Table 18Strength of evidence for Key Question 4: maternal and infant outcomes

OutcomeSourceRisk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecisionOverall SOEComment
Preeclampsia3 RCTsLowConsistentDirectImpreciseModerate (favors treatment)The evidence provides moderate confidence that the estimate reflects the true effect in favor of the treatment group.
1 cohortHighUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Maternal weight gain4 RCTsMediumInconsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficientThere is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions for this outcome
2 cohortsHighconsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Birth injury2 RCTsMediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLowThere is insufficient evidence to make a conclusion for this outcome. There is a difference in findings for the RCTs and cohort studies; the number of events and participants across all studies does not allow for a conclusion.
1 cohortHighUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficient (favors treatment)
Shoulder dystocia3 RCTsMediumConsistentDirectPreciseModerate (favors treatment)The evidence provides moderate confidence that the estimate reflects the true effect in favor of the treatment group.
4 cohortsHighConsistentDirectPreciseLow (favors treatment)
Neonatal hypoglycemia4 RCTsMediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow (no difference)The evidence provides low confidence that there is no difference between groups.
2 cohortsHighInconsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Macrosomia >4,000 g5 RCTsMediumConsistentDirectPreciseModerate (favors treatment)The evidence provides moderate confidence that the estimate reflects the true effect in favor of the treatment group.
6 cohortsHighInconsistentDirectPreciseLow (favors treatment)
Long-term metabolic outcomes: impaired glucose tolerance1 RCTMediumUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficientThere is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions for this outcome.
Long-term metabolic outcomes: type 2 diabetes mellitus1 RCTMediumUnknownDirectImpreciseInsufficientThere is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions for this outcome.
Long-term metabolic outcomes: BMI (assessed as >85th and >95th percentile)2 RCTsMediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow (no difference)The evidence provides low confidence that there is no difference between groups.

BMI = body mass index; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SOE = strength of evidence

From: Results

Cover of Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 210.
Hartling L, Dryden DM, Guthrie A, et al.

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