Table 12Description of participant physical function: U.S. cross-sectional and longitudinal grey literature studies

StudyMeasure of Physical FunctionHCBS/ALNHSignificanceSummary
ASPE private LTC insurance cohort
Miller et al., 200871
Mean number of ADL limitations; range 0–6, with higher scores indicating more dependenceHCBS: 3.4
AL: 2.9
4.5NROn average, HCBS recipients and AL residents had fewer ADL limitations
Department of Elder Affairs, State of Florida, 2009-201069Mean number of ADLs requiring assistance; range 0–8HCBS: 3.54
Managed care HCBS: 5.06
AL: 4.35
5.15NROn average, HCBS recipients and AL residents had fewer ADLs requiring assistance
Ohio HCBS Waiver
Mehdizadeh, 200770
Mean number of ADL impairments; range 0–6HCBS: 3.04.4NROn average, HCBS recipients had fewer ADL impairments
Spillman et al., 200273ADL or IADL impairments (percentage)AL: 3.8% with no ADL/IADL, 32.5% with 1-2 ADL, 52.1% with 3 or more ADL, 11.1% with IADL only2.2% with no ADL/IADL, 19.9% with 1-2 ADL, 74.4% with 3 or more ADL, 2.9% with IADL onlyNRAL group had fewer individuals with more ADL impairments

ADL = Activities of Daily Living; AL = Assisted Living; ASPE = Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; HCBS = Home and Community-Based Services; IADL = Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; LTC = Long Term Care; NH = Nursing Home; NR = Not Reported

Note: Table rows ordered by similar measures of physical function.

From: Results

Cover of Long-Term Care for Older Adults
Long-Term Care for Older Adults: A Review of Home and Community-Based Services Versus Institutional Care [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 81.
Wysocki A, Butler M, Kane RL, et al.

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