Table 7Results of Interventions, Combined Primary Prevention and Cessation

StudyTargeted Multiple Behaviors (Y/N)Person Targeted (Youth, Parent, Both)Role of Primary CareMode of InterventionMonths to FollowupPrimary Outcome Measure% Smoking at BL, IG% Smoking at BL, CG% Smoking at Followup, IG% Smoking at Followup, CGRelative Risk
(95% CI)
Quality Rating, Main Quality Concerns
Bauman 200286YParentNonePhone, print7Ever smoked even 1 puff of a cigarette19.3§24.8§
(0.72 to 0.97)
Fair, randomization methods NR; blinding of outcomes assessment uncertain; retention <90% in CG; baseline differences between groups not presented (although controlled for in analysis)
Hollis 200591NYouthConducted in PC, provider delivered partFace, computer12Smoked ≥1 cigarettes in the past 30 days23.323.422.827.20.84
(0.73 to 0.96)
Good, no concerns
Kentala 199993NYouthConducted in dental, provider delivered mostFace12NR (ever smoked assumed)
(0.87 to 1.36)
Fair, no description of how smoking was measured or defined; randomization based on birth date, so allocation concealment and outcomes assessment unlikely to be blind; retention <90% in both groups; NR proportion received intervention; smokers more likely to drop out
Lando 200795NYouthConducted in dental, provider delivered partFace, phone12Smoked in past 30 days34.9§37.3§
(0.79 to 1.29)
Fair, retention <70% in both groups; allocation concealment and blinding of outcome assessment NR; no information on baseline comparability; poor adherence to intervention; ITT only among current smokers
Pbert 200879NYouthConducted in PC, provider delivered partFace, phone12Smoked occasionally or regularly8.710.69.411.70.80
(0.50 to 1.26)
Fair, detail about how random number generated NR; allocation concealment and blinding of outcomes assessment NR
Prado 200797YParentNoneFace12Smoked cigarettes in past 90 days3.
(0.49 to 7.32)
Fair, participant adherence NR (e.g., number of sessions attended); retention <90% in all groups
Stevens 2002*98YBothConducted in PC, provider delivered partFace, phone, print12Ever smoked (specific measure NR)5.3§4.5§NRNRNR**Good, blinding of outcome assessors NR

Not included in meta-analysis.

Among those randomized.

Among those analyzed at followup.


Calculated based on presented data.

Calculated based on data requested from the author.


The adjusted odds ratio for having ever smoked for the intervention group compared with the control group was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.39).

Abbreviations: BL = baseline; CG = control group; CI = confidence interval; Face = face-to-face; IG = intervention group; ITT = intention to treat; NR = not reported; OR = odds ratio; PC = primary care.

From: 3, RESULTS

Cover of Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents
Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 97.
Patnode CD, O'Connor E, Whitlock EP, et al.

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