitis C antibody in U.S. primary care settings. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(4):263–70. [PMC free article: PMC5484577] [PubMed: 22056542]
22.
Bellentani S, Pozzato G, Saccoccio G, et al. Clinical course and risk factors of hepatitis C virus related liver disease in the general population: report from the Dionysos study. Gut. 1999;44(6):874–80. [PMC free article: PMC1727553] [PubMed: 10323892]
23.
Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 1997;26(3 Suppl 1):62S–5S. [PubMed: 9305666]
24.
Schreiber GB, Busch MP, Kleinman SH, et al. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(26):1685–90. [PubMed: 8637512]
25.
Alter MJ. Prevention of spread of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002;36:S93–8. [PubMed: 12407581]
26.
Haley RW, Fischer RP. The tattooing paradox: Are studies of acute hepatitis adequate to identify routes of transmission of subclinical hepatitis C infection? Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(9):1095–8. [PubMed: 12742809]
27.
Balasekaran R, Bulterys M, Jamal MM, et al. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 May;94(5):1341–6. [PubMed: 10235216]
28.
Murphy EL, Bryzman S, Williams AE, et al. Demographic determinants of hepatitis C virus seroprevalence among blood donors. JAMA. 1996;275(13):995–1000. [PubMed: 8596257]
29.
Silverman AL, Sekhon JS, Saginaw SJ, et al. Tattoo application is not associated with an increased risk for chronic viral hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(5):1312–5. [PubMed: 10811345]
30.
Conry-Cantilena C, VanRaden M, Gibble J, et al. Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(26):1691–6. [PubMed: 8637513]
31.
Bialek SR, Terrault NA. The changing epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Liver Dis. 2006;10(4):697–715. [PubMed: 17164113]
32.
McCaughan GW, George J. Fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Gut. 2004;53(3):318–21. [PMC free article: PMC1773949] [PubMed: 14960506]
33.
Freeman AJ, Dore GJ, Law MG, et al. Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2001;34(4 Pt 1):809–16. [PubMed: 11584380]
34.
Seeff LB. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002;36(5 Suppl 1):S35–46. [PubMed: 12407575]
35.
Barrett S, Goh J, Coughlan B, et al. The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection after 22 years in a unique homogenous cohort: spontaneous viral clearance and chronic HCV infection. Gut. 2001;49(3):423–30. [PMC free article: PMC1728443] [PubMed: 11511566]
36.
Harris HE, Ramsay ME, Andrews N, et al. Clinical course of hepatitis C virus during the first decade of infection: cohort study. BMJ. 2002;324(7335):450–3. [PMC free article: PMC65664] [PubMed: 11859045]
37.
Wiese M, Berr F, Portst H, et al. Low frequency of cirrhosis in a large hepatitis C outbreak after 20 years. J Hepatol. 2000;32(Suppl 2):101.
38.
Seeff LB, Miller RN, Rabkin CS, et al. 45-year follow-up of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy young adults. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(2):105–11. [PubMed: 10644270]
39.
Wiese M, Grüngreiff K, Güthoff W, et al. Outcome in a hepatitis C (genotype 1b) single source outbreak in Germany—a 25-year multicenter study. J Hepatol. 2005;43(4):590–8. [PubMed: 16237783]
40.
Thomas DL. Hepatitis C epidemiology: injecting new tools in the field. Hepatology. 2000 Mar;31(3):790–1. [PubMed: 10706576]
41.
Thein HH, Yi Q, Dore GJ, et al. Estimation of stage-specific fibrosis progression rates in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Hepatology. 2008;48(2):418–31. [PubMed: 18563841]
42.
Hagan H, Campbell J, Thiede H, et al. Self-reported hepatitis C virus antibody status and risk behavior in young injectors. Public Health Rep. 2006;121(6):710–9. [PMC free article: PMC1781913] [PubMed: 17278406]
43.
Anonymous. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(6):462–4. [PubMed: 15023712]
44.
Chou R, Clark E, Helfand M. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Systematic Evidence Review No. 24. Mar, 2004. (Prepared by Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-97-0018) www​.effectivehealthcare​.ahrq.gov/reports/final.cfm. www​.ahrq.gov/downloads​/pub/prevent/pdfser/hepcser.pdf.
45.
Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, et al. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology. 2009;49:1335–74. [PubMed: 19330875]
46.
Dienstag JL, McHutchison JG. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2006;130(1):225–30. [PubMed: 16401485]
47.
AAP. Hepatitis C virus infection. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3):481–5. [PubMed: 9499195]
48.
Smith BD, Morgan RL, Beckett GA, Falck-Ytter Y, Holtzman D, Ward JW. Hepatitis C virus testing of persons born during 1945 to 1965: Recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Aug 16 [PubMed: 22910836]
49.
European Paediatric, Hepatitis CVN. Three broad modalities in the natural history of vertically acquired hepatitis C virus infection. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2005;41:45–51. [PubMed: 15937762]
50.
England K, Thorne C, Newell ML. Vertically acquired paediatric coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6(2):83–90. [PubMed: 16439328]
51.
Ceci O, Margiotta M, Marello F, et al. High rate of spontaneous viral clearance in a cohort of vertically infected hepatitis C virus infants: What lies behind? J Hepatol. 2001;35(5):687–8. [PubMed: 11690723]
52.
Mast EE, Hwang LY, Seto DSY, et al. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the natural history of HCV infection acquired in infancy. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(11):1880–9. [PubMed: 16267758]
53.
Pembrey L, Newell ML, Tovo PA. The management of HCV infected pregnant women and their children European paediatric HCV network. J Hepatol. 2005 Sep;43(3):515–25. [PubMed: 16144064]
54.
Yeung LTF, King SM, Roberts EA. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology. 2001;34(2):223–9. [PubMed: 11481604]
55.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatocellular carcinoma—United States, 2001–2006. MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2010 May 7;59(17):517–20. [PubMed: 20448528]
56.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. 86 ed. ACOG practice bulletin; Washington, DC: 2007. [PubMed: 17906043]
57.
Boaz K, Fiore AE, Schrag SJ, et al. Screening and counseling practices reported by obstetrician-gynecologists for patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11(1):39–44. [PMC free article: PMC1852263] [PubMed: 12839631]
58.
Chou RC, Hartung D, Rahman B, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults. Comparative Effectiveness Review. 2012. (Prepared by Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10057-I.) Forthcoming. [PubMed: 23437439]
59.
Soto B, Sanchez-Quijano A, Rodrigo L, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 1997;26(1):1–5. [PubMed: 9147999]
60.
Sanchez-Quijano A, Andreu J, Gavilan F, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on the natural course of chronic parenterally acquired hepatitis C. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995;14(11):949–53. [PubMed: 8654444]
61.
Furusyo N, Hayashi J, Kanamoto-Tanaka Y, et al. Liver damage in hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C virus viremia: a prospective 10-year study. Dig Dis Sci. 2000;45(11):2221–8. [PubMed: 11215743]
62.
Rostaing L, Rumeau JL, Cisterne JM, et al. Liver histology in renal transplant patients after more than 10 years of hepatitis C virus infection. Transplant Proc. 1996;28(5):2836–7. [PubMed: 8908089]
63.
Kliem V, van den Hoff U, Brunkhorst R, et al. The long-term course of hepatitis C after kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 1996;62(10):1417–21. [PubMed: 8958266]
64.
Anonymous. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 1998;47(RR-19):1–39. [PubMed: 9790221]
65.
Smith B, Jan JD, Amy AJ, et al. Evaluation of three rapid screening assays for detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus. CORD Conference Proceedings. 2011;204(6):825–31. [PubMed: 21849279]
66.
Lee SR, Yearwood GD, Guillon GB, et al. Evaluation of a rapid, point-of-care test device for the diagnosis of hepatitis C infection. CORD Conference Proceedings. 2010;48(1):15–7. [PubMed: 20362493]
67.
Lee SR, Kardos KW, Schiff E, et al. Evaluation of a New; Rapid Test for Detecting HCV Infection; Suitable for Use with Blood or Oral Fluid. J Virol Methods. 2010 [PubMed: 21182871]
68.
Thomas DL, Seeff LB. Natural history of hepatitis C. Clin Liver Dis. 2005 Aug;9(3):383–98. vi. [PubMed: 16023972]
69.
Ilan Y. Review article: the assessment of liver function using breath tests. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26(10):1293–302. [PubMed: 17868431]
70.
Cardoso AC, Carvalho-Filho RJ, Marcellin P. Transient elastography in chronic viral hepatitis: a critical appraisal. Gut. 2011 [PubMed: 21450696]
71.
Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests 3: receiver operating characteristic plots. BMJ. 1994;309(6948):188. [PMC free article: PMC2540706] [PubMed: 8044101]
72.
Zweig MH, Campbell G. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine. Clin Chem. 1993;39(4):561–77. [PubMed: 8472349]
73.
Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52(6):377–84. [PMC free article: PMC1756728] [PubMed: 9764259]
74.
Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, et al. Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(3 Suppl):21–35. [PubMed: 11306229]
75.
Whiting PF, Rutjes AW, Westwood ME, et al. QUADAS-2: A revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(8):529–36. [PubMed: 22007046]
76.
Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Apr, 2012. [June 19, 2012]. AHRQ Publication No. 10(12)-EHC063-EF. Chapters available at: http://www​.effectivehealthcare​.ahrq.gov/ehc​/products/60/318/MethodsGuide​_Prepublication-Draft​_20120523.pdf.
77.
Atkins D, Chang S, Gartlehner G, et al. Assessing applicability when comparing medical interventions: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Effective Health Care Program. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2011;64(11):1198–207. [PubMed: 21463926]
78.
Cullen W, Stanley J, Langton D, et al. Hepatitis C infection among injecting drug users in general practice: A cluster randomised controlled trial of clinical guidelines’ implementation. Br J Gen Pract. 2006;56(532):848–56. [PMC free article: PMC1927093] [PubMed: 17132352]
79.
Anderson EM, Mandeville RP, Hutchinson SJ, et al. Evaluation of a general practice based hepatitis C virus screening intervention. Scott Med J. 2009 Aug;54(3):3–7. [PubMed: 19728405]
80.
Gunn RA, Murray PJ, Brennan CH, et al. Evaluation of screening criteria to identify persons with hepatitis C virus infection among sexually transmitted disease clinic clients: results from the San Diego Viral Hepatitis Integration Project. Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Apr;30(4):340–4. [PubMed: 12671556]
81.
McGinn T, O’Connor-Moore N, Alfandre D, et al. Validation of a hepatitis C screening tool in primary care. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Oct 13;168(18):2009–13. [PubMed: 18852403]
82.
Zuniga IA, Chen JJ, Lane DS, et al. Analysis of a hepatitis C screening programme for US veterans. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Apr;134(2):249–57. [PMC free article: PMC2870390] [PubMed: 16490127]
83.
Zuure F, Davidovich U, Kok G, et al. Evaluation of a risk assessment questionnaire to assist hepatitis C screening in the general population. Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Europeen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin. 2010 Apr 15;15(15):19539. [PubMed: 20429995]
84.
Nguyen MT, Herrine SK, Laine CA, et al. Description of a new hepatitis C risk assessment tool. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Sep 26;165(17):2013–8. [PubMed: 16186472]
85.
Lapane KL, Jakiche AF, Sugano D, et al. Hepatitis C infection risk analysis: who should be screened? Comparison of multiple screening strategies based on the National Hepatitis Surveillance Program. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(4):591–6. [PubMed: 9576453]
86.
King LA, Le Strat Y, Meffre C, et al. Assessment and proposal of a new combination of screening criteria for hepatitis C in France. Eur J Public Health. 2009 Oct;19(5):527–33. [PubMed: 19667051]
87.
Fabris P, Tositti G, Giordani MT, et al. Assessing patients’ understanding of hepatitis C virus infection and its impact on their lifestyle. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23(8):1161–70. [PubMed: 16611277]
88.
Trepka MJ, Zhang G, Leguen F, et al. Benefits and adverse effects of hepatitis C screening: early results of a screening program. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2007 May–Jun;13(3):263–9. [PubMed: 17435493]
89.
Coughlan B, Sheehan J, Carr A, et al. Evaluation of a brief group based psychological/educational treatment programme for women with an iatrogenic chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2004;11(4):303–14.
90.
Andriulli A, Persico M, Iacobellis A, et al. Treatment of patients with HCV infection with or without liver biopsy. J Viral Hepat. 2004;11(6):536–42. [PubMed: 15500554]
91.
Adams LA, Bulsara M, Rossi E, et al. Hepascore: An Accurate Validated Predictor of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection. Clin Chem. 2005 October 1;51(10):1867–73. [PubMed: 16055434]
92.
Adler M, Gulbis B, Moreno C, et al. The predictive value of FIB-4 versus FibroTest, APRI, FibroIndex and Forns index to noninvasively estimate fibrosis in hepatitis C and nonhepatitis C liver diseases. Hepatology. 2008;47(2):762–3. [PubMed: 18220307]
93.
Ahmad W, Ijaz B, Javed FT, et al. A comparison of four fibrosis indexes in chronic HCV: development of new fibrosis-cirrhosis index (FCI) BMC Gastroenterology. 2011;11:44. [PMC free article: PMC3098184] [PubMed: 21507271]
94.
Alsatie M, Kwo PY, Gingerich JR, et al. A multivariable model of clinical variables predicts advanced fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41(4):416–21. [PubMed: 17413613]
95.
Anderson FH, Zeng L, Rock NR, et al. An assessment of the clinical utility of serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatol Res. 2000;18(1):63–71. [PubMed: 10838037]
96.
Becker L, Salameh W, Sferruzza A, et al. Validation of hepascore, compared with simple indices of fibrosis, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;7(6):696–701. [PubMed: 19514117]
97.
Bejarano G. Prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C infection using the Sabadell NIHCED (Non-Invasive Hepatitis-C-Related Cirrhosis Early Detection) index. 2009. [Accessed on June 20, 2011]. http://hepatop​.biopredictive​.com/publication​/19527078/prospective-evaluation-of-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis-c-infection-using-the-sabadell-nihced-non-invasive-hepatitis-c-related-cirrhosis-early-detection-index/ [PubMed: 19527078]
98.
Ben Jazia E, Kaabia N, Benabdelkader A, et al. Noninvasive fibrosis markers for the prediction of significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Tunisia. Infect Dis Clin Pract (Baltim Md) 2009;17(6):385.
99.
Berg T, Sarrazin C, Hinrichsen H, et al. Does noninvasive staging of fibrosis challenge liver biopsy as a gold standard in chronic hepatitis C? Hepatology. 2004;39(5):1456–7. [PubMed: 15122779]
100.
Boeker KH, Haberkorn CI, Michels D, et al. Diagnostic potential of circulating TIMP-1 and MMP-2 as markers of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Chim Acta. 2002;316(1–2):71–81. [PubMed: 11750276]
101.
Bonacini M, Hadi G, Govindarajan S, et al. Utility of a discriminant score for diagnosing advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(8):1302–4. [PubMed: 9260794]
102.
Borroni G, Ceriani R, Cazzaniga M, et al. Comparison of simple tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of clinically silent cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(5):797–804. [PubMed: 16918883]
103.
Bota S, Sirli R, Sporea I, et al. A new scoring system for prediction of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepat Mon. 2011;11(7):548–55. [PMC free article: PMC3212757] [PubMed: 22087193]
104.
Bourliere M, Penaranda G, Ouzan D, et al. Optimized stepwise combination algorithms of non-invasive liver fibrosis scores including Hepascore in hepatitis C virus patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;28(4):458–67. [PubMed: 18498446]
105.
Bourliere M, Penaranda G, Renou C, et al. Validation and comparison of indexes for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients: proposal for a pragmatic approach classification without liver biopsies. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13(10):659–70. [PubMed: 16970597]
106.
Boursier J, Bacq Y, Halfon P, et al. Improved diagnostic accuracy of blood tests for severe fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21(1):28–38. [PubMed: 19060630]
107.
Boursier J, de Ledinghen V, Zarski J-P, et al. A new combination of blood test and fibroscan for accurate non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis stages in chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(7):1255–63. [PubMed: 21468012]
108.
Boursier J, de Ledinghen V, Zarski JP, et al. Comparison of eight diagnostic algorithms for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C: new algorithms are more precise and entirely noninvasive. Hepatology. 2012;55(1):58–67. [PubMed: 21898504]
109.
Burton MJ, Sunesara I, Penman A, et al. Comparing the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) between African American and white veterans with chronic hepatitis C. South Med J. 2011;104(5):309–14. [PubMed: 21606706]
110.
Calès P, De Ledinghen V, Halfon P, et al. Evaluating the accuracy and increasing the reliable diagnosis rate of blood tests for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2008;28(10):1352–62. [PMC free article: PMC2711538] [PubMed: 18492022]
111.
Calès P, Boursier J, Bertrais S, et al. Optimization and robustness of blood tests for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Clin Biochem. 2010;43(16–17):1315–22. [PubMed: 20713037]
112.
Castera L. Transient elastography and other noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis. J Vir Hep. 2009;16(5):300–14. [PubMed: 19254351]
113.
Castéra L, Sebastiani G, Le Bail B, et al. Prospective comparison of two algorithms combining non-invasive methods for staging liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2010;52(2):191–8. [PubMed: 20006397]
114.
Castéra L, Vergniol J, Foucher J, et al. Prospective comparison of transient elastography, Fibrotest, APRI, and liver biopsy for the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(2):343–50. [PubMed: 15685546]
115.
Cheong JY, Um SH, Seo YS, et al. Non-invasive index for predicting significant liver fibrosis: comparison of diagnostic performances in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:555–63. [PubMed: 20585981]
116.
Cheung KJ, Tilleman K, Deforce D, et al. Usefulness of a novel serum proteome-derived index FI-PRO (fibrosis-protein) in the prediction of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23(8):701–10. [PubMed: 21623191]
117.
Cheung RC, Currie S, Shen H, et al. Can we predict the degree of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients using routine blood tests in our daily practice? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42(7):827–34. [PubMed: 18285716]
118.
Chrysanthos NV, Papatheodoridis GV, Savvas S, et al. Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for fibrosis evaluation in chronic viral hepatitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;18(4):389–96. [PubMed: 16538110]
119.
Cobbold JF, Crossey MM, Colman P, et al. Optimal combinations of ultrasound-based and serum markers of disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2009;17(8):537. [PubMed: 19804501]
120.
Colletta C, Smirne C, Fabris C, et al. Value of two noninvasive methods to detect progression of fibrosis among HCV carriers with normal aminotransferases. Hepatology. 2005;42(4):838–45. [PubMed: 16121354]
121.
Colli A, Colucci A, Paggi S, et al. Accuracy of a predictive model for severe hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(46):7318–22. [PMC free article: PMC4725144] [PubMed: 16437635]
122.
Crisan D, Radu C, Lupsor M, et al. Two or more synchronous combination of noninvasive tests to increase accuracy of liver fibrosis assessement in chronic Hepatitis C; results from a cohort of 446 patients. Hepat Mon. 2012;12(3):177–84. [PMC free article: PMC3339417] [PubMed: 22550525]
123.
Cross TJ, Calvaruso V, Maimone S, et al. Prospective comparison of Fibroscan, King’s score and liver biopsy for the assessment of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C infection. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17(8):546. [PubMed: 19874477]
124.
Cross TJS, Rizzi P, Berry PA, et al. King’s Score: an accurate marker of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21(7):730–8. [PubMed: 19430302]
125.
Ehsan N, Badr M, Raouf A, et al. Correlation between liver biopsy findings and different serum biochemical tests in staging fibrosis in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Arab J Gastroenterol. 2008;9(1):7–12.
126.
El-Gindy I, El Rahman AT, El-Alim MA, et al. Diagnostic potential of serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 as non-invasive markers of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HCV related chronic liver disease. Egypt J Immunol. 2003;10(1):27–35. [PubMed: 15719620]
127.
El-Sayed R, Fahmy M, El Koofy N, et al. Can aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index replace liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C? Trop Gastroenterol. 2011;32(4):267–72. [PubMed: 22696906]
128.
el-Shorbagy E, Afefy AF, Ibrahem IA, et al. Non-invasive markers and predictors of severity of hepatic fibrosis in HCV patients at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2004;34(1):459–78. [PubMed: 15124753]
129.
Fabris C, Smirne C, Toniutto P, et al. Usefulness of six non-proprietary indirect markers of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46(2):253–9. [PubMed: 18324909]
130.
Fontana RJ, Goodman ZD, Dienstag JL, et al. Relationship of serum fibrosis markers with liver fibrosis stage and collagen content in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2008;47(3):789–98. [PubMed: 18175357]
131.
Forns X, Ampurdanès S, Llovet JM, et al. Identification of chronic hepatitis C patients without hepatic fibrosis by a simple predictive model. Hepatology. 2002;36(4):986–92. [PubMed: 12297848]
132.
Friedrich-Rust M, Rosenberg W, Parkes J, et al. Comparison of ELF, FibroTest and FibroScan for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. BMC Gastroenterology. 2010;10(1):103. [PMC free article: PMC2944336] [PubMed: 20828377]
133.
Gabrielli GB, Capra F, Casaril M, et al. Serum laminin and type III procollagen in chronic hepatitis C. Diagnostic value in the assessment of disease activity and fibrosis. Clin Chim Acta. 1997;265(1):21–31. [PubMed: 9352126]
134.
Giannini E, Risso D, Botta F, et al. Validity and clinical utility of the aspartate aminotransferase-alanine aminotransferase ratio in assessing disease severity and prognosis in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003 January 27;163(2):218–24. [PubMed: 12546613]
135.
Giannini E, Testa R. Noninvasive diagnosis of fibrosis: The truth is rarely pure and never simple. Hepatology. 2003;38(5):1312–3. [PubMed: 14578874]
136.
Giannini EG, Zaman A, Ceppa P, et al. A simple approach to noninvasively identifying significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients in clinical practice. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40(6):521–7. [PubMed: 16825935]
137.
Gomes da Silva. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12(1) [PubMed: 18553008]
138.
Grigorescu M, Rusu M, Neculoiu D, et al. The FibroTest value in discriminating between insignificant and significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. The Romanian experience. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007;16(1):31–7. [PubMed: 17410286]
139.
Guéchot J, Lasnier E, Sturm N, et al. Automation of the Hepascore and validation as a biochemical index of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C from the ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar cohort. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411(1–2):86–91. [PubMed: 19850017]
140.
Guéchot J, Laudat A, Loria A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of hyaluronan and type III procollagen amino-terminal peptide serum assays as markers of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C evaluated by ROC curve analysis. Clin Chem. 1996;42(4):558–63. [PubMed: 8605673]
141.
Guéchot J, Poupon RE, Giral P, et al. Relationship between procollagen III aminoterminal propeptide and hyaluronan serum levels and histological fibrosis in primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic viral hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 1994;20(3):388–93. [PubMed: 8014451]
142.
Güzelbulut. AST-platelet ratio index, Forns index and FIB-4 in the prediction of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011;22(3):279–85. [PubMed: 21805418]
143.
Halfon P. Accuracy of hyaluronic acid level for predicting liver fibrosis stages in patients with hepatitis C virus. Comp Hepatol. 2005;4(1) [PMC free article: PMC1192814] [PubMed: 16008833]
144.
Halfon P. Independent prospective multicenter validation of biochemical markers (fibrotest-actitest) for the prediction of liver fibrosis and activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C: the fibropaca study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(3):547–55. [PubMed: 16542291]
145.
Halfon P, Bacq Y, De Muret A, et al. Comparison of test performance profile for blood tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2007;46(3):395–402. [PubMed: 17156890]
146.
Hsieh YY, Tung SY, Lee IL, et al. FibroQ: an easy and useful noninvasive test for predicting liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Chang Gung Med J. 2009;32(6):614–22. [PubMed: 20035640]
147.
Iacobellis A, Fusilli S, Mangia A, et al. Ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters in the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus chronic hepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22(9):769–74. [PubMed: 16225484]
148.
Iacobellis A, Mangia A, Leandro G, et al. External validation of biochemical indices for noninvasive evaluation of liver fibrosis in HCV chronic hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(4):868–73. [PubMed: 15784034]
149.
Imbert-Bismut F, Ratziu V, Pieroni L, et al. Biochemical markers of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection: a prospective study. The Lancet. 2001;357(9262):1069–75. [PubMed: 11297957]
150.
Imperiale TF, Said AT, Cummings OW, et al. Need for validation of clinical decision aids: use of the AST/ALT ratio in predicting cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(9):2328–32. [PubMed: 11007237]
151.
Islam S, Antonsson L, Westin J, et al. Cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus-infected patients can be excluded using an index of standard biochemical serum markers. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005;40(7):867–72. [PubMed: 16109665]
152.
Kaul V, Friedenberg FK, Braitman LE, et al. Development and validation of a model to diagnose cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(10):2623–8. [PubMed: 12385450]
153.
Khan. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of APRI for prediction of fibrosis in hepatitis C patients. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(4):122–6. [PubMed: 19999223]
154.
NK. Serum aminotransferase levels and platelet count as predictive factor of fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. J Pak Med Assoc. 2003;53(3):101–4. [PubMed: 12779023]
155.
Koda M, Matunaga Y, Kawakami M, et al. Fibroindex, a practical index for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2007;45(2):297–306. [PubMed: 17256741]
156.
Lackner C, Struber G, Liegl B, et al. Comparison and validation of simple noninvasive tests for prediction of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2005;41(6):1376–82. [PubMed: 15915455]
157.
Leroy V, Halfon P, Bacq Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy, reproducibility and robustness of fibrosis blood tests in chronic hepatitis C: A meta-analysis with individual data. Clin Biochem. 2008;41(16–17):1368–76. [PubMed: 18655779]
158.
Leroy V, Hilleret M-N, Sturm N, et al. Prospective comparison of six non-invasive scores for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2007;46(5):775–82. [PubMed: 17321634]
159.
Leroy V, Monier F, Bottari S, et al. Circulating matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 9 and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 as serum markers of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: comparison with PIIINP and hyaluronic acid. Am J Gast. 2004;99(2):271–9. [PubMed: 15046217]
160.
Liu CH, Lin JW, Tsai FC, et al. Noninvasive tests for the prediction of significant hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferases. Liver Int. 2006;26(9):1087–94. [PubMed: 17032409]
161.
Lo Iacono O, García-Monzón C, Almasio P, et al. Soluble adhesion molecules correlate with liver inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C treated with interferon-alpha. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12(11):1091–9. [PubMed: 9845398]
162.
Loaeza-del-Castillo A, Paz-Pineda F, Oviedo-Cárdenas E, et al. AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) for the noninvasive evaluation of liver fibrosis. Ann Hepatol. 2008;7(4):350–7. [PubMed: 19034235]
163.
Lok ASF, Ghany MG, Goodman ZD, et al. Predicting cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C based on standard laboratory tests: Results of the HALT-C cohort. Hepatology. 2005;42(2):282–92. [PubMed: 15986415]
164.
Luo J, Hwang S, Chang F, et al. Simple blood tests can predict compensated liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49(44):478–81. [PubMed: 11995477]
165.
Martinez SM, Fernández-Varo G, González P, et al. Assessment of liver fibrosis before and after antiviral therapy by different serum marker panels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33(1):138–48. [PubMed: 21083589]
166.
McHutchison JG, Blatt LM, de Medina M, et al. Measurement of serum hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis C and its relationship to liver histology. Consensus Interferon Study Group. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15(8):945–51. [PubMed: 11022838]
167.
Metwally MA, Zein CO, Zein NN. Predictors and noninvasive identification of severe liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52(2):582–8. [PubMed: 17211710]
168.
Murawaki Y, Ikuta Y, Okamoto K, et al. Diagnostic value of serum markers of connective tissue turnover for predicting histological staging and grading in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol. 2001;36(6):399–406. [PubMed: 11428586]
169.
Murawaki Y, Koda M, Okamoto K, et al. Diagnostic value of serum type IV collagen test in comparison with platelet count for predicting the fibrotic stage in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;16(7):777–81. [PubMed: 11446886]
170.
Myers RP, de Torres M, Imbert-Bismut F, et al. Biochemical markers of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: A comparison with prothrombin time, platelet count, and age–platelet index. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48(1):146–53. [PubMed: 12645802]
171.
Myers RP, Ratziu V, Imbert-Bismut F, et al. Biochemical markers of liver fibrosis: a comparison with historical features in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(9):2419–25. [PubMed: 12358267]
172.
Obrador BD, Prades MG, Gómez MV, et al. A predictive index for the diagnosis of cirrhosis in hepatitis C based on clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound findings. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;18(1):57–62. [PubMed: 16357620]
173.
Ohta T, Sakaguchi K, Fujiwara A, et al. Simple surrogate index of the fibrosis stage in chronic hepatitis C patients using platelet count and serum albumin level. Acta Med Okayama. 2006;60(2):77–84. [PubMed: 16680183]
174.
Omran MM, Farid K, Emran TM, et al. Fibro-(alpha) score as a simple and useful non-invasive test for predicting significant liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. Arab J Gastroenterol. 2011;12(2):74–9. [PubMed: 21684477]
175.
Paggi S, Colli A, Fraquelli M, et al. A non-invasive algorithm accurately predicts advanced fibrosis in hepatitis C: A comparison using histology with internal–external validation. J Hepatol. 2008;49(4):564–71. [PubMed: 18706734]
176.
Parise ER, Oliveira AC, Figueiredo-Mendes C, et al. Noninvasive serum markers in the diagnosis of structural liver damage in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Liver Int. 2006;26(9):1095–9. [PubMed: 17032410]
177.
Park GJH, Lin BP, Ngu MC, et al. Aspartate aminotransferase: alanine aminotransferase ratio in chronic hepatitis C infection: Is it a useful predictor of cirrhosis? J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15(4):386–90. [PubMed: 10824882]
178.
Park SH, Kim CH, Kim DJ, et al. Diagnostic value of multiple biomarker panel for prediction of significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Clin Biochem. 2011;44(17–18):1396–9. [PubMed: 21971609]
179.
Parkes J, Guha IN, Roderick P, et al. Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test accurately identifies liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2011 Jan;18(1):23–31. [PubMed: 20196799]
180.
Patel K, Benhamou Y, Yoshida EM, et al. An independent and prospective comparison of two commercial fibrosis marker panels (HCV FibroSURE and FIBROSpect II) during albinterferon alfa-2b combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C. J Vir Hep. 2009;16(3):178–86. [PubMed: 19175870]
181.
Patel K, Gordon SC, Jacobson I, et al. Evaluation of a panel of non-invasive serum markers to differentiate mild from moderate-to-advanced liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol. 2004;41(6):935–42. [PubMed: 15582126]
182.
Plevris JN, Haydon GH, Simpson KJ, et al. Serum hyaluronan--a non-invasive test for diagnosing liver cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;12(10):1121–7. [PubMed: 11057458]
183.
Pohl A, Behling C, Oliver D, et al. Serum aminotransferase levels and platelet counts as predictors of degree of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(11):3142–6. [PubMed: 11721762]
184.
Poynard T, Imbert-Bismut F, Ratziu V, et al. Biochemical markers of liver fibrosis in patients infected by hepatitis C virus: longitudinal validation in a randomized trial. J Vir Hep. 2002;9(2):128–33. [PubMed: 11876795]
185.
Poynard T, McHutchison J, Manns M, et al. Biochemical surrogate markers of liver fibrosis and activity in a randomized trial of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. Hepatology. 2003;38(2):481–92. [PubMed: 12883493]
186.
Pradat P, Alberti A, Poynard T, et al. Predictive value of ALT levels for histologic findings in chronic hepatitis C: a European collaborative study. Hepatology. 2002;36(4 Pt 1):973–7. [PubMed: 12297846]
187.
Reedy DW, Loo AT, Levine RA. AST/ALT ratio > or = 1 is not diagnostic of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci. 1998;43(9):2156–9. [PubMed: 9753286]
188.
Renou C, Muller P, Jouve E, et al. Relevance of moderate isolated thrombopenia as a strong predictive marker of cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(5):1657–9. [PubMed: 11374731]
189.
Romera M, Corpas R, Romero Gómez M. Insulin resistance as a non-invasive method for the assessment of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C: a comparative study of biochemical methods. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2006;98(3):161–9. [PubMed: 16737415]
190.
Rosenberg WM, Voelker M, Thiel R, et al. Serum markers detect the presence of liver fibrosis: a cohort study. Gastroenterology. 2004;127(6):1704–13. [PubMed: 15578508]
191.
Rossi E, Adams L, Prins A, et al. Validation of the FibroTest Biochemical Markers Score in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C patients. Clin Chem. 2003 March 1;49(3):450–4. [PubMed: 12600957]
192.
Saadeh S, Cammell G, Carey WD, et al. The role of liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2001;33(1):196–200. [PubMed: 11124836]
193.
Said Y, Bouzaidi S, Debbeche R, et al. Correlation entre la biopsie hépatique et le Fibrotest dans l’évaluation de la fibrose hépatique chez les patients atteints d’hépatite chronique C. La Tunisie Medicale. 2010;88(8):573–83. [PubMed: 20711964]
194.
Saitou Y, Shiraki K, Yamanaka Y, et al. Noninvasive estimation of liver fibrosis and response to interferon therapy by a serum fibrogenesis marker, YKL-40, in patients with HCV-associated liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(4):476–81. [PMC free article: PMC4250794] [PubMed: 15641129]
195.
Schneider AR, Teuber G, Kriener S, et al. Noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Liver Int. 2005;25(6):1150–5. [PubMed: 16343065]
196.
Schneider AR, Teuber G, Paul K, et al. Patient age is a strong independent predictor of 13C-aminopyrine breath test results: a comparative study with histology, duplex-Doppler and a laboratory index in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33(4):300–4. [PubMed: 16620291]
197.
Sebastiani G, Halfon P, Castera L, et al. SAFE biopsy: A validated method for large-scale staging of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2009;49(6):1821–7. [PubMed: 19291784]
198.
Sebastiani G, Vario A, Guido M, et al. Performance of noninvasive markers for liver fibrosis is reduced in chronic hepatitis C with normal transaminases. J Vir Hep. 2008;15(3):212–8. [PubMed: 18179453]
199.
Sebastiani G, Vario A, Guido M, et al. Stepwise combination algorithms of non-invasive markers to diagnose significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2006;44(4):686–93. [PubMed: 16490278]
200.
Sebastiani G, Castera L, Halfon P, et al. The impact of liver disease aetiology and the stages of hepatic fibrosis on the performance of non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers: an international study of 2411 cases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34(10):1202–16. [PubMed: 21981787]
201.
Sebastiani G, Halfon P, Castera L, et al. Comparison of three algorithms of non-invasive markers of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(1):92–104. [PubMed: 22035045]
202.
Sheth SG, Flamm SL, Gordon FD, et al. AST/ALT ratio predicts cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Gast. 1998;93(1):44–8. [PubMed: 9448172]
203.
Silva IS, Ferraz MLC, Perez RM, et al. Role of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19(3):314–8. [PubMed: 14748879]
204.
Sirli R, Sporea I, Bota S, et al. A comparative study of non-invasive methods for fibrosis assessment in chronic HCV infection. Hepat Mon. 2010;10(2):88–94. [PMC free article: PMC3270362] [PubMed: 22312379]
205.
Snyder N, Gajula L, Xiao S-Y, et al. APRI: An easy and validated predictor of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40(6):535–42. [PubMed: 16825937]
206.
Snyder N, Nguyen A, Gajula L, et al. The APRI may be enhanced by the use of the FIBROSpect II in the estimation of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2007;381(2):119–23. [PubMed: 17442291]
207.
Stibbe KJM, Verveer C, Francke J, et al. Comparison of non-invasive assessment to diagnose liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and C patients. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jul;46(7–8):962–72. [PubMed: 21623677]
208.
Sud A, Hui JM, Farrell GC, et al. Improved prediction of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C using measures of insulin resistance in a probability index. Hepatology. 2004;39(5):1239–47. [PubMed: 15122752]
209.
Testa R, Testa E, Giannini E, et al. Noninvasive ratio indexes to evaluate fibrosis staging in chronic hepatitis C: role of platelet count/spleen diameter ratio index. J Int Med. 2006;260(2):142–50. [PubMed: 16882278]
210.
Trocme C, Leroy V, Sturm N, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of a fibrosis index combining MMP-1 and PIIINP compared with MMP-9, TIMP-1 and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated by interferon-alpha and ribavirin. J Vir Hep. 2006;13(10):643–51. [PubMed: 16970595]
211.
Vallet-Pichard A, Mallet V, Nalpas B, et al. FIB-4: An inexpensive and accurate marker of fibrosis in HCV infection. comparison with liver biopsy and fibrotest. Hepatology. 2007;46(1):32–6. [PubMed: 17567829]
212.
Verbaan H, Bondeson L, Eriksson S. Non-Invasive Assessment of Inflammatory Activity and Fibrosis (Grade and Stage) in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32(5):494–9. [PubMed: 9175214]
213.
Viana MSVB. Use of AST platelet ratio index (APRI Score) as an alternative to liver biopsy for treatment indication in chronic hepatitis C. Ann Hepatol. 2009;8(1) [PubMed: 19221530]
214.
Wai C-T, Greenson JK, Fontana RJ, et al. A simple noninvasive index can predict both significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2003;38(2):518–26. [PubMed: 12883497]
215.
Walsh KM, Fletcher A, MacSween RN, et al. Comparison of assays for N-amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen in chronic hepatitis C by using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;11(8):827–31. [PubMed: 10514112]
216.
Walsh KM, Fletcher A, MacSween RN, et al. Basement membrane peptides as markers of liver disease in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2000;32(2):325–30. [PubMed: 10707874]
217.
Walsh KM, Timms P, Campbell S, et al. Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases -1 and -2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) as noninvasive markers of liver disease in chronic hepatitis C: comparison using ROC analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(3):624–30. [PubMed: 10080160]
218.
Williams AL, Hoofnagle JH. Ratio of serum aspartate to alanine aminotransferase in chronic hepatitis. Relationship to cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1988;95(3):734–9. [PubMed: 3135226]
219.
Wilson LE, Torbenson M, Astemborski J, et al. Progression of liver fibrosis among injection drug users with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2006;43(4):788–95. [PubMed: 16557548]
220.
Wong VS, Hughes V, Trull A, et al. Serum hyaluronic acid is a useful marker of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat. 1998;5(3):187–92. [PubMed: 9658372]
221.
Yilmaz Y, Yonal O, Kurt R, et al. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis with the aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI): usefulness in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepat Mon. 2011;11(2):103–7. [PMC free article: PMC3206675] [PubMed: 22087126]
222.
Zaman A, Rosen HR, Ingram K, et al. Assessment of FIBROSpect II to detect hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. Am J Med. 2007;120(3):280–14. [PubMed: 17349453]
223.
Zarski J-P, Sturm N, Guechot J, et al. Comparison of nine blood tests and transient elastography for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C: the ANRS HCEP-23 study. J Hepatol. 2012 Jan;56(1):55–62. [PubMed: 21781944]
224.
Lackner C, Struber G, Bankuti C, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C based on standard laboratory tests. Hepatology. 2006;42(2):378–9. [PubMed: 16440344]
225.
Le Calvez S, Thabut D, Messous D, et al. The predictive value of Fibrotest vs. APRI for the diagnosis of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2004;39(3):862–3. [PubMed: 14999708]
226.
Park G, Jones DB, Katelaris P. Value of AST/ALT ratio as fibrotic predictor in chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(7):1623–4. [PubMed: 15984996]
227.
Thabut D, Simon M, Myers RP, et al. Noninvasive prediction of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2003;37(5):1220–1. [PubMed: 12717403]
228.
Castera L, Le Bail B, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. Early detection in routine clinical practice of cirrhosis and oesophageal varices in chronic hepatitis C: comparison of transient elastography (FibroScan) with standard laboratory tests and non-invasive scores. J Hepatol. 2009;50(1):59–68. [PubMed: 19013661]
229.
Cobbold J, Crossey M, Colman P, et al. Optimal combinations of ultrasound-based and serum markers of disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17(8):537–45. [PubMed: 19804501]
230.
Groom H, Dieperink E, Nelson DB, et al. Outcomes of a hepatitis C screening program at a large urban VA medical center. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Jan;42(1):97–106. [PubMed: 18097298]
231.
Lindenburg CEA, Lambers FAE, Urbanus AT, et al. Hepatitis C testing and treatment among active drug users in Amsterdam: Results from the DUTCH-C project. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23(1):23–31. [PubMed: 21042221]
232.
Mallette C, Flynn MA, Promrat K. Outcome of screening for hepatitis C virus infection based on risk factors. Am J Gast. 2008 Jan;103(1):131–7. [PubMed: 17894850]
233.
Seeff LB, Everson GT, Morgan TR, et al. Complication rate of percutaneous liver biopsies among persons with advanced chronic liver disease in the HALT-C Trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8(10):877–83. [PMC free article: PMC3771318] [PubMed: 20362695]
234.
Farrell RJ, Smiddy PF, Pilkington RM, et al. Guided versus blind liver biopsy for chronic hepatitis C: clinical benefits and costs. J Hepatol. 1999;30(4):580–7. [PubMed: 10207798]
235.
Atwell TD, Smith RL, Hesley GK, et al. Incidence of bleeding after 15,181 percutaneous biopsies and the role of aspirin. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194(3):784–9. [PubMed: 20173160]
236.
Huang JF, Hsieh MY, Dai CY, et al. The incidence and risks of liver biopsy in non-cirrhotic patients: An evaluation of 3806 biopsies. Gut. 2007;56(5):736–7. [PMC free article: PMC1942123] [PubMed: 17440193]
237.
Myers RP, Fong A, Shaheen AA. Utilization rates, complications and costs of percutaneous liver biopsy: a population-based study including 4275 biopsies. Liver Int. 2008;28(5):705–12. [PubMed: 18433397]
238.
van der Poorten D, Kwok A, Lam T, et al. Twenty-year audit of percutaneous liver biopsy in a major Australian teaching hospital. Intern Med J. 2006;36(11):692–9. [PubMed: 17040353]
239.
West J, Card TR. Reduced mortality rates following elective, percutaneous liver biopsies. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(4):1230–7. 2010. [PubMed: 20547160]
240.
Bravo AA, Sheth SG, Chopra S. Liver Biopsy N Engl J Med. 2001;344(7):495–500. [PubMed: 11172192]
241.
Cadranel JF, Rufat P, Degos F. Practices of liver biopsy in France: results of a prospective nationwide survey. For the Group of Epidemiology of the French Association for the Study of the Liver (AFEF) Hepatology. 2000;32(3):477–81. [PubMed: 10960438]
242.
Froehlich F, Lamy O, Fried M, et al. Practice and complications of liver biopsy. Results of a nationwide survey in Switzerland. Dig Dis Sci. 1993;38(8):1480–4. [PubMed: 8344104]
243.
Garcia-Tsao G, Boyer JL. Outpatient liver biopsy: how safe is it? Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(2):150–3. [PubMed: 8416312]
244.
Gilmore IT, Burroughs A, Murray-Lyon IM, et al. Indications, methods, and outcomes of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales: an audit by the British Society of Gastroenterology and the Royal College of Physicians of London. Gut. 1995 March 1;36(3):437–41. 1995. [PMC free article: PMC1382461] [PubMed: 7698705]
245.
Janes CH, Lindor KD. Outcome of patients hospitalized for complications after outpatient liver biopsy. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(2):96–8. [PubMed: 8416324]
246.
McGill D, Rakela J, Zinsmeister A, et al. A 21-year experience with major hemorrhage after percutaneous liver biopsy. Gastroenterology. 1990;99(5):1396–400. [PubMed: 2101588]
247.
Vautier G, Scott B, Jenkins D. Liver biopsy: blind or guided? BMJ. 1994;309(6967):1455–6. [PMC free article: PMC2541611] [PubMed: 7804036]
248.
Al Knawy B, Shiffman M. Percutaneous liver biopsy in clinical practice. Liver Int. 2007;27(9):1166–73. [PubMed: 17919227]
249.
Groessl EJ, Weingart KR, Stepnowsky CJ, et al. The hepatitis C self-management programme: a randomized controlled trial. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:358–68. [PubMed: 20529203]
250.
Keeffe EB, Iwarson S, McMahon BJ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology. 1998;27(3):881–6. [PubMed: 9500723]
251.
Nalpas B, Martin S, Fontaine H, et al. Impact of medical recommendations on alcohol consumption in HCV positive patients. J Hepatol. 2001;35(2):312–3. [PubMed: 11580161]
252.
Ompad DC, Fuller CM, Vlahov D, et al. Lack of behavior change after disclosure of hepatitis C virus infection among young injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 1;35(7):783–8. [PubMed: 12228813]
253.
Scognamiglio P, Galati V, Navarra A, et al. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on lifestyle. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(19):2722–6. [PMC free article: PMC4147122] [PubMed: 17569142]
254.
Tsui JI, Vittinghoff E, Hahn JA, et al. Risk behaviors after hepatitis C virus seroconversion in young injection drug users in San Francisco. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;105(1–2):160–3. [PMC free article: PMC2849721] [PubMed: 19647375]
255.
Kwiatkowski CF, Fortuin Corsi K, Booth RE. The association between knowledge of hepatitis C virus status and risk behaviors in injection drug users. Addiction. 2002;97(10):1289–94. [PubMed: 12359033]
256.
Latka MH, Hagan H, Kapadia F, et al. A randomized intervention trial to reduce the lending of used injection equipment among injection drug users infected with hepatitis C. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:853–61. [PMC free article: PMC2374802] [PubMed: 18382005]
257.
Zule WA, Costenbader EC, Coomes CM, et al. Effects of a Hepatitis C virus educational intervention or a motivational intervention on alcohol use, injection drug use, and sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:S180–6. [PMC free article: PMC2724936] [PubMed: 19218179]
258.
Dieperink E, Ho SB, Heit S, et al. Significant reductions in drinking following brief alcohol treatment provided in a hepatitis C clinic. Psychosomatics. 2010;51(2):149–56. [PubMed: 20332290]
259.
Proeschold-Bell RJ, Patkar AA, Naggie S, et al. An integrated alcohol abuse and medical treatment model for patients with hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 [PMC free article: PMC3586548] [PubMed: 22134784]
260.
European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. A significant sex--but not elective cesarean section--effect on mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(11):1872–9. [PubMed: 16267757]
261.
European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. Effects of mode of delivery and infant feeding on the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus. European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. BJOG. 2001;108(4):371–7. [PubMed: 11305543]
262.
Conte D, Fraquelli M, Prati D, et al. Prevalence and clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and rate of HCV vertical transmission in a cohort of 15,250 pregnant women. 3 ed. UNITED STATES: Cattedra di Gastroenterologia, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milan, Italy; 2000. pp. 751–5. Dario.Conte@unimi.it. [PubMed: 10706568]
263.
Garland SM, Tabrizi S, Robinson P, et al. Hepatitis C--role of perinatal transmission. 4 ed. AUSTRALIA: Microbiology Department, The Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 1998. pp. 424–7. [PubMed: 9890224]
264.
Gibb DM, Goodall RL, Dunn DT, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus: evidence for preventable peripartum transmission. Lancet. 2000;356(9233):904–7. [PubMed: 11036896]
265.
La Torre A, Biadaioli R, Capobianco T, et al. Vertical transmission of HCV. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1998;77(9):889–92. [PubMed: 9808375]
266.
McMenamin MB, Jackson AD, Lambert J, et al. Obstetric management of hepatitis C-positive mothers: analysis of vertical transmission in 559 mother-infant pairs. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(3):315.e1–5. [PubMed: 18771997]
267.
Okamoto M, Nagata I, Murakami J, et al. Shift in the buoyant density of hepatitis C virus particles in infants infected by mother-to-infant transmission. Pediatr Int. 1999;41(4):369–73. [PubMed: 10453185]
268.
Resti M, Azzari C, Mannelli F, et al. Mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus: Prospective study of risk factors and timing of infection in children born to women seronegative for HIV-1. BMJ. 1998;317(7156):437–40. [PMC free article: PMC28636] [PubMed: 9703524]
269.
Spencer JD, Latt N, Beeby PJ, et al. Transmission of hepatitis C virus to infants of human immunodeficiency virus-negative intravenous drug-using mothers: rate of infection and assessment of risk factors for transmission. J Vir Hep. 1997;4(6):395–409. [PubMed: 9430360]
270.
Syriopoulou V, Nikolopoulou G, Daikos GL, et al. Mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus: Rate of infection and risk factors. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(5):350–3. [PubMed: 16051571]
271.
Tajiri H, Miyoshi Y, Funada S, et al. Prospective study of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Jan;20(1):10–4. [PubMed: 11176560]
272.
Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Newell ML. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol Supplement. 1999;31(1):96–100. [PubMed: 10622569]
273.
Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Romano L, et al. A prospective study on mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Intervirology. 1998;41(4–5):208–12. [PubMed: 10213898]
274.
Polywka S, Feucht H, Zollner B, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnancy and the risk of mother-to-child transmission. 2 ed. GERMANY: Institute for Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 1997. pp. 121–4. [PubMed: 9105838]
275.
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY, et al. Absence of infection in breast-fed infants born to hepatitis C virus-infected mothers. J Pediatr. 1995;126(4):589–91. [PubMed: 7535353]
276.
Pipan C, Amici S, Astori G, et al. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus in low-risk pregnant women. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;15(2):116–20. [PubMed: 8801082]
277.
Polywka S, Schröter M, Feucht HH, et al. Low risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus by breast milk. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29(5):1327–9. [PubMed: 10524987]
278.
Tanzi M, Bellelli E, Benaglia G, et al. The prevalence of HCV infection in a cohort of pregnant women, the related risk factors and the possibility of vertical transmission. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997;13(5):517–21. [PubMed: 9258562]
279.
Moriya T, Sasaki F, Mizui M, et al. Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants: its frequency and risk factors revisited. Biomed Pharmacother. 1995;49(2):59–64. [PubMed: 7605903]
280.
Stewart BJ, Mikocka-Walus AA, Harley H, et al. Help-seeking and coping with the psychosocial burden of chronic hepatitis C: A qualitative study of patient, hepatologist, and counsellor perspectives. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011 May;49(5):560–9. [PubMed: 22154094]
281.
Zickmund S, Ho EY, Masuda M, et al. “They treated me like a leper”. Stigmatization and the quality of life of patients with hepatitis C. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(10):835–44. [PMC free article: PMC1494932] [PubMed: 14521647]
282.
Conrad SGL, Cooksley WGE, Dunne MP, Macdonald GA. Living with chronic hepatitis C infection means ‘you just haven’t got a normal life any more’ Chronic Illn. 2006;2(2):121–31. [PubMed: 17175655]
283.
Brok J, Gluud LL, Gluud C. Ribavirin plus interferon versus interferon for chronic hepatitis C. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;20(1):CD005445-CD. [PubMed: 20091577]
284.
Chou R, Clark EC, Helfand M. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection: A review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(6):465–79+I62. [PubMed: 15023713]
285.
Poynard T, Morra R, Halfon P, et al. Meta-analyses of FibroTest diagnostic value in chronic liver disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2007;7(1):40. [PMC free article: PMC2175505] [PubMed: 17937811]
286.
Lin Z-H, Xin Y-N, Dong Q-J, et al. Performance of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the staging of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: An updated meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2011;53(3):726–36. [PubMed: 21319189]
287.
Smith JO, Sterling RK. Systematic review: non-invasive methods of fibrosis analysis in chronic hepatitis C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;30(6):557–76. [PubMed: 19519733]
288.
Parkes J, Guha IN, Roderick P, et al. Performance of serum marker panels for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2006;44(3):462–74. [PubMed: 16427156]
289.
Halfon P, Munteanu M, Poynard T. FibroTest-ActiTest as a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique. 2008;32(6, Supplement 1):22–39. [PubMed: 18973844]
290.
Shaheen AAM, Wan AF, Myers RP. FibroTest and FibroScan for the prediction of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: a systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(11):2589–600. [PubMed: 17850410]
291.
Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. 2011. [Accessed on June 20, 2011]. pp. 1–207. http://aidsinfo​.nih.gov​/contentfiles/PerinatalGL.pdf.
292.
Sebastiani G, Alberti A. Non invasive fibrosis biomarkers reduce but not substitute the need for liver biopsy. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3682–94. [PMC free article: PMC4087461] [PubMed: 16773685]
293.
Castera L, Sebastiani G, Le Bail B, et al. Prospective comparison of two algorithms combining non-invasive methods for staging liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2010;52(2):191–8. [PubMed: 20006397]

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (3.9M)

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...