Table DStrength of evidence for combinations targeting VAP

SOECombinationOutcomeNumber/Type of Studies
ModerateBase strategies + audit and feedback + provider reminder systemAdherence: overall/summary1 controlled study45
2 interrupted time series15,47
Adherence: HOB elevation2 controlled studies24,45
2 interrupted time series15,47
Adherence: oral care1 controlled study45
2 interrupted time series15,47
Infection rate1 controlled study45
3 interrupted time series15,20,47
3 simple before-after22,44,50
Adherence and infection rates1 controlled study45
2 interrupted time series15,47
Base strategies + audit and feedbackAdherence: overall/summary2 simple before-after13,27
Infection rate2 interrupted time series25,26
3 simple before-after13,14,27
Adherence and infection rates3 simple before-after13,14,27
InsufficientBase strategies + audit and feedback + provider reminder systemAdherence: readiness to wean2 controlled studies24,45
1 interrupted time series15
Base strategies + audit and feedbackAdherence: hand hygiene1 simple before-after14
Base strategies + provider reminder systemInfection rate1 simple before-after49
Base strategiesAdherence: HOB elevation1 controlled study46
Infection rate1 controlled study46
2 simple before-after48,51
Adherence and infection rates1 controlled study46

Abbreviations: HOB = head of bed; VAP = ventilator-associated pneumonia; SOE = strength of evidence.

Note: The base strategies are organizational change and provider education.

From: Executive Summary

Cover of Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 6: Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections)
Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 6: Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections).
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 208.6.
Mauger Rothenberg B, Marbella A, Pines E, et al.

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