Table 14Evidence summary table: fetal/neonatal outcomes

OutcomeComparisonStudiesParticipantsEffect Estimate*I2Favors
Macrosomia >4,000 gCC GDM vs. no GDM1042,8741.61 [1.35, 1.92]42%No GDM
CC GDM vs. false positive58,2411.36 [1.10, 1.68]45%False positive
CC GDM vs. 1 abnormal OGTT31,1010.98 [0.69, 1.41]0%-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM716,0631.44 [1.13, 1.82]14%No GDM
CC false positive vs. no GDM514,8521.02 [0.85, 1.24]31%-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. false positive31,8731.40 [0.89, 2.20]48%-
NDDG GDM (unrecognized) vs. no GDM1805.60 [2.04, 15.35]NANo GDM
NDDG false positive vs. no GDM44,5011.44 [1.10, 1.89]0%No GDM
WHO GDM vs. no GDM15423.33 [0.49, 22.70]NA-
WHO IGT vs. no GDM12,8851.26 [1.06, 1.50]NANo GDM
IADPSG GDM vs. no GDM22,1302.09 [0.39, 11.33]39%-
Macrosomia >4,500 gCC GDM vs. no GDM321,5492.52 [1.65, 3.84]0%No GDM
CC GDM vs. false positive21,3911.71 [0.56, 5.24]63%-
CC false positive vs. no GDM28,3151.48 [0.91, 2.39]44%-
NDDG GDM (unrecognized) vs. no GDM18026.76 [1.45, 493.62]NANo GDM
Shoulder dystociaCC GDM vs. no GDM527,4732.86 [1.81, 4.51]0%No GDM
CC GDM vs. false positive13,5771.49 [0.97, 2.30]NA-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM12390.20 [0.02, 1.82]NA-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. false positive14105.09 [1.14, 22.66]NAFalse positive
NDDG GDM (unrecognized) vs. no GDM1806.00 [1.09, 32.95]NANo GDM
NDDG false positive vs. no GDM11,8252.79 [1.30, 6.01]NANo GDM
WHO IGT vs. no GDM12,8852.18 [1.02, 4.67]NANo GDM
IADPSG IGT vs. no GDM17,4111.21 [0.76, 1.92]NA-
IADPSG IFG vs. no GDM17,9061.48 [1.10, 1.98]NANo GDM
IADPSG IGT-2 vs. no GDM17,1031.58 [0.67, 3.72]NA-
IADPSG IGT IFG vs. no GDM17,3511.82 [1.21, 2.75]NANo GDM
IADPSG IGT vs. IFG11,2770.82 [0.48, 1.38]NA-
IADPSG IGT vs. IGT-214740.76 [0.29, 2.00]NA-
IADPSG IGT vs. IGT IFG17220.66 [0.36, 1.21]NA-
IADPSG IFG vs. IGT-219690.94 [0.38, 2.28]NA-
IADPSG IFG vs. IGT IFG11,2170.81 [0.50, 1.31]NA-
IADPSG IGT-2 vs. IGT IFG14140.87 [0.34, 2.21]NA-
Neonatal hypoglycemiaCC GDM vs. no GDM37,966Results not pooled due to substantial heterogeneity.94%-
CC GDM vs. 1 abnormal OGTT14813.22 [0.44, 23.37]NA-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM47,1241.29 [0.88, 1.91]0%-
NDDG GDM vs. no GDM180Not EstimableNA-
NDDG false positive vs. no GDM17162.83 [0.58, 13.89]NA-
NDDG, 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM16999.60 [0.86, 106.73]NA-
WHO IGT vs. no GDM33,8951.00 [0.49, 2.07]0%-
HyperbilirubinemiaCC GDM vs. no GDM27,854Results not pooled due to substantial heterogeneity.94%-
CC GDM vs. 1 abnormal OGTT14812.38 [0.32, 17.53]NA-
CC false positive vs. no GDM14063.03 [1.12, 8.23]NANo GDM
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM12394.19 [0.20, 88.20]NA-
NDDG False positive vs. no GDM17161.07 [0.68, 1.70]NA-
WHO IGT vs. no GDM23,4910.64 [0.38, 1.10]0%-
IADPSG IGT vs. no GDM17,4111.32 [1.06, 1.64]NANo GDM
IADPSG IFG vs. no GDM17,9061.03 [0.87, 1.23]NA-
IADPSG IGT-2 vs. no GDM17,1031.55 [1.03, 2.35]NANo GDM
IADPSG IGT IFG vs. no GDM17,3510.97 [0.74, 1.29]NA-
IADPSG IGT vs. IFG11,2771.27 [0.98, 1.66]NA-
IADPSG IGT vs. IGT-214740.85 [0.54, 1.34]NA-
IADPSG IGT vs. IGT IFG17221.35 [0.96, 1.91]NA-
IADPSG IFG vs. IGT-219690.67 [0.43, 1.03]NA-
IADPSG IFG vs. IGT IFG11,2171.06 [0.78, 1.46]NA-
IADPSG IGT-2 vs. IGT IFG14141.60 [0.98, 2.61]NA-
Fetal birth trauma/injuryCC GDM vs. no GDM114,2131.19 [0.68, 2.08]NA-
NDDG GDM vs. no GDM18034.41 [1.95, 608.47]NANo GDM
WHO IGT vs. no GDM21,0180.29 [0.04, 2.41]NA-
Fetal morbidity/mortalityCC GDM vs. no GDM634,3601.23 [0.46, 3.30]40%-
CC GDM vs. false positive23,3211.83 [0.11, 29.41]49%-
CC GDM vs. 1 abnormal OGTT1481Not estimableNA-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM36,3481.03 [0.61, 1.72]0%-
CC false positive vs. no GDM316,8670.80 [0.40, 1.61]0%-
CC false positive vs. 1 abnormal OGTT1410Not estimableNA-
NDDG false positive vs. no GDM22,5412.24 [0.70, 7.14]0%-
NDDG 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM16990.94 [0.04, 19.69]NA-
WHO IGT vs. no GDM35,6591.42 [0.54,3.75]0%-
IADPSG GDM vs. no GDM119272.21 [1.40, 3.48]NA-
Prevalence of childhood obesityCC GDM vs. no GDM17,7821.48 [1.20, 1.82]NANo GDM
CC GDM vs. false positive11,1721.49 [1.18,1.88]NAFalse positive
CC GDM vs. 1 abnormal OGTT14611.30 [0.98, 1.72]NA-
CC false positive vs. no GDM18,6080.99 [0.88, 1.12]NA-
CC false positive vs. 1 abnormal OGTT11,2870.81 [0.56, 1.18]NA-
CC 1 abnormal OGTT vs. no GDM17,8971.14 [0.94, 1.38]NA-

CC = Carpenter-Coustan; GDM = gestational diabetes mellitus; IFG = impaired fasting glycemia; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; IGT-2 = double impaired glucose tolerance; IADPSG = International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups; NDDG = National Diabetes Data Group; NA = not applicable; OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test; WHO = World Health Organization.

*

Effect estimates are risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals.

Not estimable due to zero events in both groups.

Where the result was statistically significant, we have listed the group that had the better outcome (e.g., lower incidence of macrosomia).

From: Results

Cover of Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 210.
Hartling L, Dryden DM, Guthrie A, et al.

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