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National Research Council (US) Committee on Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State and Regional Innovation Initiatives. Clustering for 21st Century Prosperity: Summary of a Symposium. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012.

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Clustering for 21st Century Prosperity: Summary of a Symposium.

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Appendix BBiographies of Speakers*


Rebecca O. Bagley is president and chief executive officer of NorTech. Previously, Rebecca served as Deputy Secretary for the Technology Investment Office of the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development (DCED). In that capacity she oversaw the operations of an office that serves as a catalyst for growth and competitiveness for Pennsylvania companies and universities. Rebecca was responsible for the administration of several major state programs, including the Life Sciences Greenhouse initiative, the Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority and the Ben Franklin Technology Partners, the Keystone Innovation Zone program, the Research and Development Tax Credit program, and many other technology-based economic development programs that support research and commercialization activities.

As part of her responsibilities, Rebecca managed the $650 million Energy Independence Strategy that was signed into law in 2008, as well as approximately $79 million in appropriations and more than $1.7 billion in investments for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. She previously served as director of Venture Investment for DCED and was responsible for managing the New PA Venture Investment, the New PA Venture Guarantee Programs, and the Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority Venture Program.

Before joining DCED, Rebecca worked as an investment banker at WFG Capital Advisors where she advised technology companies on merger and acquisitions and capital-raising activities. Rebecca also worked at JPMorgan Chase in New York City, in the high yield-bond group as well as the oil and gas mergers and acquisitions groups. Rebecca started her investment banking career at Howell International in Boulder, Colorado, after returning from a corporate relations position in Caracas, Venezuela.

Rebecca is currently a member of the board of the National Association for Seed and Venture Funds (NASVF), an organization of innovation capital leaders in private, public, and nonprofit organizations that are committed to building local economies by investing in local entrepreneurs. She also has served as a member of the Board of Trustees of the State Science Technology Institute (SSTI), a national nonprofit organization that leads, supports, and strengthens efforts to improve state and regional economies through science, technology, and innovation.

She holds a B.S. from the University of Colorado at Boulder College of Business and Administration.


Dan Berglund is the president and CEO of the State Science and Technology Institute (SSTI), a nonprofit organization that leads, supports, and strengthens efforts to improve state and regional economies through science, technology, and innovation.

SSTI is the most comprehensive resource available for those involved in technology-based economic development. Leading SSTI since its inception in 1996, Mr. Berglund has helped SSTI develop a nationwide network of practitioners and policymakers dedicated to improving the economy through science and technology. SSTI works with this network to assist states and communities as they build tech-based economies, conduct research on best practices and trends in tech-based economic development, and encourage cooperation among and between state and federal programs.

Prior to joining SSTI, Mr. Berglund worked as a consultant and for the Ohio Department of Development in a variety of positions, including acting deputy director of the Division of Technological Innovation. Mr. Berglund holds a B.A. in economics and political science and a B.A. in history from Ohio University.


Michael Borrus is the founding general partner of X/Seed Capital Management, a seed-focused, early-stage venture fund that invests in entrepreneurs pursuing breakthrough innovation. Prior to founding X/Seed, he was an executive in residence (EIR) at Mohr Davidow Ventures (MDV) in Silicon Valley.

From 1999 to 2004, Michael led the technology banking unit at The Petkevich Group, a financial services start-up. Before that, Michael was adjunct professor in the University of California (UC) at Berkeley's College of Engineering and a partner in the business consulting firm Industry and Trade Strategies. While at UC Berkeley, he co-founded and co-directed the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy.

He is the author of 3 books and more than 70 chapters, articles, and monographs on a variety of topics including management of technology, high-technology competition, international trade and investment, and financial strategies for technology companies.

Michael serves on several National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council steering committees including the Committee on Competing in the 21st Century. He also serves on the board of trustees for the National Center for Women and Information Technology (NCWIT) and the UC Berkeley School of Mechanical Engineering External Advisory Board. He is a director of multiple privately held technology start-ups creating products for cleantech, life science, and information technology markets.

Michael is an honors graduate of Harvard Law School, UC Berkeley, and Princeton University. He is a member of the California State Bar.


Nicholas Brooke is the chairman the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation and also of the Professional Property Services Group, which is a specialist real estate consultancy based in Hong Kong, providing a selected range of advisory services across the Asia Pacific Region.

The Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation was established in 2001 with the objectives of fostering Hong Kong's role as a hub for innovation and technology and R&D and to take advantage of Hong Kong's unique position as the historic gateway to Southern China. Since its inception, the corporation has built and now manages an unmatched range of advanced facilities and services with a particular emphasis on sustainability and green technologies.

He is a past president of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and a former member of the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Hong Kong Town Planning Board. He is the current chairman of the Hong Kong Coalition of Service Industries and is a member of the Hong Kong Harbour-front Enhancement Committee. He is also the member of the Steering Committee on Promotion of Electric Vehicle in Hong Kong.

He is a non-executive director on the board of MAF Properties, one of the Middle East's leading shopping center developers, of VinaLand Vietnam Real Estate Fund, the first Vietnam property fund to be listed on the AIM Board of the London Stock Exchange, and of Shanghai Forte Land.


Robert D. Cabana is the 10th director of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida where he manages a team of approximately 2,200 civil servants and about 13,000 contractor employees. Prior to his appointment to Kennedy in October 2008, the former space shuttle astronaut served as the director of NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi.

Originally from Minneapolis, Minnesota, Cabana graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1971, with a B.S. in mathematics and was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps. He is a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and has logged over 7,000 hours in 36 different aircraft.

Cabana was selected as an astronaut candidate in June of 1985, completing his training in 1986. He has flown four space shuttle missions serving as the pilot of Discovery on STS-41 in October 1990, the pilot of Discovery on STS-53 in December 1992, the commander of Columbia on STS-65 in July 1994, and the commander of Endeavour on STS-88, the first space station assembly mission, in December 1998.

Before being named the director of Stennis Space Center in October 2007, Cabana served as deputy director of NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. In addition to his duties as an astronaut, Cabana's NASA experience includes assignments as deputy chief, Aircraft Operations Division; chief, NASA Astronaut Office; manager, International Operations, International Space Station Program; director, NASA Human Space Flight Program in Russia; deputy, International Space Station Program; and director, Flight Crew Operations.


James P. Clements became West Virginia University's (WVU's) 23rd president on June 30, 2009. His primary focus has been strengthening local and global partnerships that produce meaningful results for the university and lasting benefits for all West Virginians.

Before going to WVU, Dr. Clements served as provost and vice president at Towson University, the second largest public university in Maryland, and before that, as Towson's vice president for economic and community outreach. During his four-year tenure in the latter role, he helped Towson secure more than $50 million in external funding through linked centers and institutes.

Dr. Clements also served on Towson's faculty as the Robert W. Deutsch Distinguished Professor and chair of the Department of Computer and Information Sciences. While on the faculty, he founded and led the Center for Applied Information Technology, a self-supporting academic center. Within the first few years, the center had engaged in more than two dozen research and consulting projects, generating more than $2 million in revenue.

Dr. Clements initiated and led the effort for Towson to receive recognition from the National Security Agency as a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education.

He has a B.S. in computer science and an M.S. and Ph.D. in operations analysis from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), as well as an M.S. in computer science from Johns Hopkins University. His project management textbook, in its fourth edition, is used in more than 20 countries and is published in four languages.

In October 2009, he was named UMBC's Alumnus of the Year in the Engineering and Information Technology category.


David E. Daniel is the fourth president of the University of Texas at Dallas. Dr. Daniel received his bachelor's, master's, and Ph.D. degrees in engineering from the University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin) and served on the faculty at UT-Austin from 1980 to 1996. In 1996, he moved to the University of Illinois, finishing his service there as dean of engineering before joining the University of Texas at Dallas (UT-Dallas) as its president in 2005.

Dr. Daniel's professional work has focused on environmental controls for contaminated land and groundwater. He has published over 100 technical articles and authored or edited 5 books. His work has been recognized by the American Society of Civil Engineers, which awarded him its highest award for papers published in its journals (the Norman Medal) and on two separate occasions awarded him its second highest award, the J. James Croes Medal. In 2000, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering.

In 2005 through 2007, he served as chair of the External Review Panel of the American Society of Civil Engineers, which reviewed the facts surrounding the performance of New Orleans' levees during Hurricane Katrina. In 2009 Daniel served as president of The Academy of Medicine, Engineering, and Science of Texas (TAMEST), which is an organization comprised of all Texas residents who have won Nobel Prizes or been elected to one of the three National Academies. Daniel serves on the Sandia Corporation Board of Directors, which oversees management of Sandia National Laboratory.

During his presidency, UT-Dallas has doubled its research expenditures, initiated or completed $300 million of construction of new buildings, added 20 new degree programs, raised $125 million in private funds, and won two national collegiate championships in chess. He has advocated widely for UT-Dallas to become one of the nation's top research universities. The approach that he suggested for creating more top-tier research universities in Texas gained widespread support that led to two legislative initiatives that pumped more than $500 million of state funds into this effort. His work on this legislation led to his being named a finalist for “Texan of the Year” by the Dallas Morning News in December 2009.


Brian Darmody is associate vice president for research and economic development, and special assistant vice chancellor for technology development with the University System of Maryland.

Projects led by Dr. Darmody include organizing the university's first technology transfer office, authoring reforms to the state's ethics legislation for entrepreneurial start-ups, developing legislation creating the Maryland Technology Development Corporation (TEDCO), initiating Research Parks Maryland (RPM), the nation's first statewide research park organization, and serving as director of the University of Maryland Center for Applied Policy Studies (UMCAPS). He is the principal author of the Power of Place, a national policy document focused on technology-led economic development, and serves as co-principal investigator on the $3.5 million Proof of Concept Alliances, a Department of Defense-funded commercialization project, and he has served as a reviewer to the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Darmody previously served as a staff member for the U.S. House of Representatives, the Maryland General Assembly in Annapolis, Maryland, and in the Office of the Attorney-Advisor in the U.S. Health Care Financing Administration. In his role with the University System of Maryland, he focuses on improving technology commercialization across the University System of Maryland and representing higher education regarding BRAC (Base Realignment and Closure Commission) recommendations affecting federal facilities in the region.

Dr. Darmody serves on local and national boards, including the Maryland Space Business Roundtable, Greater Baltimore Technology Council, and the Maryland Technology Council Legislative Committee, is president of the Association of University Research Parks, and is the previous chair of the University of Maryland's Network of Entrepreneurs. He holds a J.D. from the University of Baltimore and an undergraduate degree from the University of Maryland, College Park.


Jonathan Epstein performs oversight of energy research and development and Department of Energy matters on the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, as well as the Department of Defense (DoD), nuclear weapons, and nonproliferation issues on the personal staff of Senator Bingaman. He participated in drafting the research and development, coal and hydrogen fuel titles of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and 2007 as well as the Protecting America's Competitive Edge Act based upon National Academies report Rising Above the Gathering Storm as requested by Senators Alexander and Bingaman. This legislation was signed into law on August 8, 2007. Dr. Epstein holds a Ph.D. in engineering science and applied mechanics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

Dr. Epstein was a postdoctorate fellow at Oxford University. He has a law degree from the University of Idaho specializing in intellectual property and an LL.M. from Georgetown University Law Center in securities and financial regulation.

Dr. Epstein has published over 50 refereed papers in the areas of photonics and material behavior; he was past editor-in-chief of Optics and Lasers in Engineering. He was a congressional fellow sponsored by the American Welding Society and is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Dr. Epstein has worked in a wide variety of areas involving energy and national security. He was the scientific advisor to the assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs with responsibility for special forces programs to counter weapons of mass destruction, for which he received the Joint Service Commendation (civilian) for his work in initiating this effort. He worked at the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Export Administration as a policy analyst reviewing high-technology exports to India, Russia, and China. Dr. Epstein was a Carnegie Science Fellow at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford and an assistant professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

From 1984 to 2006 Dr. Epstein was employed by the Idaho National Laboratory performing research in the areas of nuclear power, material fracture, optical information processing systems and nonproliferation programs. From 2000 to 2006 he was detailed by the Idaho National Laboratory to the personal office of Senator Bingaman, assisting on defense matters, energy research, and development and competitiveness issues.


John Fernandez was appointed by President Obama to serve as the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Economic Development and sworn into office on September 14, 2009.

As the administrator of the U.S. Department of Commerce's Economic Development Administration (EDA), Mr. Fernandez is charged with leading the federal economic development agenda by promoting innovation and competitiveness, preparing American regions for growth and success in the global economy.

With over 13 years of executive experience, Mr. Fernandez has earned a reputation as a strategic thinker, creative problem solver, and effective manager. Prior to his appointment, Fernandez led the new development and acquisition team at First Capital Group, an Indiana-based real estate investment firm. Mr. Fernandez played a critical role in expanding the firm's regional and national investment footprint.

Mr. Fernandez also served as Of Counsel for Krieg Devault, an Indianapolis-based law firm, where he advised private and governmental organizations on economic development, public finance, and policy issues.

Mr. Fernandez served as Bloomington, Indiana's mayor from 1996 to 2003. With his leadership, Bloomington's economy thrived despite facing significant changes arising from the new global economy. Fernandez worked with business and Indiana University leaders to launch Bloomington's Life Sciences Partnership, securing more than $243 million in private investments and creating more than 3,700 jobs. He also developed an aggressive downtown revitalization plan resulting in more than $100 million in new investments.

A first generation American, Mr. Fernandez received a J.D. from Indiana University. He also earned an M.P.A. and B.S. from Indiana University's School of Public and Environmental Affairs.


Mary L. Good, founding dean and Donaghey University Professor in the Donaghey College of Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, is well known for her distinguished career. She has held many high-level positions in academia, industry, and government. The 143,000-member American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) elected Dr. Good to serve as president, following Dr. Stephen Jay Gould. In 2004, Dr. Good was recipient of the National Science Foundation's highest honor, the Vannevar Bush Award. She also was the first female winner of the AAAS's prestigious Philip Hogue Abelson prize for outstanding achievements in education, research, development management, and public service, spanning the academic, industrial, and government sectors. Two of her more than 27 awards include the National Science Foundation Distinguished Service medal and the esteemed American Chemical Society Priestly Medal. She also is the sixth Annual Heinz Award Winner.

During the terms of Presidents Carter and Reagan, Dr. Good served on the National Science Board and chaired it from 1988 to 1991. She was the Under Secretary for Technology in the U.S. Department of Commerce and Technology during President Clinton's first term. This agency assists American industry to advance productivity, technology, and innovation in order to make U.S. companies more competitive in the global market.

Dr. Good has received 21 honorary degrees. Her undergraduate degree in chemistry is from the University of Central Arkansas. She earned her doctoral degree in inorganic chemistry from the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, at age 24. Dr. Good spent 25 years teaching and researching at Louisiana State University and the University of New Orleans before becoming a guiding force in research and development for Allied Signal. Dr. Good was voted one of Arkansas' Top 100 Women by Arkansas Business.


Francelino Grando is the Secretary of Innovation at the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade of the Government of Brazil. From 2003 to 2005, Dr. Grando was the Secretary of Technological Development and Innovation at the Ministry of Science and Technology. He is an associate professor in the Department of Ecology at the Federal University of São Carlos. He holds a bachelor of laws from the University of São Paulo (USP) where he majored in economic law, and he holds a Ph.D. in ecology and natural resources from the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar).

Dr. Grando is currently a member of the following councils and boards: the National Council of Water Resources, the Brazil Internet Steering Committee, the Board of Directors of the Center for Strategic Studies and Management, the Development Committee of the Board on Brazilian Digitial Television, the Managing Council of the Fund for the Development of Telecommunications, and the Advisory Board of the Studies and Projects Committee, and he is the executive secretary of the Interministerial Group for Intellectual Property.


William Harris is the president and chief executive officer of Science Foundation Arizona (SFAz). Prior to joining SFAz, Dr. Harris was in Ireland serving as director general of Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), a new Irish agency that helped facilitate tremendous growth in Ireland's R&D sector during Dr. Harris' tenure. Immediately prior to going to Ireland, Dr. Harris was vice president of research and professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of South Carolina (USC). There, he oversaw research activities throughout the USC system, several interdisciplinary centers and institutes, the USC Research Foundation, and sponsored research programs.

Dr. Harris served at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) from 1978 to 1996, including as the director for mathematical and physical sciences (1991-1996). He was responsible for federal grants appropriation of $750 million. He also established 25 Science and Technology Centers to support investigative, interdisciplinary research by multi-university consortia. Earlier in his career, he catalyzed the Research Experience for Undergraduates program in the chemistry division, and it became an NSF-wide activity.

In 2005, Dr. Harris was elected a member of the Irish Royal Academy, and he received the Wiley Lifetime Achievement Award from California Polytechnic State University. He has authored more than 50 research papers and review articles in spectroscopy and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Dr. Harris earned his undergraduate degree at the College of William and Mary and received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of South Carolina.


Kristina M. Johnson is currently the Under Secretary for Energy at the Department of Energy in Washington, DC. Prior to her appointment as Under Secretary, Dr. Johnson was provost and senior vice president for academic affairs at The Johns Hopkins University. She received her B.S. (with distinction), M.S., and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University. After a NATO postdoctoral fellowship at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, she joined the University of Colorado-Boulder's faculty in 1985 as an assistant professor and was promoted to full professor in 1994. From 1994 to 1999, Dr. Johnson directed the NSF/ERC for Optoelectronics Computing Systems Center at the University of Colorado and Colorado State University, and then served as dean of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University from 1999 to 2007.

Dr. Johnson was named an NSF Presidential Young Investigator in 1985 and a Fulbright Faculty Scholar fellowship in 1991. Her awards include the Dennis Gabor Prize for creativity and innovation in modern optics (1993); State of Colorado and North Carolina Technology Transfer Awards (1997 Carolina Technology Transfer Awards (2001); induction into the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame (2003); the Society of Women Engineers Lifetime Achievement Award (2004); and in May of 2008, the John Fritz Medal, widely considered the highest award in the engineering profession. Previous recipients of the Fritz Medal include Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, and Orville Wright. In December of 2009, she was awarded an honorary doctorate of science from the University of Alabama at Huntsville.

Dr. Johnson has 142 refereed papers and proceedings and holds 45 U.S. patents (129 U.S. and international patents) and patents pending.

A fellow of the Optical Society of America, International Electronics and Electrical Engineering (IEEE), SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering (former Board Member), Dr. Johnson has served on the Board of Directors of Mineral Technologies Inc., Boston Scientific Corporation, AES Corporation, and Nortel Networks. She helped found several companies, including ColorLink, Inc, SouthEast Techinventures, and Unyos.


Stephen Lehrman is a legislative assistant in the Office of Senator Mark Pryor (D-AR). Before joining Senator Pryor's professional staff, he served the senator as a congressional fellow sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Mr. Lehrman advises the office on science and technology policy.

Mr. Lehrman was president of LabraTek Consulting, a company he founded to provide technology-transfer and commercialization services on emerging technologies in mechanical engineering, material science, nano and micro technologies, and optics for federal, state, industry, and university clients. From 1998 to 1999, Mr. Lehrman was adjunct professor and visiting lecturer in engineering at the Community College of Rhode Island. He previously worked for RTI International supporting the NASA and Missile Defense Agency technology transfer programs. Prior to joining RTI, Mr. Lehrman was a graduate fellow in precision engineering at North Carolina State University; manager of the structural mechanics department at Corporate Consulting and Development Company; and mechanical engineer in the engineering mechanics division at Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation. Mr. Lehrman is a registered professional engineer, was a member of the Brown University Division of Engineering Advisory Council, and is a member of ASME and Tau Beta Pi.


Ginger Lew is senior advisor to the White House National Economic Council and the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Administrator. She provides economic policy advice on a broad range of matters that impact small businesses. In addition, she co-chairs the White House Interagency Group on Innovation and Entrepreneurship.

Prior to joining the Obama Administration, Ms. Lew was the managing partner of a communications venture capital fund and a venture advisor to a Web 2.0 venture fund.

Under the Clinton Administration, Ms. Lew was the deputy administrator and chief operating officer of the Small Business Administration where she provided day-to-day management and operational oversight of a $42 billion loan portfolio. Before joining SBA, Ms. Lew was the general counsel at the Department of Commerce where she specialized in international trade issues. Ms. Lew was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate for both positions.

For the past 10 years, Ms. Lew was chairman and board member of an investment fund based in Europe. She has served on the boards of publicly traded companies, private companies, and nonprofit organizations.


Gary Locke was appointed by President Obama as the 36th Secretary of Commerce and sworn into office on March 26, 2009.

At the Department of Commerce, Locke is charged with helping implement President Obama's ambitious agenda to turn around the economy and put people back to work.

As the first Chinese-American to hold this post in a president's cabinet, Locke has a distinctly American story. His grandfather emigrated from China to Washington state, initially finding employment as a servant, working in exchange for English lessons. Locke's father, also born in China, was a small business owner, operating a grocery store where Locke worked while receiving his education from Seattle's public school system. His strong work ethic and determination eventually took him to the highest office in the state of Washington.

Prior to his appointment, Locke helped U.S. companies break into international markets as a partner in the Seattle office of the international law firm, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP. There, he co-chaired the firm's China practice and was active in its governmental relations practice.

As the popular two-term governor of Washington, the nation's most trade-dependent state, Locke broke down trade barriers around the world to advance American products. He helped open doors for Washington state businesses by leading 10 productive trade missions to Asia, Mexico, and Europe, significantly expanding the sale of Washington products and services. He also successfully strengthened economic ties between China and Washington state. His visits are credited with introducing Washington companies to China and helping to more than double the state's exports to China to over $5 billion per year.

As part of his considerable trade and economic development efforts, Locke launched Washington's Competitiveness Council with business, labor, and civic leaders working together to effectively position Washington state for success at home and around the world. During the eight years of the Locke Administration, the state gained 280,000 jobs.

Locke earned a bachelor's degree in political science from Yale University and a law degree from Boston University. He is married to Mona Lee Locke. They have three children: Emily, Dylan, and Madeline.


Aris Melissaratos joined The Johns Hopkins University in 2007 as senior advisor to the president for enterprise development.

Melissaratos, a 1966 Johns Hopkins graduate and longtime member of the Whiting School of Engineering's National Advisory Council, has overall responsibility for building the university's relationship with business and forging new connections between the research and corporate communities.

Specific assignments include supervision of Johns Hopkins Technology Transfer, the office that links university researchers and businesses interested in commercializing their inventions. Melissaratos also markets opportunities for businesses to locate at Johns Hopkins-related research parks such as the Montgomery County Campus, the nearby Belward Research Campus, and the Science + Technology Park at Johns Hopkins, now under construction as part of the comprehensive New EastSide redevelopment in East Baltimore.

Melissaratos, whose undergraduate degree from Johns Hopkins is in electrical engineering, spent most of his career with Westinghouse Electronics in Baltimore, eventually becoming vice president of science and technology and chief technology officer at corporate headquarters in Pittsburgh. Before joining state government in 2003 as Secretary of the Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development, he also served as vice president of Thermo Electron Corporation and founded Armel Private Equity Investments.

He was a founding co-chair of the Greater Baltimore Technology Council and is a former vice president of the Maryland Chamber of Commerce. He holds a master's degree in engineering management from George Washington University and did graduate work in international politics at Catholic University of America. Melissaratos also completed a program for management development at Harvard Business School.


Karen G. Mills was sworn in April 6, 2009, as the 23rd Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Appointed by President Barack Obama and confirmed unanimously by the Senate, Ms. Mills directs a federal agency with more than 2,000 full-time employees that plays a leading role helping small business owners and entrepreneurs secure financing, technical assistance, training, and federal contracts. SBA also plays a leading role in disaster recovery by making low-interest loans for businesses and residents. With a portfolio of direct and guaranteed business loans and disaster loans worth more than $90 billion, SBA is the nation's largest single financial backer of small business.

Since 1983, Ms. Mills has been an active hands-on investor in and successful manager of small businesses. Ms. Mills also has distinguished herself as a passionate advocate for small business policy that encourages innovation, economic development, and job creation.

Most recently, as the president of MMP Group, Ms. Mills invested in and took a leading role in companies involved in the consumer products, food, distribution, textile, and industrial components sectors. Prior to that, in the late 1990s, she was a co-founder and a managing director of Solera Capital.

Ms. Mills has spent much of her career working with small manufacturing firms, including producers of hardwood flooring, refrigerator motors, and plastic injection molding. During the recession of the early 1990s, her hands-on management and commitment to innovation is credited with helping several small manufacturers increase efficiency and competitiveness and ultimately survive in a tough economy.

Her background also includes consulting in the United States and Europe for the management consulting firm McKinsey and Company and product management for General Foods. In 2007, she was appointed by Maine Governor John Baldacci as chair of the state's Council on Competitiveness and the Economy, where she focused on attracting investment in rural and regional development initiatives. She also served on the Governor's Council for the Redevelopment of the Brunswick Naval Air Station.

For several years Ms. Mills has been a leading voice in the U.S. competitiveness discussion and is author of an influential Brookings Institution paper on the federal role in regional economic development clusters—geographic concentrations of interconnected businesses that share knowledge and resources to spur innovation, economic growth, and higher wage employment.

Ms. Mills' work with boat builders in Maine in using composite materials to increase global competitiveness is one of the leading examples of the success of economic development clusters.

She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and has been vice chairman of the Harvard Overseers. Ms. Mills has an A.B. in economics from Harvard University and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School where she was a Baker Scholar. Mills and her husband Barry Mills, president of Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, have three sons.


Doug Parks is senior vice president of business development & attraction for the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC). In his current role, he leads the MEDC's business development efforts focusing on national and international attraction, as well as Michigan expansion and retention. He leads a broad-based team who are all dedicated to continue to increase the economy of Michigan while leveraging the state's significant strengths.

Doug has filled several roles while at the MEDC. Earlier, as vice president of administration, he was responsible for managing the corporation's budget and finance, contracts and grants, office services, human resources, information technology, web development, telecommunications, and customer relationship management services. He also directed the efforts of the organization's research team. In addition, Doug has served as the MEDC's chief technology officer and as deputy director of the Travel Michigan Office.

Prior to joining the MEDC, Doug was a vice president at Valassis Communications, heading a division that developed print, software, and Web site solutions for travel industry organizations.

Doug is a retired U.S. Army Intelligence Officer and a graduate of Lake Superior State University.


Mario Pezzini is deputy director in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate. Mr. Pezzini is in charge of the OECD activities that promote regional competitiveness and effectiveness of regional policies. In order to advise national governments and sub-national authorities, Mr. Pezzini coordinates the work of the OECD Territorial Development Policy Committee, the main international forum for debate in the field of regional policy. Twice a year this forum brings together officials from prime ministers' offices or national economic ministries from the 30 OECD member countries to discuss within three working parties: Territorial Indicators, Territorial Policies in Urban Areas, and Territorial Policies in Rural Areas.

In his work, Mr. Pezzini liaises between the OECD and ministers, cabinet's members, and high-level policy makers. More recently, he has been increasingly engaged in promoting dialogue with non-member countries and has developed high-level cooperation with international organisations such as the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Council of Europe. Before joining the OECD, he was a professor in industrial economics at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris as well as in U.S. and Italian universities. On several occasions Mr. Pezzini has served as an advisor for international organisations (UNIDO, UNDP, and ILO) and think tanks in the fields of economic development, industrial organization, and regional economics such as the Italian economics research institute, Nomisa. A member of several governmental advisory boards, Mr. Pezzini was also manager in the regional government of the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy.


Alberto Duque Portugal is the Secretary of State for Science, Technology, and Higher Studies of Minas Gerais State Government.

Mr. Portugal is an agronomist engineer and graduated at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, Brazil). He also has a doctoral degree in agricultural systems from the University of Reading, England.

At the beginning of his professional life he worked as a technician and as a researcher. In 1983, he was the director of technical operations at EPAMIG—Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais and, four years later, he took over the coordination of the Technology Dissemination Sector of the National Center for Research of Dairy Cattle at EMBRAPA—Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. In 1993, he was named the executive director of EMBRAPA and left the office to work as executive secretary and Temporary Minister of Agriculture, Supply, and Agrarian Reform in Brazil. At the ministry, he coordinated and led the negotiations to implement the “Crop Plan” for the period 1993-1994 and worked at the negotiations of international agreements on export and import of agricultural products. He also acted to obtain the funding to implement the projects in the ministry.

At EMBRAPA, Mr. Portugal also worked as executive director and chairman for the period 1995-2003. During this time, he coordinated and implemented a management model with innovative features that represented an important contribution to management of public organizations of research and development and innovation.

Mr. Portugal also was director of the Agency for Innovation of UNICAMP—University of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil), Assistant Secretary of State for Agriculture, Cattle, and Supply of Minas Gerais State, and executive director of the National Council of Coffee.


J. Stephen (Steve) Rottler is chief technology officer and vice president of science and technology at Sandia National Laboratories, which is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Dr. Rottler is the executive responsible for leadership and management of corporate research and development and capabilities stewardship at Sandia National Laboratories. He also is responsible for leadership of technology transfer and strategic relationships with universities, industry, and the state of New Mexico.

In his previous position as chief engineer for nuclear weapons and vice president of weapon engineering and product realization, Dr. Rottler was the central technical authority for nuclear weapons and led all nuclear weapon engineering and production activities at Sandia. Prior to that position, Dr. Rottler served in a number of senior leadership positions at the Laboratories. He has been responsible for nuclear warhead system engineering and integration, development of high-performance electronic systems, and performance of system analyses and assessments for Sandia and National Nuclear Security Administration senior management. He also managed organizations and programs responsible for the research, development, and application of advanced computational and experimental techniques in the engineering sciences. As a member of the technical staff at Sandia, Dr. Rottler was part of a research team that developed multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation codes for nuclear weapon applications, and he led projects that supported the development of advanced nuclear and conventional weapon concepts.

Dr. Rottler is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and past chair of the Institute's Technical Committee on Management. He is a recipient of the Department of the Air Force Award for Exemplary Civilian Service. Dr. Rottler is a fellow of Seminar XXI at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He serves on the boards of directors of the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment, New Mexico Computing Applications Center, New Mexico Humanities Council, and Explora Science Museum. He is a member of the external advisory board for the Texas A&M University Dwight Look College of Engineering. He has led or served on independent review panels for the U.S. Navy Strategic Systems Programs Office and the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Establishment.

Dr. Rottler received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in nuclear engineering from Texas A&M University in 1980, 1982, and 1984, respectively. He has published papers, reports, and conference presentations on the development and application of computational radiation-hydrodynamics codes.

Dr. Rottler and his wife have two children and reside in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In his spare time, he finds relaxation through golf, long-distance running, and year-round hiking and camping in the mountains of New Mexico and Colorado. He is also an amateur astronomer, and enjoys the study of music, foreign affairs, and U.S., English, and world history.


Marc G. Stanley is currently serving as acting deputy director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), effective December 1, 2009. Mr. Stanley has served as director of the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at NIST since December 31, 2007. He was appointed acting director of TIP on September 10, 2007. He also serves as a U.S. governor on the Israel-U.S. bi-national Industrial Research and Development (BIRD) Foundation Board of Governors and as the American director on the Trilateral Industrial Development (TRIDE) Executive Committee.

Mr. Stanley served as the director of the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) since June 2003. He was the acting director of ATP from 2001 to 2003 and as the associate director for ATP from 1993 to 2001.

Before going to NIST, Mr. Stanley was the Associate Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DoC) by Presidential appointment. He served as counselor to the NIST director, as a consultant to DoC's Technology Administration, and as Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs at DoC.

Mr. Stanley earned a B.A. from George Washington University and a bachelor of law degree from the University of Baltimore.


Ashley J. Stevens is the president-elect of the Association of University Technology Managers and the special assistant to the vice president for research at Boston University, following 15 years as director of the Office of Technology Transfer and then executive director for technology transfer in the Office of Technology Development. In his current capacity, he has been tasked with creating university-wide teaching and research programs on the role of intellectual property in the transformation of ideas, knowledge, and creative works into economic development.

He also is senior research associate in the Institute for Technology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization in Boston University's School of Management, where he teaches two graduate-level, inter-disciplinary courses on technology commercialization. Before joining Boston University, he was director of the Office of Technology Transfer at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, a teaching affiliate of the Harvard Medical School.

Since he joined Boston University, the Office of Technology Development has grown to a total of 16 professionals and has spun out over 50 companies based on the university's research, a number of which have raised substantial amounts of capital, and the university's licensing income has climbed steadily.

Prior to entering the technology transfer profession, Dr. Stevens worked in the biotechnology industry for nearly 10 years. He was a co-founder of Kytogenics, Inc., of which he is still a director, was co-founder and general manager of Genmap, Inc., and was vice president of business development for BioTechnica International. He started his career with The Procter & Gamble Company, where he held a number of positions in sales, marketing, strategic planning, and acquisitions.

Dr. Stevens publishes and lectures frequently on many aspects of technology transfer, including the Bayh-Dole Act, the economic impact of technology transfer and its role in economic development, the contribution of academia to the discovery of new drugs and vaccines, and the role of technology transfer in global health and technology valuation. He was the recipient of the Bayh-Dole Award at the Association of University Technology Managers' (AUTM's) 2007 Annual Meeting and was recently elected president-elect of AUTM. He will become president of AUTM in March 2010. He is also active in the Licensing Executives Society and the Massachusetts Biotechnology Council.

Dr. Stevens holds a B.A. in natural sciences and an M.A. and a D.Phil. in physical chemistry from Oxford University. He is a Certified Licensing Professional.


Charles Wessner is a National Academy Scholar and director of the Program on Technology, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. He is recognized nationally and internationally for his expertise on innovation policy, including public-private partnerships, entrepreneurship, early-stage financing for new firms, and the special needs and benefits of high-technology industry. He testifies to the U.S. Congress and major national commissions, advises agencies of the U.S. government and international organizations, and lectures at major universities in the United States and abroad. Reflecting the strong global interest in innovation, he is frequently asked to address issues of shared policy interest with foreign governments, universities, research institutes, and international organizations, often briefing government ministers and senior officials. He has a strong commitment to international cooperation, reflected in his work with a wide variety of countries around the world.

Dr. Wessner's work addresses the linkages between science-based economic growth, entrepreneurship, new technology development, university-industry clusters, regional development, small-firm finance and public-private partnerships. His program at the National Academies also addresses policy issues associated with international technology cooperation, investment, and trade in high-technology industries.

Currently, he directs a series of studies centered on government measures to encourage entrepreneurship and support the development of new technologies and the cooperation between industry, universities, laboratories, and government to capitalize on a nation's investment in research. Foremost among these is a congressionally mandated study of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, reviewing the operation and achievements of this $2.3 billion award program for small companies and start-ups. He also is directing a major study on best practice in global innovation programs, titled Comparative National Innovation Policies: Best Practice for the 21st Century. Today's meeting on “Clustering for 21st Century Prosperity” forms part of a complementary analysis entitled Competing in the 21st Century: Best Practice in State & Regional Innovation Initiatives. The overarching goal of Dr. Wessner's work is to develop a better understanding of how we can bring new technologies forward to address global challenges in health, climate, energy, water, infrastructure, and security.


Ken Zweibel is the founding director of the George Washington University Solar Institute. He has almost 30 years of experience in solar photovoltaics (PV). He was the program leader for the Thin Film PV Partnership Program at the National Renewable Energy Lab until 2006. The Thin Film Partnership worked with most participants in thin film PV (companies, universities, scientists) and is often credited with being crucial to the development of thin film PV in the United States. Corporate graduates of the Partnership include First Solar, Unisolar, Global Solar, and numerous others. Ken subsequently co-founded and became president and chairman of a thin film CdTe PV start-up, PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar was subsequently purchased by General Electric and is now the feature company in its solar portfolio. In 2008 he became founding director of The George Washington University Solar Institute.

Ken is well known worldwide in solar energy. Recently, he co-authored a Scientific American article (January 2008) on solar PV and concentrating solar power as solutions to climate change and energy problems. He also has written two books and numerous articles on solar PV. He is participating on the Department of Energy “Solar Vision” activity, which is defining a pathway for solar to be deployed on an energy significant scale in the United States. Ken is a graduate of the University of Chicago in physics.



As of February 2010. Appendix includes bios distributed at the symposium.

Copyright © 2012, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK115047


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