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Patnode CD, O'Connor E, Whitlock EP, et al. Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Dec. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 97.)

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Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].

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Appendix CExcluded Studies

Exclusion Codes

E1. Study relevance
E1b. No efficacy data for intervention approach examined
E2a. Location: Not a country with a very high HDI ranking
E2b. Setting: Schools (classroom-based); inpatient; institutional/residential; workplace; churches; other closed social networks
E3. Control group received active intervention
E4. No relevant outcomes
E5a. Population: Adults (age >18 years) or average age of study sample >18 years
E5b. Population: Children or adolescents with cognitive, substance abuse, mental health, or other health issues; pregnant adolescents
E6a. Interventions: Not one of the specified interventions
E6b. Tobacco use is not a primary target of intervention
E7. Study design: Not an included study design
E8a. Followup: Behavioral trial followup from baseline <6 months (24 weeks)
E8b. Followup: Pharmacological trial followup <6 months (24 weeks) but otherwise likely meets inclusion criteria
E9a. Study quality: High or differential attrition
E9b. Study quality: Other quality issue

Key Question 1

  1. Ames SC, Werch CE, Ames GE, et al. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot investigation. Ann Behav Med. 2010;40(3):343–49. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC3035986] [PubMed: 20730517]
  2. Armitage CJ. A volitional help sheet to encourage smoking cessation: a randomized exploratory trial. Health Psychol. 2008;27(5):557–66. E5a. [PubMed: 18823182]
  3. Audrain-McGovern J, Stevens S, Murray PJ, et al. The efficacy of motivational interviewing versus brief advice for adolescent smoking behavior change. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):e101–11. E3a. [PubMed: 21690120]
  4. Ausems M, Mesters I, van Breukelen G, et al. Short-term effects of a randomized computer-based out-of-school smoking prevention trial aimed at elementary schoolchildren. Prev Med. 2002;34(6):581–89. E4. [PubMed: 12052017]
  5. Aveyard P, Johnson C, Fillingham S, et al. Nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7655):1223–27. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC2405820] [PubMed: 18441375]
  6. Aycicegi-Dinn A, Dinn W. Efficacy of an alternative smoking cessation treatment. J Addict Dis. 2011;(30):368–81. E2a. [PubMed: 22026529]
  7. Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST, et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract. 2004;2(1):81–96. E4.
  8. Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Foshee VA, et al. Influence of a family-directed program on adolescent cigarette and alcohol cessation. Prev Sci. 2000;1(4):227–37. E4. [PubMed: 11523750]
  9. Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Foshee VA, et al. Influence of a family program on adolescent smoking and drinking prevalence. Prev Sci. 2002;3(1):35–42. E4. [PubMed: 12002557]
  10. Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST, et al. The influence of a family program on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(4):604–10. E4. [PMC free article: PMC1446646] [PubMed: 11291373]
  11. Bowen DJ, Henderson PN, Harvill J, Buchwald D. Short-term effects of a smoking prevention website in American Indian youth. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14:e81. E8a. [PMC free article: PMC3799607] [PubMed: 22659390]
  12. Bramley D, Riddell T, Whittaker R, et al. Smoking cessation using mobile phone text messaging is as effective in Maori as non-Maori. N Z Med J. 2005;118(1216):U1494. E5a. [PubMed: 15937529]
  13. Buffels J, Degryse J, Decramer M, et al. Spirometry and smoking cessation advice in general practice: a randomised clinical trial. Respir Med. 2006;100(11):2012–17. E5a. [PubMed: 16580189]
  14. Buller DB, Borland R, Woodall WG, et al. Randomized trials on Consider This, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents. Health Educ Behav. 2008;35(2):260–81. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC4380290] [PubMed: 17114331]
  15. Cabezas C, Martin C, Granollers S, et al. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention (ISTAPS study): design of a cluster randomised trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):48. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2666720] [PubMed: 19193233]
  16. Cabezas C, Advani M, Puente D, et al. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention: cluster randomized clinical trial (ISTAPS study) Addiction. 2011;106(9):1696–706. E5a. [PubMed: 21561497]
  17. Chan CW, Witherspoon JM. Health risk appraisal modifies cigarette smoking behavior among college students. J Gen Intern Med. 1988;3(6):555–59. E2b. [PubMed: 3230458]
  18. Cohen DA, Rice JC. A parent-targeted intervention for adolescent substance use prevention: lessons learned. Eval Rev. 1995;19(2):159–80. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC2944654] [PubMed: 20871746]
  19. Colby SM, Monti PM, O'Leary TT, et al. Brief motivational intervention for adolescent smokers in medical settings. Addict Behav. 2005;30(5):865–74. E4. [PubMed: 15893085]
  20. Coleman T, Bauld L. Preventing adolescents' uptake of smoking. Thorax. 2011;66(10):842–4. E1. [PubMed: 21502104]
  21. Curry SJ, Hollis J, Bush T, et al. A randomized trial of a family-based smoking prevention intervention in managed care. Prev Med. 2003;37(6 Pt 1):617–26. E4. [PubMed: 14636795]
  22. Dishion TJ, Andrews DW. Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: immediate and 1-year outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995;63(4):538–48. E4. [PubMed: 7673531]
  23. Dixon AL, Yabiku ST, Okamoto SK, et al. The efficacy of a multicultural prevention intervention among urban American Indian youth in the southwest U.S. J Prim Prev. 2007;28(6):547–68. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC3042736] [PubMed: 18058235]
  24. Elder JP, Litrownik AJ, Slymen DJ, et al. Tobacco and alcohol use-prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(4):269–75. E2b. [PubMed: 12406481]
  25. Etter JF. Comparing computer-tailored, internet-based smoking cessation counseling reports with generic, untailored reports: a randomized trial. J Health Comm. 2009;14(7):646–57. E5b. [PubMed: 19851916]
  26. Fidler W, Lambert TW. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people. Tob Control. 2001;10(1):23–6. E4. [PMC free article: PMC1763986] [PubMed: 11226356]
  27. Franken FH, Pickworth WB, Epstein DH, et al. Smoking rates and topography predict adolescent smoking cessation following treatment with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(1):154–57. E9a. [PubMed: 16434603]
  28. Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, et al. Bupropion SR and contingency management for adolescent smoking cessation. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2011;40(1):77–86. E8b. [PMC free article: PMC2997899] [PubMed: 20934835]
  29. Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Nichols TR, et al. Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Prev Med. 2003;36(1):1–7. E2b. [PubMed: 12473419]
  30. Haggerty KP, Skinner ML, MacKenzie EP, et al. A randomized trial of Parents Who Care: effects on key outcomes at 24-month follow-up. Prev Sci. 2007;8(4):249–60. E4. [PubMed: 17987388]
  31. Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Tobacco and alcohol prevention: preliminary results of a four-year study. Adolesc Psychiatry. 1987;(14):556–75. E2b. [PubMed: 3618940]
  32. Hanson K, Allen S, Jensen S, et al. Treatment of adolescent smokers with the nicotine patch. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5(4):515–26. E8b. [PubMed: 12959789]
  33. Hellmann R, O'Shea RM, Kunz ML, et al. University health service physician intervention with cigarette smokers. J Am Coll Health. 1988;37(2):91–3. E5a. [PubMed: 3241031]
  34. Helstrom A, Hutchison K, Bryan A. Motivational enhancement therapy for high-risk adolescent smokers. Addict Behav. 2007;32(10):2404–10. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC2082126] [PubMed: 17428617]
  35. Hiemstra M, Ringlever L, Otten R, et al. Efficacy of smoking prevention program “Smoke-free Kids”: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):477. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2805639] [PubMed: 20025727]
  36. Higgs PE, Edwards D, Harbin RE, et al. Evaluation of a self-directed smoking prevention and cessation program. Pediatr Nurs. 2000;26(2):150–3. E2b. [PubMed: 12026268]
  37. Hollis JF, Polen MR, Whitlock EP, et al. Teen Reach: outcomes from a randomized, controlled trial of a tobacco reduction program for teens seen in primary medical care. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):981–9. E4. [PubMed: 15805374]
  38. Holt S, Timu-Parata C, Ryder-Lewis S, et al. Efficacy of bupropion in the indigenous Maori population in New Zealand. Thorax. 2005;60(2):120–3. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC1747282] [PubMed: 15681499]
  39. Horn K, Dino G, Hamilton C, et al. Efficacy of an emergency department-based motivational teenage smoking intervention. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007;4(1):A08. E9a. [PMC free article: PMC1832131] [PubMed: 17173716]
  40. Hovell MF, Slymen DJ, Jones JA, et al. An adolescent tobacco-use prevention trial in orthodontic offices. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(12):1760–6. E4. [PMC free article: PMC1380730] [PubMed: 9003134]
  41. Huang M, Hollis J, Polen M, et al. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care. J Smok Cessat. 2005;30(6):1183–94. E4. [PubMed: 15925127]
  42. Jackson C, Dickinson D. Can parents who smoke socialise their children against smoking? Results from the Smoke-free Kids intervention trial. Tob Control. 2003;12(1):52–9. E4. [PMC free article: PMC1759106] [PubMed: 12612363]
  43. Jackson C, Dickinson D. Enabling parents who smoke to prevent their children from initiating smoking: results from a 3-year intervention evaluation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(1):56–62. E4. [PubMed: 16389212]
  44. Jason LA, Mollica M, Ferrone L. Evaluating an early secondary smoking prevention intervention. Prev Med. 1982;11(1):96–102. E2b. [PubMed: 7079250]
  45. Jaszyna-Gasior M, Schroeder JR, Moolchan ET. Alcohol use and tobacco abstinence among adolescents in cessation treatment: preliminary findings. Addict Behav. 2007;32(3):617–21. E4. [PubMed: 16814935]
  46. Kang HC, Shin KK, Kim KK, et al. The effects of the acupuncture treatment for smoking cessation in high school student smokers. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46(2):206–12. E8b. [PMC free article: PMC2823015] [PubMed: 15861492]
  47. Kelleher CC, Fallon UB, Mc Carthy E, et al. Feasibility of a lifestyle cardiovascular health promotion programme for 8–15-year-olds in Irish general practice: results of the Galway Health Project. Health Promot Int. 1999;14(3):221–30. E3.
  48. Kelly AB, Lapworth K. The HYP Program: targeted motivational interviewing for adolescent violations of school tobacco policy. Prev Med. 2006;43(6):466–71. E3. [PubMed: 16920183]
  49. Kentala J, Utriainen P, Pahkala K, et al. Can brief intervention through community dental care have an effect on adolescent smoking? Prev Med. 1999;29(2):107–11. E4. [PubMed: 10446036]
  50. Killen JD, Robinson TN, Ammerman S, et al. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of bupropion combined with nicotine patch in the treatment of adolescent smokers. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(4):729–35. E4. [PubMed: 15301658]
  51. Kim S, Nam KA, Seo M, et al. Effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for adolescents. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(4):646–54. E2b. [PubMed: 15502430]
  52. Knishkowy B, Verbov G, Amitai Y, et al. Reaching Jewish ultra-orthodox adolescents: results from a targeted smoking prevention trial. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2012;(24):173–9. E8a. [PubMed: 22909927]
  53. Knutsen SF, Knutsen R. The Tromso Survey: the Family Intervention study—the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow-up. Prev Med. 1991;20(2):197–212. E6b. [PubMed: 2057468]
  54. Lando HA, Hennrikus D, Boyle R, et al. Promoting tobacco abstinence among older adolescents in dental clinics. J Smok Cessat. 2007;2(1):23–30. E4.
  55. Lindenberg CS, Solorzano RM, Bear D, et al. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behavior among young, low-income, Mexican-American women: comparison of two interventions. Appl Nurs Res. 2002;15(3):137–48. E5a. [PubMed: 12173165]
  56. Lipkus IM, McBride CM, Pollak KI, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effects of self-help materials and proactive telephone counseling on teen smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 2004;23(4):397–406. E3. [PubMed: 15264976]
  57. Litrownik AJ, Elder JP, Campbell NR, et al. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol use prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents: promoting the protective factor of parent-child communication. Prev Med. 2000;31(2 Pt 1):124–33. E4. [PubMed: 10938212]
  58. McCambridge J, Strang J. The efficacy of single-session motivational interviewing in reducing drug consumption and perceptions of drug-related risk and harm among young people: results from a multi-site cluster randomized trial. Addiction. 2004;99(1):39–52. E5b. [PubMed: 14678061]
  59. McCambridge J, Hunt C, Jenkins RJ, et al. Cluster randomised trial of the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for universal prevention. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;114(2-3):177–84. E2b. [PubMed: 21075562]
  60. Molyneux A, Lewis S, Leivers U, et al. Clinical trial comparing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief counselling, brief counselling alone, and minimal intervention on smoking cessation in hospital inpatients. Thorax. 2003;58(6):484–8. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC1746718] [PubMed: 12775857]
  61. Moolchan ET, Robinson ML, Ernst M, et al. Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):e407–14. E9a. [PubMed: 15805342]
  62. Muramoto ML, Leischow SJ, Sherrill D, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 dosages of sustained-release bupropion for adolescent smoking cessation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(11):1068–74. E4. [PubMed: 17984409]
  63. Nides M, Glover ED, Reus VI, et al. Varenicline versus bupropion SR or placebo for smoking cessation: a pooled analysis. Am J Health Behav. 2008;32(6):664–75. E5a. [PubMed: 18442345]
  64. Niederhofer H, Huber M. Bupropion may support psychosocial treatment of nicotine-dependent adolescents: preliminary results. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(11):1524–8. E8b. [PubMed: 15537557]
  65. Nishiokai N, Kawabata T, Minagawa KH, et al. Three-year follow-up on the effects of a smoking prevention program for elementary school children with a quasi-experimental design in Japan. Jpn J Public Health. 2005;52(11):971–8. E2b. [PubMed: 16408482]
  66. Nohlert E, Tegelberg A, Tillgren P, et al. Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden: a randomized trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):121. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC2685131] [PubMed: 19405969]
  67. Norman CD, Maley O, Li X, et al. Using the internet to assist smoking prevention and cessation in schools: a randomized, controlled trial. Health Psychol. 2008;27(6):799–810. E2b. [PubMed: 19025276]
  68. Pbert L, Flint AJ, Fletcher KE, et al. Effect of a pediatric practice-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention for adolescents: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008;121(4):e738–47. E4. [PubMed: 18381502]
  69. Pbert L, Druker S, DiFranza JR, et al. Effectiveness of a school nurse-delivered smoking-cessation intervention for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):926–36. E4. [PMC free article: PMC3208959] [PubMed: 22007015]
  70. Peterson AV Jr, Kealey KA, Mann SL, et al. Group-randomized trial of a proactive, personalized telephone counseling intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(20):1378–92. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC2765261] [PubMed: 19822836]
  71. Prado G, Pantin H, Briones E, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a parent-centered intervention in preventing substance use and HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2007;75(6):914–26. E4. [PMC free article: PMC3743679] [PubMed: 18085908]
  72. Prokhorov AV, Kelder SH, Shegog R, et al. Impact of A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), an interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high-school students. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(9):1477–85. E2b. [PubMed: 19023839]
  73. Robinson LA, Vander Weg MW, Riedel BW, et al. “Start to Stop”: results of a randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation programme for teens. Tob Control. 2003;12(Suppl 4):iv26–33. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC1766134] [PubMed: 14645937]
  74. Roddy E, Romilly N, Challenger A, et al. Use of nicotine replacement therapy in socioeconomically deprived young smokers: a community-based pilot randomised controlled trial. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):373–6. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC2563666] [PubMed: 16998171]
  75. Rodgers A, Corbett T, Bramley D, et al. Do u smoke after txt? Results of a randomised trial of smoking cessation using mobile phone text messaging. Tob Control. 2005;14(4):255–61. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC1748056] [PubMed: 16046689]
  76. Roll JM. Assessing the feasibility of using contingency management to modify cigarette smoking by adolescents. J Appl Behav Anal. 2005;38(4):463–7. E8a. [PMC free article: PMC1309709] [PubMed: 16463527]
  77. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, et al. A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):e595–600. E3b. [PMC free article: PMC2744418] [PubMed: 18762494]
  78. Salminen M, Vahlberg T, Ojanlatva A, et al. Effects of a controlled family-based health education/counseling intervention. Am J Health Behav. 2005;29(5):395–406. E9a. [PubMed: 16201856]
  79. Schinke SP, Cole KC, Fang L. Gender-specific intervention to reduce underage drinking among early adolescent girls: a test of a computer-mediated, mother-daughter program. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2009;70(1):70–7. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2629623] [PubMed: 19118394]
  80. Schinke SP, Orlandi MA, Botvin GJ, et al. Preventing substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents: a bicultural competence skills approach. J Couns Psychol. 1988;35(1):87–90. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC1838568] [PubMed: 17392927]
  81. Schinke SP, Fang L, Cole KC. Preventing substance use among adolescent girls: 1-year outcomes of a computerized, mother-daughter program. J Smok Cessat. 2009;34(12):1060–4. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2741484] [PubMed: 19632053]
  82. Schinke SP, Schwinn TM, Di Noia J, et al. Reducing the risks of alcohol use among urban youth: three-year effects of a computer-based intervention with and without parent involvement. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65(4):443–9. E6b. [PMC free article: PMC2795165] [PubMed: 15376818]
  83. Schuurmans MM, Diacon AH, van Biljon X, et al. Effect of pre-treatment with nicotine patch on withdrawal symptoms and abstinence rates in smokers subsequently quitting with the nicotine patch: a randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2004;99(5):634–40. E5a. [PubMed: 15078238]
  84. Seidman DF, Westmaas JL, Goldband S, et al. Randomized controlled trial of an interactive internet smoking cessation program with long-term follow-up. Ann Behav Med. 2010;39(1):48–60. E5a. [PubMed: 20177844]
  85. Smith PM, Reilly KR, Houston MN, et al. Application of a nurse-managed inpatient smoking cessation program. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002;4(2):211–22. E7. [PubMed: 12096707]
  86. Soria R, Legido A, Escolano C, et al. A randomised controlled trial of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Br J Gen Pract. 2006;56(531):768–74. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC1920717] [PubMed: 17007707]
  87. Spoth RL, Redmond C, Shin C. Randomized trial of brief family interventions for general populations: adolescent substance use outcomes 4 years following baseline. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69(4):627–42. E2b. [PubMed: 11550729]
  88. Stanton B, Cole M, Galbraith J, et al. Randomized trial of a parent intervention: parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(10):947–55. E3. [PubMed: 15466681]
  89. Stevens MM, Olson AL, Gaffney CA, et al. A pediatric, practice-based, randomized trial of drinking and smoking prevention and bicycle helmet, gun, and seatbelt safety promotion. Pediatrics. 2002;109(3):490–7. E4. [PubMed: 11875146]
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  97. Walsh MM, Hilton JF, Ellison JA, et al. Spit (smokeless) tobacco intervention for high school athletes: results after 1 year. J Smok Cessat. 2003;(28):1095–113. E2b. [PubMed: 12834653]
  98. Werch CE, Young M, Clark M, et al. Effects of a take-home drug prevention program on drug-related communication and beliefs of parents and children. J Sch Health. 1991;61(8):346–50. E4. [PubMed: 1787697]
  99. Whittaker R, Dorey E, Bramley D, et al. A theory-based video messaging mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(1):e10. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC3221331] [PubMed: 21371991]
  100. Woodruff SI, Conway TL, Edwards CC, et al. Evaluation of an Internet virtual world chat room for adolescent smoking cessation. Addict Behav. 2007;32(9):1769–86. E2b. [PubMed: 17250972]
  101. Wu Y, Stanton BF, Galbraith J, et al. Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: a longitudinal randomized trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics. 2003;111(1):e32–8. E3. [PubMed: 12509592]
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Key Question 2

  1. Ames SC, Werch CE, Ames GE, et al. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot investigation. Ann Behav Med. 2010;40(3):343–9. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC3035986] [PubMed: 20730517]
  2. Armitage CJ. A volitional help sheet to encourage smoking cessation: a randomized exploratory trial. Health Psychol. 2008;27(5):557–66. E5a. [PubMed: 18823182]
  3. Audrain-McGovern J, Stevens S, Murray PJ, et al. The efficacy of motivational interviewing versus brief advice for adolescent smoking behavior change. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):e101–11. E3a. [PubMed: 21690120]
  4. Aveyard P, Johnson C, Fillingham S, et al. Nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7655):1223–7. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC2405820] [PubMed: 18441375]
  5. Aycicegi-Dinn A, Dinn W. Efficacy of an alternative smoking cessation treatment. J Addict Dis. 2011;(30):368–81. E2a. [PubMed: 22026529]
  6. Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST, et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract. 2004;2(1):81–96. E4.
  7. Bowen DJ, Henderson PN, Harvill J, Buchwald D. Short-term effects of a smoking prevention website in American Indian youth. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14:e81. E8a. [PMC free article: PMC3799607] [PubMed: 22659390]
  8. Bramley D, Riddell T, Whittaker R, et al. Smoking cessation using mobile phone text messaging is as effective in Maori as non-Maori. N Z Med J. 2005;118(1216):U1494. E5a. [PubMed: 15937529]
  9. Buffels J, Degryse J, Decramer M, et al. Spirometry and smoking cessation advice in general practice: a randomised clinical trial. Respir Med. 2006;100(11):2012–7. E5a. [PubMed: 16580189]
  10. Buller DB, Borland R, Woodall WG, et al. Randomized trials on Consider This, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents. Health Educ Behav. 2008;35(2):260–81. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC4380290] [PubMed: 17114331]
  11. Cabezas C, Martin C, Granollers S, et al. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention (ISTAPS study): design of a cluster randomised trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):48. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2666720] [PubMed: 19193233]
  12. Cabezas C, Advani M, Puente D, et al. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention: cluster randomized clinical trial (ISTAPS study) Addiction. 2011;106(9):1696–706. E5a. [PubMed: 21561497]
  13. Chan CW, Witherspoon JM. Health risk appraisal modifies cigarette smoking behavior among college students. J Gen Intern Med. 1988;3(6):555–9. E2b. [PubMed: 3230458]
  14. Cohen DA, Rice JC. A parent-targeted intervention for adolescent substance use prevention: lessons learned. Eval Rev. 1995;19(2):159–80. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC2944654] [PubMed: 20871746]
  15. Coleman T, Bauld L. Preventing adolescents' uptake of smoking. Thorax. 2011;66(10):842–4. E1. [PubMed: 21502104]
  16. Dishion TJ, Andrews DW. Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: immediate and 1-year outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995;63(4):538–48. E4. [PubMed: 7673531]
  17. Dixon AL, Yabiku ST, Okamoto SK, et al. The efficacy of a multicultural prevention intervention among urban American Indian youth in the southwest U.S. J Prim Prev. 2007;28(6):547–68. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC3042736] [PubMed: 18058235]
  18. Elder JP, Litrownik AJ, Slymen DJ, et al. Tobacco and alcohol use-prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(4):269–75. E2b. [PubMed: 12406481]
  19. Etter JF. Comparing computer-tailored, internet-based smoking cessation counseling reports with generic, untailored reports: a randomized trial. J Health Comm. 2009;14(7):646–57. E5b. [PubMed: 19851916]
  20. Franken FH, Pickworth WB, Epstein DH, et al. Smoking rates and topography predict adolescent smoking cessation following treatment with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(1):154–7. E9a. [PubMed: 16434603]
  21. Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, et al. Bupropion SR and contingency management for adolescent smoking cessation. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2011;40(1):77–86. E8b. [PMC free article: PMC2997899] [PubMed: 20934835]
  22. Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Nichols TR, et al. Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Prev Med. 2003;36(1):1–7. E2b. [PubMed: 12473419]
  23. Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Tobacco and alcohol prevention: preliminary results of a four-year study. Adolesc Psychiatry. 1987;(14):556–75. E2b. [PubMed: 3618940]
  24. Hanson K, Allen S, Jensen S, et al. Treatment of adolescent smokers with the nicotine patch. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5(4):515–26. E8b. [PubMed: 12959789]
  25. Hellmann R, O'Shea RM, Kunz ML, et al. University health service physician intervention with cigarette smokers. J Am Coll Health. 1988;37(2):91–3. E5a. [PubMed: 3241031]
  26. Helstrom A, Hutchison K, Bryan A. Motivational enhancement therapy for high-risk adolescent smokers. Addict Behav. 2007;32(10):2404–10. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC2082126] [PubMed: 17428617]
  27. Hiemstra M, Ringlever L, Otten R, et al. Efficacy of smoking prevention program “Smoke-free Kids”: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):477. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2805639] [PubMed: 20025727]
  28. Higgs PE, Edwards D, Harbin RE, et al. Evaluation of a self-directed smoking prevention and cessation program. Pediatr Nurs. 2000;26(2):150–3. E2b. [PubMed: 12026268]
  29. Holt S, Timu-Parata C, Ryder-Lewis S, et al. Efficacy of bupropion in the indigenous Maori population in New Zealand. Thorax. 2005;60(2):120–3. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC1747282] [PubMed: 15681499]
  30. Horn K, Dino G, Hamilton C, et al. Efficacy of an emergency department-based motivational teenage smoking intervention. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007;4(1):A08. E9a. [PMC free article: PMC1832131] [PubMed: 17173716]
  31. Jason LA, Mollica M, Ferrone L. Evaluating an early secondary smoking prevention intervention. Prev Med. 1982;11(1):96–102. E2b. [PubMed: 7079250]
  32. Kang HC, Shin KK, Kim KK, et al. The effects of the acupuncture treatment for smoking cessation in high school student smokers. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46(2):206–12. E8b. [PMC free article: PMC2823015] [PubMed: 15861492]
  33. Kelleher CC, Fallon UB, Mc Carthy E, et al. Feasibility of a lifestyle cardiovascular health promotion programme for 8–15-year-olds in Irish general practice: results of the Galway Health Project. Health Promot Int. 1999;14(3):221–30. E3.
  34. Kelly AB, Lapworth K. The HYP Program: targeted motivational interviewing for adolescent violations of school tobacco policy. Prev Med. 2006;43(6):466–71. E3. [PubMed: 16920183]
  35. Kim S, Nam KA, Seo M, et al. Effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for adolescents. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(4):646–54. E2b. [PubMed: 15502430]
  36. Knishkowy B, Verbov G, Amitai Y, et al. Reaching Jewish ultra-orthodox adolescents: results from a targeted smoking prevention trial. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2012;(24):173–9. E8a. [PubMed: 22909927]
  37. Knutsen SF, Knutsen R. The Tromso Survey: the Family Intervention study—the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow-up. Prev Med. 1991;20(2):197–212. E6b. [PubMed: 2057468]
  38. Lindenberg CS, Solorzano RM, Bear D, et al. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behavior among young, low-income, Mexican-American women: comparison of two interventions. Appl Nurs Res. 2002;15(3):137–48. E5a. [PubMed: 12173165]
  39. Lipkus IM, McBride CM, Pollak KI, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effects of self-help materials and proactive telephone counseling on teen smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 2004;23(4):397–406. E3. [PubMed: 15264976]
  40. Litrownik AJ, Elder JP, Campbell NR, et al. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol use prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents: promoting the protective factor of parent-child communication. Prev Med. 2000;31(2 Pt 1):124–33. E4. [PubMed: 10938212]
  41. McCambridge J, Strang J. The efficacy of single-session motivational interviewing in reducing drug consumption and perceptions of drug-related risk and harm among young people: results from a multi-site cluster randomized trial. Addiction. 2004;99(1):39–52. E5b. [PubMed: 14678061]
  42. McCambridge J, Hunt C, Jenkins RJ, et al. Cluster randomised trial of the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for universal prevention. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;114(2-3):177–84. E2b. [PubMed: 21075562]
  43. Molyneux A, Lewis S, Leivers U, et al. Clinical trial comparing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief counselling, brief counselling alone, and minimal intervention on smoking cessation in hospital inpatients. Thorax. 2003;58(6):484–8. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC1746718] [PubMed: 12775857]
  44. Moolchan ET, Robinson ML, Ernst M, et al. Safety and efficacy of the nicotine patch and gum for the treatment of adolescent tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):e407–14. E9a. [PubMed: 15805342]
  45. Nides M, Glover ED, Reus VI, et al. Varenicline versus bupropion SR or placebo for smoking cessation: a pooled analysis. Am J Health Behav. 2008;32(6):664–75. E5a. [PubMed: 18442345]
  46. Niederhofer H, Huber M. Bupropion may support psychosocial treatment of nicotine-dependent adolescents: preliminary results. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(11):1524–8. E8b. [PubMed: 15537557]
  47. Nishiokai N, Kawabata T, Minagawa KH, et al. Three-year follow-up on the effects of a smoking prevention program for elementary school children with a quasi-experimental design in Japan. Jpn J Public Health. 2005;52(11):971–8. E2b. [PubMed: 16408482]
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Key Question 3

  1. Ames SC, Werch CE, Ames GE, et al. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot investigation. Ann Behav Med. 2010;40(3):343–9. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC3035986] [PubMed: 20730517]
  2. Armitage CJ. A volitional help sheet to encourage smoking cessation: a randomized exploratory trial. Health Psychol. 2008;27(5):557–66. E5a. [PubMed: 18823182]
  3. Audrain-McGovern J, Stevens S, Murray PJ, et al. The efficacy of motivational interviewing versus brief advice for adolescent smoking behavior change. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):e101–11. E3a. [PubMed: 21690120]
  4. Aveyard P, Johnson C, Fillingham S, et al. Nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7655):1223–7. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC2405820] [PubMed: 18441375]
  5. Aycicegi-Dinn A, Dinn W. Efficacy of an alternative smoking cessation treatment. J Addict Dis. 2011;(30):368–81. E2a. [PubMed: 22026529]
  6. Balmford J, Borland R, Hammond D, et al. Adherence to and reasons for premature discontinuation from stop-smoking medications: data from the ITC Four-Country Survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13(2):94–102. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC3028191] [PubMed: 21147894]
  7. Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST, et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract. 2004;2(1):81–96. E4.
  8. Biazzo LL, Froshaug DB, Harwell TS, et al. Characteristics and abstinence outcomes among tobacco quitline enrollees using varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(6):567–73. E5a. [PubMed: 20378640]
  9. Bowen DJ, Henderson PN, Harvill J, Buchwald D. Short-term effects of a smoking prevention website in American Indian youth. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14:e81. E8a. [PMC free article: PMC3799607] [PubMed: 22659390]
  10. Bramley D, Riddell T, Whittaker R, et al. Smoking cessation using mobile phone text messaging is as effective in Maori as non-Maori. N Z Med J. 2005;118(1216):U1494. E5a. [PubMed: 15937529]
  11. Buffels J, Degryse J, Decramer M, et al. Spirometry and smoking cessation advice in general practice: a randomised clinical trial. Respir Med. 2006;100(11):2012–7. E5a. [PubMed: 16580189]
  12. Buller DB, Borland R, Woodall WG, et al. Randomized trials on Consider This, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents. Health Educ Behav. 2008;35(2):260–81. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC4380290] [PubMed: 17114331]
  13. Cabezas C, Martin C, Granollers S, et al. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention (ISTAPS study): design of a cluster randomised trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):48. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2666720] [PubMed: 19193233]
  14. Cabezas C, Advani M, Puente D, et al. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention: cluster randomized clinical trial (ISTAPS study) Addiction. 2011;106(9):1696–706. E5a. [PubMed: 21561497]
  15. Chan CW, Witherspoon JM. Health risk appraisal modifies cigarette smoking behavior among college students. J Gen Intern Med. 1988;3(6):555–9. E2b. [PubMed: 3230458]
  16. Cohen DA, Rice JC. A parent-targeted intervention for adolescent substance use prevention: lessons learned. Eval Rev. 1995;19(2):159–80. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC2944654] [PubMed: 20871746]
  17. Coleman T, Bauld L. Preventing adolescents' uptake of smoking. Thorax. 2011;66(10):842–4. E1. [PubMed: 21502104]
  18. Dishion TJ, Andrews DW. Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: immediate and 1-year outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995;63(4):538–48. E4. [PubMed: 7673531]
  19. Dixon AL, Yabiku ST, Okamoto SK, et al. The efficacy of a multicultural prevention intervention among urban American Indian youth in the southwest U.S. J Prim Prev. 2007;28(6):547–68. E2b. [PMC free article: PMC3042736] [PubMed: 18058235]
  20. Elder JP, Litrownik AJ, Slymen DJ, et al. Tobacco and alcohol use-prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(4):269–75. E2b. [PubMed: 12406481]
  21. Etter JF. Comparing computer-tailored, internet-based smoking cessation counseling reports with generic, untailored reports: a randomized trial. J Health Comm. 2009;14(7):646–57. E5b. [PubMed: 19851916]
  22. Faessel H, Ravva P, Williams K. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of varenicline in healthy adolescent smokers: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Clin Ther. 2009;31(1):177–89. E1b. [PubMed: 19243716]
  23. Fang CY, Ma GX, Miller SM, et al. A brief smoking cessation intervention for Chinese and Korean American smokers. Prev Med. 2006;43(4):321–4. E5b. [PubMed: 16860858]
  24. Franken FH, Pickworth WB, Epstein DH, et al. Smoking rates and topography predict adolescent smoking cessation following treatment with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(1):154–7. E1b. [PubMed: 16434603]
  25. Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Nichols TR, et al. Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Prev Med. 2003;36(1):1–7. E2b. [PubMed: 12473419]
  26. Hansen WB, Malotte CK, Fielding JE. Tobacco and alcohol prevention: preliminary results of a four-year study. Adolesc Psychiatry. 1987;(14):556–75. E2b. [PubMed: 3618940]
  27. Hanson K, Allen S, Jensen S, et al. Treatment of adolescent smokers with the nicotine patch. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5(4):515–26. E1b. [PubMed: 12959789]
  28. Hellmann R, O'Shea RM, Kunz ML, et al. University health service physician intervention with cigarette smokers. J Am Coll Health. 1988;37(2):91–3. E5a. [PubMed: 3241031]
  29. Helstrom A, Hutchison K, Bryan A. Motivational enhancement therapy for high-risk adolescent smokers. Addict Behav. 2007;32(10):2404–10. E5b. [PMC free article: PMC2082126] [PubMed: 17428617]
  30. Hiemstra M, Ringlever L, Otten R, et al. Efficacy of smoking prevention program “Smoke-free Kids”: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2009;(9):477. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2805639] [PubMed: 20025727]
  31. Higgs PE, Edwards D, Harbin RE, et al. Evaluation of a self-directed smoking prevention and cessation program. Pediatr Nurs. 2000;26(2):150–3. E2b. [PubMed: 12026268]
  32. Holt S, Timu-Parata C, Ryder-Lewis S, et al. Efficacy of bupropion in the indigenous Maori population in New Zealand. Thorax. 2005;60(2):120–3. KE5a. [PMC free article: PMC1747282] [PubMed: 15681499]
  33. Horn K, Dino G, Hamilton C, et al. Efficacy of an emergency department-based motivational teenage smoking intervention. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007;4(1):A08. E9a. [PMC free article: PMC1832131] [PubMed: 17173716]
  34. Jason LA, Mollica M, Ferrone L. Evaluating an early secondary smoking prevention intervention. Prev Med. 1982;11(1):96–102. E2b. [PubMed: 7079250]
  35. Kang HC, Shin KK, Kim KK, et al. The effects of the acupuncture treatment for smoking cessation in high school student smokers. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46(2):206–12. E4. [PMC free article: PMC2823015] [PubMed: 15861492]
  36. Kelleher CC, Fallon UB, Mc Carthy E, et al. Feasibility of a lifestyle cardiovascular health promotion programme for 8–15-year-olds in Irish general practice: results of the Galway Health Project. Health Promot Int. 1999;14(3):221–30. E3.
  37. Kelly AB, Lapworth K. The HYP Program: targeted motivational interviewing for adolescent violations of school tobacco policy. Prev Med. 2006;43(6):466–71. E3. [PubMed: 16920183]
  38. Kim S, Nam KA, Seo M, et al. Effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for adolescents. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(4):646–54. E2b. [PubMed: 15502430]
  39. Knishkowy B, Verbov G, Amitai Y, et al. Reaching Jewish ultra-orthodox adolescents: results from a targeted smoking prevention trial. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2012;(24):173–9. E8a. [PubMed: 22909927]
  40. Knutsen SF, Knutsen R. The Tromso Survey: the Family Intervention study—the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow-up. Prev Med. 1991;20(2):197–212. E6b. [PubMed: 2057468]
  41. Lindenberg CS, Solorzano RM, Bear D, et al. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behavior among young, low-income, Mexican-American women: comparison of two interventions. Appl Nurs Res. 2002;15(3):137–48. E5a. [PubMed: 12173165]
  42. Lipkus IM, McBride CM, Pollak KI, et al. A randomized trial comparing the effects of self-help materials and proactive telephone counseling on teen smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 2004;23(4):397–406. E3. [PubMed: 15264976]
  43. Litrownik AJ, Elder JP, Campbell NR, et al. Evaluation of a tobacco and alcohol use prevention program for Hispanic migrant adolescents: promoting the protective factor of parent-child communication. Prev Med. 2000;31(2 Pt 1):124–33. E4. [PubMed: 10938212]
  44. McCambridge J, Strang J. The efficacy of single-session motivational interviewing in reducing drug consumption and perceptions of drug-related risk and harm among young people: results from a multi-site cluster randomized trial. Addiction. 2004;99(1):39–52. E5b. [PubMed: 14678061]
  45. McCambridge J, Hunt C, Jenkins RJ, et al. Cluster randomised trial of the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for universal prevention. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;114(2-3):177–84. KQ3E2b. [PubMed: 21075562]
  46. Molyneux A, Lewis S, Leivers U, et al. Clinical trial comparing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief counselling, brief counselling alone, and minimal intervention on smoking cessation in hospital inpatients. Thorax. 2003;58(6):484–8. E5a. [PMC free article: PMC1746718] [PubMed: 12775857]
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