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Hartling L, Dryden DM, Guthrie A, et al. Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Oct. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 210.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

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Appendix EList of Excluded Studies and Unobtained Studies

Excluded – Comparator (N=227)

1.
Catalano PM, Avallone DA, Drago NM, et al. Reproducibility of the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;169(4):874–81. [PubMed: 8238142]
2.
Schrader HM, Jovanovic-Peterson L, Bevier WC, et al. Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated plasma protein at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation predict macrosomia in the general obstetric population. Am J Perinatol. 1995;12(4):247–51. [PubMed: 7575827]
3.
Moses RG, Griffiths RD. Can a diagnosis of gestational diabetes be an advantage to the outcome of pregnancy? J Soc Gynecol Investig. 1995;2(3):523–5. [PubMed: 9420853]
4.
Bassaw B, Ataullah I, Roopnarinesingh S, et al. Diabetes in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1995;50(1):5–9. [PubMed: 7556860]
5.
de VM, Major CA, Morgan MA, et al. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(19):1237–41. [PubMed: 7565999]
6.
Damm P, Kuhl C, Hornnes P, et al. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(5):654–65. [PubMed: 8586003]
7.
Koukkou E, Taub N, Jackson P, et al. Difference in prevalence of gestational diabetes and perinatal outcome in an innercity multiethnic London population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995;59(2):153–7. [PubMed: 7657009]
8.
Gribble RK, Meier PR, Berg RL. Blood glucose limits in the diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Relation to morbidity. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;86(3):405–10. [PubMed: 7651652]
9.
al-Najashi SS. Control of gestational diabetes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1995;49(2):131–5. [PubMed: 7649316]
10.
Kjos SL, Peters RK, Xiang A, et al. Predicting future diabetes in Latino women with gestational diabetes. Utility of early postpartum glucose tolerance testing. Diabetes. 1995;44(5):586–91. [PubMed: 7729620]
11.
Reece EA, Hagay Z, Gay LJ, et al. A randomized clinical trial of a fiber-enriched diabetic diet vs. the standard American Diabetes Association-recommended diet in the management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Invest. 1995;5(1):8–12.
12.
Hughes PF, Agarwal M, Newman P, et al. An evaluation of fructosamine estimation in screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1995;12(8):708–12. [PubMed: 7587011]
13.
Agardh CD, Aberg A, Norden NE. Glucose levels and insulin secretion during a 75 g glucose challenge test in normal pregnancy. J Intern Med. 1996;240(5):303–9. [PubMed: 8946813]
14.
Hod M, Rabinerson D, Kaplan B, et al. Perinatal complications following gestational diabetes mellitus how ‘sweet’ is ill? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1996;75(9):809–15. [PubMed: 8931504]
15.
Nasrat HA, Ardawi MS, Abalkhail BA. The diagnosis of “pathological hyperglycaemia' in gestational diabetes in a high risk obstetric population. Diabetic Med. 1996;13(10):861–7. [PubMed: 8911779]
16.
Di SN, Ronsisvalle E, Fulghesu AM, et al. Insulin plasma levels in pregnant patients with impaired glucose tolerance: relationship with pregnancy outcome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1996;42(1):16–20. [PubMed: 8840171]
17.
Tranquilli AL, Pizzichini L, Cingolani F, et al. Prediction of the need for insulin therapy in pregnant women with impaired gestational glucose tolerance (IGGT) Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1996;23(2):79–82. [PubMed: 8737618]
18.
Moses RG. The recurrence rate of gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies. Diabetes Care. 1996;19(12):1348–50. [PubMed: 8941462]
19.
Di CG, Benzi L, Casadidio I, et al. Screening of gestational diabetes in Tuscany: results in 2000 cases. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1997;33(3):389–91. [PubMed: 9542268]
20.
Fedele D, Lapolla A. A protocol of screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1997;33(3):383–7. [PubMed: 9542267]
21.
Bienstock JL, Blakemore KJ, Wang E, et al. Managed care does not lower costs but may result in poorer outcomes for patients with gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177(5):1035–7. [PubMed: 9396888]
22.
Helton MR, Arndt J, Kebede M, et al. Do low-risk prenatal patients really need a screening glucose challenge test? J Fam Pract. 1997;44(6):556–61. [PubMed: 9191628]
23.
Avery MD, Leon AS, Kopher RA. Effects of a partially home-based exercise program for women with gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(1):10–5. [PubMed: 8990428]
24.
al-Najashi SS. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. A study of 315 pregnant women at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Bahrain Med Bull. 1997;19(4):104–7.
25.
Persson B, Edwall L, Hanson U, et al. Insulin sensitivity and insulin response in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res. 1997;29(8):393–7. [PubMed: 9288577]
26.
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27.
Casey BM, Lucas MJ, McIntire DD, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes compared with the general obstetric population. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90(6):869–73. [PubMed: 9397092]
28.
Lurie S, Levy R, Weiss R, et al. Low values on 50 gram glucose challenge test or oral 100 gram glucose tolerance test are associated with good perinatal outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;18(5):451–4. [PubMed: 15512142]
29.
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Clementina M, et al. Foetal outcome in gestational diabetes in south Indians. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1998;41(3):185–9. [PubMed: 9829347]
30.
Whitaker RC, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, et al. Gestational diabetes and the risk of offspring obesity. Pediatrics. 1998;101(2):e9. [PubMed: 9445519]
31.
Kitzmiller JL, Elixhauser A, Carr S, et al. Assessment of costs and benefits of management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(Suppl 2):B123–B130. [PubMed: 9704239]
32.
Schafer-Graf UM, Dupak J, Vogel M, et al. Hyperinsulinism, neonatal obesity and placental immaturity in infants born to women with one abnormal glucose tolerance test value. J Perinat Med. 1998;26(1):27–36. [PubMed: 9595364]
33.
Major CA, Henry MJ, de VM, et al. The effects of carbohydrate restriction in patients with diet-controlled gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91(4):600–4. [PubMed: 9540949]
34.
Lao TT, Lee CP. Gestational ‘impaired glucose tolerance’: should the cut-off be raised to 9 mmol l(-1)? Diabetic Med. 1998;15(1):25–9. [PubMed: 9472860]
35.
Moses RG, Moses J, Davis WS. Gestational diabetes: Do lean young Caucasian women need to be tested? Diabetes Care. 1998;21(11):1803–6. [PubMed: 9802724]
36.
Moses RG, Moses M, Russell KG, et al. The 75-g glucose tolerance test in pregnancy - A reference range determined on a low-risk population and related to selected pregnancy outcomes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(11):1807–11. [PubMed: 9802725]
37.
Lemen PM, Wigton TR, Miller-McCarthey AJ, et al. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in adolescent pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178(6):1251–4. [PubMed: 9662309]
38.
Lauszus FF, Paludan J, Klebe JG. Birthweight in women with potential gestational diabetes mellitus - An effect of obesity rather than glucose intolerance? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78(6):520–5. [PubMed: 10376862]
39.
Roncaglia N, Bellini P, Arreghini A, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus: intensive versus mild treatment. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1999;26(2):95–7. [PubMed: 10459448]
40.
McFarland MB, Langer O, Conway DL, et al. Dietary therapy for gestational diabetes: how long is long enough? Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(6):978–82. [PubMed: 10362166]
41.
Kvetny J, Poulsen HF, Damgaard DW. Results from screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in a Danish county. Dan Med Bull. 1999;46(1):57–9. [PubMed: 10081653]
42.
Shivvers SA, Lucas MJ. Gestational diabetes - Is a 50-g screening result >= 200 mg/dL diagnostic? J Reprod Med. 1999;44(8):685–8. [PubMed: 10483538]
43.
Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1999;12(2):91–7.
44.
Vohr BR, McGarvey ST, Tucker R. Effects of maternal gestational diabetes on offspring adiposity at 4-7 years of age. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(8):1284–91. [PubMed: 10480772]
45.
Mirghani OA, Saeed OK. A simplified management of diabetic pregnant woman. Saudi Med J. 2000;21(4):335–9. [PubMed: 11533813]
46.
Rae A, Bond D, Evans S, et al. A randomised controlled trial of dietary energy restriction in the management of obese women with gestational diabetes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;40(4):416–22. [PubMed: 11194427]
47.
Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, et al. A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(16):1134–8. [PubMed: 11036118]
48.
Rudge MV, Calderon IM, Ramos MD, et al. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by diabetes and by maternal daily hyperglycemia not related to diabetes. A retrospective 10-year analysis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2000;50(2):108–12. [PubMed: 10965194]
49.
Rigano S, Ferrazzi E, Radaelli T, et al. Sonographic measurements of subcutaneous fetal fat in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancies. Croat Med J. 2000;41(3):240–4. [PubMed: 10962040]
50.
Bancroft K, Tuffnell DJ, Mason GC, et al. A randomised controlled pilot study of the management of gestational impaired glucose tolerance. BJOG. 2000;107(8):959–63. [PubMed: 10955425]
51.
Lao TT, Ho LF. Impaired glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcome in Chinese women with high body mass index. Hum Reprod. 2000;15(8):1826–9. [PubMed: 10920111]
52.
Simpson RW, Kast SJ. Management of gestational diabetes with a conservative insulin protocol. The Medical Journal Of Australia. 2000;172(11):537–40. [PubMed: 10920751]
53.
Hearty RT, Traub AI, Hadden DR. Screening for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy: analysis of two screening protocols and review of current methods. Ulster Med J. 2000;69(1):35–43. [PMC free article: PMC2449175] [PubMed: 10881644]
54.
Crowe SM, Mastrobattista JM, Monga M. Oral glucose tolerance test and the preparatory diet. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182(5):1052–4. [PubMed: 10819825]
55.
Wong L, Tan AS. The glucose challenge test for screening gestational diabetes in pregnant women with no risk factors. Singapore Med J. 2001;42(11):517–21. [PubMed: 11876377]
56.
Lauszus FF, Rasmussen OW, Henriksen JE, et al. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acid diet on blood pressure and glucose metabolism in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(6):436–43. [PubMed: 11423920]
57.
Jensen DM, Damm P, Sorensen B, et al. Clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy: a study of 2904 nondiabetic Danish women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(2):413–9. [PubMed: 11518901]
58.
MacNeill S, Dodds L, Hamilton DC, et al. Rates and risk factors for recurrence of gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(4):659–62. [PubMed: 11315827]
59.
Ray JG, Vermeulen MJ, Shapiro JL, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, and the influence of maternal obesity and weight gain: the DEPOSIT study. Diabetes Endocrine Pregnancy Outcome Study in Toronto. QJM. 2001;94(7):347–56. [PubMed: 11435630]
60.
Xiong X, Saunders LD, Wang FL, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus: prevalence, risk factors, maternal and infant outcomes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;75(3):221–8. [PubMed: 11728481]
61.
Baliutaviciene D, Petrenko V, Zalinkevicius R. Selective or universal diagnostic testing for gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;78(3):207–11. [PubMed: 12384265]
62.
Gezer A, Esen F, Mutlu H, et al. Prognosis of patients with positive screening but negative diagnostic test for gestational diabetes. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2002;266(4):201–4. [PubMed: 12192479]
63.
Di CG, Volpe L, Casadidio I, et al. Universal screening and intensive metabolic management of gestational diabetes: cost-effectiveness in Italy. Acta Diabetol. 2002;39(2):69–73. [PubMed: 12120916]
64.
Homko CJ, Sivan E, Reece EA. The impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose on self-efficacy and pregnancy outcomes in women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2002;28(3):435–43. [PubMed: 12073958]
65.
Rumbold AR, Crowther CA. Women's experiences of being screened for gestational diabetes mellitus. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;42(2):131–7. [PubMed: 12069138]
66.
Pullen F, Grenfell A. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes in a multiethnic population: Which diagnostic criteria should be used with respect to maternal outcome? Pract Diabetes Int. 2002;29(9):279–82.
67.
Pettitt DJ, Ospina P, Jovanovic L. Comparison of an insulin analog, insulin aspart, and regular human insulin with no insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2002;45(Suppl 2):A254–A255. [PubMed: 12502678]
68.
Chen R, Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring for the evaluation and improved control of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003;14(4):256–60. [PubMed: 14738172]
69.
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Gruendhammer M, Brezinka C, Lechleitner M. The number of abnormal plasma glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test and the feto-maternal outcome of pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;108(2):131–6. [PubMed: 12781399]
71.
Kulkarni M, Jones KD, Newbold S. Screening for gestational diabetes: a retrospective audit. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23(2):160–2. [PubMed: 12745560]
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Daniells S, Grenyer BFS, Davis WS, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Is a diagnosis associated with an increase in maternal anxiety and stress in the short and intermediate term? Diabetes Care. 2003;26(2):385–9. [PubMed: 12547867]
73.
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121.
Homko CJ, Santamore WP, Whiteman V, et al. Use of an internet-based telemedicine system to manage underserved women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2007;9(3):297–306. [PubMed: 17561800]
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123.
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Ramos GA, Jacobson GF, Kirby RS, et al. Comparison of glyburide and insulin for the management of gestational diabetics with markedly elevated oral glucose challenge test and fasting hyperglycemia. J Perinatol. 2007;27(5):262–7. [PubMed: 17363911]
125.
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Excluded – Duplicate (N=10)

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Landon MB. The national institute of child health and human development maternal-fetal medicine unit network randomized clinical trial in progress : Standard therapy versus no therapy for mild gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care; Proceedings of the fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; 11-13 November 2005; Chicago, Illinois. 2007. pp. S194–S199. [PubMed: 17596471]
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Landon MB, Thom E, Spong CY, Carpenter M, et al. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Network randomized clinical trial in progress: standard therapy versus no therapy for mild gestational diabetes. Chicago, IL: 2007. pp. S194–S199. [PubMed: 17596471]
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9.
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Excluded – Intervention (N=12)

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Mosca A, Paleari R, Dalfra MG, et al. Reference intervals for hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women: data from an Italian multicenter study. Clin Chem. 2006;52(6):1138–43. [PubMed: 16601066]
7.
Wong ML, Wong WH, Cheung YF. Fal myocardial performance in pregnancies complicated by gestational impaired glucose toleranceet. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29(4):395–400. [PubMed: 17330321]
8.
Kakad R, Anwar A, Dyer P, et al. Fasting plasma glucose is not sufficient to detect ongoing glucose intolerance after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118(4):234–6. [PubMed: 20162508]
9.
Halkoaho A, Kavilo M, Pietila AM, et al. Does gestational diabetes affect women's health-related quality of life after delivery? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;148(1):40–3. [PubMed: 19883969]
10.
Karcaaltincaba D, Buyukkaragoz B, Kandemir O, et al. Gestational diabetes and gestational impaired glucose tolerance in 1653 teenage pregnancies: prevalence, risk factors and pregnancy outcomes. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24(2):62–5. [PubMed: 20709580]
11.
Perera NJ, Molyneaux L, Constantino MI, et al. Suboptimal performance of blood glucose meters in an antenatal diabetes clinic. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(2):335–7. [PMC free article: PMC3024344] [PubMed: 21216849]
12.
Catalano PM, McIntyre HD, Cruickshank JK, et al. The hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome study: associations of GDM and obesity with pregnancy outcomes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(4):780–6. [PMC free article: PMC3308300] [PubMed: 22357187]

Excluded – Key Question 1 RCS (N=54)

1.
Swinn RA, Wareham NJ, Gregory R, et al. Excessive secretion of insulin precursors characterizes and predicts gestational diabetes. Diabetes. 1995;44(8):911–5. [PubMed: 7621996]
2.
Hooper DE. Detecting GD and preeclampsia. Effectiveness of routine urine screening for glucose and protein. J Reprod Med. 1996;41(12):885–8. [PubMed: 8979200]
3.
Landy HJ, Gomez-Marin O, O'Sullivan MJ. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus: use of a glucose screen without administering the glucose tolerance test. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(3):395–400. [PubMed: 8598962]
4.
Tan YY, Yeo GS. Impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy--is it of consequence? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996;36(3):248–55. [PubMed: 8883744]
5.
Kousta E, Lawrence NJ, Penny A, et al. Implications of new diagnostic criteria for abnormal glucose homeostasis in women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(6):933–7. [PubMed: 10372245]
6.
Atilano LC, Lee-Parritz A, Lieberman E, et al. Alternative methods of diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;181(5 Pt 1):1158–61. [PubMed: 10561637]
7.
Khine ML, Winklestein A, Copel JA. Selective screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in adolescent pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93(5 Pt 1):738–42. [PubMed: 10912977]
8.
Jimenez-Moleon JJ, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Luna-del-Castillo JD, et al. Predictive value of a screen for gestational diabetes mellitus: influence of associated risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000;79(11):991–8. [PubMed: 11081686]
9.
Grover J, Beall MH, Ross MG. Intrapartum screen for diabetes in patients without prenatal care: use of labor admission serum glucose. J Matern Fetal Med. 2000;9(4):216–8. [PubMed: 11048831]
10.
Shamsuddin K, Mahdy ZA, Siti RI, et al. Risk factor screening for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;75(1):27–32. [PubMed: 11597616]
11.
Kyle CV, Cundy TF. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: can we be more efficient? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;41(3):285–90. [PubMed: 11592542]
12.
Chan LY, Wong SF, Ho LC. Diabetic family history is an isolated risk factor for gestational diabetes after 30 years of age. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81(2):115–7. [PubMed: 11942900]
13.
Larijani B, Hossein-nezhad A, Rizvi SW, et al. Cost analysis of different screening strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Pract. 2003;9(6):504–9. [PubMed: 14715477]
14.
Miyakoshi K, Tanaka M, Ueno K, et al. Cutoff value of 1 h, 50 g glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus in a Japanese population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;60(1):63–7. [PubMed: 12639767]
15.
De Sereday MS, Damiano MM, Gonzalez CD, et al. Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes in relation to pregnancy outcome. J Diabetes Complications. 2003;17(3):115–9. [PubMed: 12738394]
16.
Schytte T, Jorgensen LG, Brandslund I, et al. The clinical impact of screening for gestational diabetes. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42(9):1036–42. [PubMed: 15497470]
17.
Jakobi P, Solt I, Weissman A. A 2 hour versus the 3 hour 100 g glucose tolerance test for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus. J Perinat Med. 2004;32(4):320–2. [PubMed: 15346816]
18.
Caliskan E, Kayikcioglu F, Ozturk N, et al. A population-based risk factor scoring will decrease unnecessary testing for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83(6):524–30. [PubMed: 15144332]
19.
Sun JH, See LC, Chiu TH, et al. An appropriate indicator for diagnosing gestational diabetes. Chang Gung Medical Journal. 2005;28(12):824–8. [PubMed: 16515015]
20.
Agarwal MM, Dhatt GS, Punnose J, et al. Gestational diabetes: dilemma caused by multiple international diagnostic criteria. Diabetic Med. 2005;22(12):1731–6. [PubMed: 16401320]
21.
Esakoff TF, Cheng YW, Caughey AB. Screening for gestational diabetes: different cut-offs for different ethnicities? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(3 Suppl):1040–4. [PubMed: 16157108]
22.
Dabelea D, Snell-Bergeon JK, Hartsfield CL, et al. Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over time and by birth cohort: Kaiser Permanente of Colorado GDM Screening Program. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):579–84. [PubMed: 15735191]
23.
Cheng YW, Esakoff TF, Block-Kurbisch I, et al. Screening or diagnostic: markedly elevated glucose loading test and perinatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19(11):729–34. [PubMed: 17127496]
24.
Rodacki M, Lacativa PG, Lima GA, et al. Can we simplify the 100-g oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;71(3):247–50. [PubMed: 16171887]
25.
Agarwal MM, Dhatt GS, Punnose J. Gestational diabetes: an alternative, patient-friendly approach for using the diagnostic 100-g OGTT in high-risk populations. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006;273(6):325–30. [PubMed: 16328394]
26.
Fadl H, Ostlund I, Nilsson K, et al. Fasting capillary glucose as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus. BJOG. 2006;113(9):1067–71. [PubMed: 16956338]
27.
Johnston-MacAnanny EB, Ness A, Weinstein L. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: is it time for a new critical value? J Reprod Med. 2007;52(6):463–6. [PubMed: 17694961]
28.
Hackmon R, James R, O'Reilly GC, et al. The impact of maternal age, body mass index and maternal weight gain on the glucose challenge test in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20(3):253–7. [PubMed: 17437228]
29.
Khan HA, Sobki SH, Alhomida AS, et al. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2007;22(1):65–70. [PMC free article: PMC3454256] [PubMed: 23105655]
30.
Ogonowski J, Miazgowski T, Homa K, et al. Low predictive value of traditional risk factors in identifying women at risk for gestational diabetes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(10):1165–70. [PubMed: 17851799]
31.
Rudge MV, Lima CA, Paulette TA, et al. Influence of lower cutoff values for 100-g oral glucose tolerance test and glycemic profile for identification of pregnant women at excessive fetal growth risk. Endocrine Pract. 2008;14(6):678–85. [PubMed: 18996785]
32.
Yamasmit W, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Uerpairojkit B. A 50-g glucose challenge test: is there any diagnostic cut-off? J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91(9):1309–12. [PubMed: 18843856]
33.
Punthumapol C, Tekasakul P. 50 grams glucose challenge test for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus in each trimester in potential diabetic pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91(6):787–93. [PubMed: 18697374]
34.
Montagnana M, Lippi G, Targher G, et al. Glucose challenge test does not predict gestational diabetes mellitus. Intern Med. 2008;47(13):1171–4. [PubMed: 18591836]
35.
Korucuoglu U, Biri A, Turkyilmaz E, et al. Glycemic levels with glucose loading test during pregnancy and its association with maternal and perinatal outcomes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;80(1):69–74. [PubMed: 18067985]
36.
Boriboonhirunsarn D, Sunsaneevithayakul P. Abnormal results on a second testing and risk of gestational diabetes in women with normal baseline glucose levels. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;100(2):147–53. [PubMed: 18005964]
37.
Phaloprakarn C, Tangjitgamol S. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus using a modified 100 g oral glucose tolerance test. J Perinatol. 2008;28(1):7–11. [PubMed: 18165827]
38.
Aldasouqi SA, Solomon DJ, Bokhari SA, et al. Glycohemoglobin A1c: A promising screening tool in gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2008;28(4):121–4. [PMC free article: PMC2822155] [PubMed: 20165599]
39.
Phaloprakarn C, Tangjitgamol S, Manusirivithaya S. A risk score for selective screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;145(1):71–5. [PubMed: 19446948]
40.
Wong VW, Garden F, Jalaludin B. Hyperglycaemia following glucose challenge test during pregnancy: When can a screening test become diagnostic? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;83(3):394–6. [PubMed: 19124172]
41.
Karcaaltincaba D, Kandemir O, Yalvac S, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational impaired glucose tolerance in pregnant women evaluated by National Diabetes Data Group and Carpenter and Coustan criteria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;106(3):246–9. [PubMed: 19464683]
42.
Flack JR, Ross GP, Ho S, et al. Recommended changes to diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes: impact on workload. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;50(5):439–43. [PubMed: 21039377]
43.
Ruangvutilert P, Chaemsaithong P, Ruangrongmorakot K, et al. Development of a modified 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and its diagnostic accuracy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93(10):1121–7. [PubMed: 20973313]
44.
Kalamegham R, Nuwayhid BS, Mulla ZD. Prevalence of gestational fasting and postload single dysglycemia in Mexican-American women and their relative significance in identifying carbohydrate intolerance. Am J Perinatol. 2010;27(9):697–704. [PubMed: 20387187]
45.
Agarwal MM, Dhatt GS, Shah SM. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Simplifying the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy diagnostic algorithm using fasting plasma glucose. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(9):2018–20. [PMC free article: PMC2928355] [PubMed: 20519664]
46.
Hansarikit J, Manotaya S. Sensitivity and specificity of modified 100-g oral glucose tolerance tests for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011;94(5):540–4. [PubMed: 21675441]
47.
Teh WT, Teede HJ, Paul E, et al. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for the application of screening guidelines. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51(1):26–30. [PubMed: 21299505]
48.
Shah A, Stotland NE, Cheng YW, et al. The association between body mass index and gestational diabetes mellitus varies by race/ethnicity. Am J Perinatol. 2011;28(7):515–20. [PMC free article: PMC3666587] [PubMed: 21404165]
49.
Samuel A, Simhan HN. Clinical indications for abnormal early gestational 50-g glucose tolerance testing. Am J Perinatol. 2011;28(6):485–7. [PubMed: 21225558]
50.
Huynh J, Ratnaike S, Bartalotta C, et al. Challenging the glucose challenge test. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51(1):22–5. [PubMed: 21299504]
51.
Church D, Halsall D, Meek C, et al. Random Blood Glucose Measurement at Antenatal Booking to Screen for Overt Diabetes in Pregnancy: A retrospective study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(10):2217–9. [PMC free article: PMC3177710] [PubMed: 21844290]
52.
Gandhi P, Farrell T. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening in morbidly obese pregnant women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159(2):329–32. [PubMed: 21968030]
53.
Kosus A, Kosus N, Turhan NO. Gestational diabetes: comparision of the carpenter and the coustan thresholds with the new thresholds of turkish women and implications of variations in diagnostic criteria. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 [PubMed: 21801122]
54.
Teede HJ, Harrison CL, Teh WT, et al. Gestational diabetes: Development of an early risk prediction tool to facilitate opportunities for prevention. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;51(6):499–504. [PubMed: 21951203]

Excluded – Outcome (N=34)

1.
Tan YY, Liauw PC, Yeo GS. Using glucose tolerance test results to predict insulin requirement in women with gestational diabetes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;35(3):262–6. [PubMed: 8546639]
2.
Phillipov G. Short- and long-term reproducibility of the 1-h 50-g glucose challenge test. Clin Chem. 1996;42(2):255–7. [PubMed: 8595720]
3.
Giampietro O, Matteucci E. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia: a controversial story. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1997;33(3):399–402. [PubMed: 9542270]
4.
Kerbel D, Glazier R, Holzapfel S, et al. Adverse effects of screening for gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study in Toronto, Canada. J Med Screen. 1997;4(3):128–32. [PubMed: 9368868]
5.
Weiss PAM. Toward universal criteria for gestational diabetes : Relationships between seventy-five and one hundred gram glucose loads and between capillary and venous glucose concentrations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;1998(4):835. [PubMed: 9579452]
6.
Mills JL, Jovanovic L, Knopp R, et al. Physiological reduction in fasting plasma glucose concentration in the first trimester of normal pregnancy: the diabetes in early pregnancy study. Metabolism. 1998;47(9):1140–4. [PubMed: 9751245]
7.
Stulberg RA, John SL, Houlden RL. Gestational age at screening, diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes in a Canadian community. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 1999;23(3):27–31.
8.
Griffin ME, Coffey M, Johnson H, et al. Universal vs. risk factor-based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: detection rates, gestation at diagnosis and outcome. Diabetic Med. 2000;17(1):26–32. [PubMed: 10691156]
9.
Juutinen J, Hartikainen AL, Bloigu R, et al. A retrospective study on 435 women with gestational diabetes: Fasting plasma glucose is not sensitive enough for screening but predicts a need for insulin treatment [7] Diabetes Care. 2000;23(12):1858–9. [PubMed: 11128372]
10.
Weiss PA, Haeusler M, Tamussino K, et al. Can glucose tolerance test predict fetal hyperinsulinism? BJOG. 2000;107(12):1480–5. [PubMed: 11192103]
11.
Zargar AH, Khan AK, Masoodi SR, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian subcontinent. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000;47(2):135–46. [PubMed: 10670914]
12.
Kirwan JP, Huston-Presley L, Kalhan SC, et al. Clinically useful estimates of insulin sensitivity during pregnancy: validation studies in women with normal glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(9):1602–7. [PubMed: 11522706]
13.
Davey RX, Hamblin PS. Selective versus universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: an evaluation of predictive risk factors. Med J Aust. 2001;174(3):118–21. [PubMed: 11247613]
14.
Jimenez-Moleon JJ, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Luna-del-Castillo JD, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: variations related to screening strategy used. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;146(6):831–7. [PubMed: 12039704]
15.
Jorgensen LG, Schytte T, Brandslund I, et al. Fasting and post-glucose load--reference limits for peripheral venous plasma glucose concentration in pregnant women. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003;41(2):187–99. [PubMed: 12667006]
16.
Roggenbuck LF, Kleinwechter HJ, Demandt N, et al. Diagnostics of gestational diabetes: which cutoff-values are valid for capillary whole blood? Clin Lab. 2004;50(7-8):403–8. [PubMed: 15330507]
17.
Bito T, Foldesi I, Nyari T, et al. Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in a high-risk group by insulin measurement in early pregnancy. Diabetic Med. 2005;22(10):1434–9. [PubMed: 16176208]
18.
Bito T, Nyari T, Kovacs L, et al. Oral glucose tolerance testing at gestational weeks < or =16 could predict or exclude subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus during the current pregnancy in high risk group. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;121(1):51–5. [PubMed: 15989984]
19.
Cypryk K, Pertynska-Marczewska M, Szymczak W, et al. Evaluation of metabolic control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus by the continuous glucose monitoring system: a pilot study. Endocrine Pract. 2006;12(3):245–50. [PubMed: 16772194]
20.
Thomas B, Ghebremeskel K, Lowy C, et al. Nutrient intake of women with and without gestational diabetes with a specific focus on fatty acids. Nutrition. 2006;22(3):230–6. [PubMed: 16500549]
21.
Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, et al. Glycemic level at the first visit and prediction of GDM. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55:630–2. [PubMed: 18051734]
22.
van LM, Opmeer BC, Zweers EJ, et al. Estimating the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a clinical prediction model based on patient characteristics and medical history. BJOG. 2010;117(1):69–75. [PubMed: 20002371]
23.
Zisser HC, Biersmith MA, Jovanovic LB, et al. Fetal risk assessment in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010;4(6):1368–73. [PMC free article: PMC3005046] [PubMed: 21129331]
24.
Luo ZC, Delvin E, Fraser WD, et al. Maternal glucose tolerance in pregnancy affects fetal insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(9):2055–61. [PMC free article: PMC2928362] [PubMed: 20573751]
25.
Akinci B, Celtik A, Yener S, et al. Prediction of developing metabolic syndrome after gestational diabetes mellitus. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(4):1248–54. [PubMed: 19147138]
26.
Radaelli T, Farrell KA, Huston-Presley L, et al. Estimates of insulin sensitivity using glucose and C-Peptide from the hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome glucose tolerance test. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(3):490–4. [PMC free article: PMC2827494] [PubMed: 20032280]
27.
Meltzer SJ, Snyder J, Penrod JR, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis: a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing costs of one-step and two-step methods. BJOG. 2010;117(4):407–15. [PubMed: 20105163]
28.
Das S, Behera MK, Misra S, et al. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance in pregnancy and their relation to fetal development. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8(1):25–32. [PubMed: 19929599]
29.
Lopez Caudana AE, Lopez RR, Gonzalez VC, et al. Prediction of alterations in glucose metabolism by glucose and insulin measurements in early pregnancy. Arch Med Res. 2011;42(1):70–6. [PubMed: 21376266]
30.
Perovic M, Garalejic E, Gojnic M, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography as a screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 [PubMed: 22117121]
31.
Wendland EM, Duncan BB, Mengue SS, et al. Lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia in pregnancy is related to perinatal mortality: a cohort study in Brazil. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011;11:92. [PMC free article: PMC3241204] [PubMed: 22078268]
32.
Gibson KS, Waters TP, Catalano PM. Maternal weight gain in women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119(3):560–5. [PubMed: 22353954]
33.
Verhaeghe J, Van HE, Benhalima K, et al. Glycated hemoglobin in pregnancies at increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;161(2):157–62. [PubMed: 22342592]
34.
Werner EF, Pettker CM, Zuckerwise L, et al. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: are the criteria proposed by the international association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups cost-effective? Diabetes Care. 2012;35(3):529–35. [PMC free article: PMC3322683] [PubMed: 22266735]

Excluded – Population (N=15)

1.
Gribble RK, Fee SC, Berg RL. The value of routine urine dipstick screening for protein at each prenatal visit. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173(1):214–7. [PubMed: 7631685]
2.
Chang CJ, Wu JS, Lu FH, et al. Fasting plasma glucose in screening for diabetes in the Taiwanese population. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(11):1856–60. [PubMed: 9802733]
3.
Bor MV, Bor P, Cevik C. Serum fructosamine and fructosamine-albumin ratio as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1999;262(3-4):105–11. [PubMed: 10326628]
4.
Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Birthweight and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult women. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(4 Pt 1):278–84. [PubMed: 10068385]
5.
Gray-Donald K, Robinson E, Collier A, et al. Intervening to reduce weight gain in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus in Cree communities: an evaluation. CMAJ (Ottawa) 2000;163(10):1247–51. [PMC free article: PMC80308] [PubMed: 11107459]
6.
Ko GT, Chan JC, Tsang LW, et al. Combined use of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c predicts the progression to diabetes in Chinese subjects. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(12):1770–3. [PubMed: 11128350]
7.
Agarwal MM, Punnose J, Dhatt GS. Gestational diabetes: Implications of variation in post-partum follow-up criteria. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;113(2):149–53. [PubMed: 15063951]
8.
Akhlaghi F, Hamedi AB. Comparison of maternal and fetal/neonatal complications in gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Medica Iranica. 2005;43(4):263–7.
9.
Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. The comparison of venous plasma glucose and whole blood capillary glucose in diagnoses of Type 2 diabetes: a population-based screening study. Diabet Med. 2005;22(9):1173–7. [PubMed: 16108845]
10.
Kraemer J, Klein J, Lubetsky A, et al. Perfusion studies of glyburide transfer across the human placenta: implications for fetal safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195(1):270–4. [PubMed: 16579925]
11.
Franks PW, Looker HC, Kobes S, et al. Gestational glucose tolerance and risk of type 2 diabetes in young Pima Indian offspring. Diabetes. 2006;55(2):460–5. [PubMed: 16443781]
12.
Ratner RE, Christophi CA, Metzger BE, et al. Prevention of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes: effects of metformin and lifestyle interventions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4774–9. [PMC free article: PMC2626441] [PubMed: 18826999]
13.
Phillips LS, Ziemer DC, Kolm P, et al. Glucose challenge test screening for prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52(9):1798–807. [PubMed: 19557386]
14.
Opara PI, Jaja T, Onubogu UC. Morbidity and mortality amongst infants of diabetic mothers admitted into a special care baby unit in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Ital J Pediatr. 2010;36(1):77. [PMC free article: PMC3022614] [PubMed: 21138582]
15.
Ohno MS, Sparks TN, Cheng YW, et al. Treating mild gestational diabetes mellitus: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205(3):282-e1–7. [PMC free article: PMC3443977] [PubMed: 22071065]

Excluded – Publication Type (N=106)

1.
Joshi R, Bharadwaj A. Gestational diabetes screening: can hemoglobin A∼1∼C measurement replace the glucose challenge test? Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99(4 Suppl 1):S93.
2.
Forest JC, Masse J, Garrido-Russo M. Glucose tolerance test during pregnancy: the significance of one abnormal value. Clin Biochem. 1994;27(4):299–304. [PubMed: 8001292]
3.
JovanovicPeterson L, Bevier W, Peterson CM. A Cost-Effective Program to Normalize Birth-Weight (Bwt) by Screening for and Treatment of Glucose-Intolerance of Pregnancy (Igt) Diabetes. 1995;44:A258.
4.
Dolci M, Bianchini G, Andreani G, et al. Screening and treatment of gestational diabetes (GDM): The experience of seven years. Diabetologia. 1996;39(Suppl 1):769.
5.
Pavlic Renar I, Tomic M, Horvat B, Metelko Z. Screening and intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus. Fourth meeting for the implementation of the St. Vincent declaration; Lisbon. 1997. p. 55.
6.
Roncaglia N, Arreghini A, Bellini P, Bertalero C, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus: is therapy always necessary? Rome. 1997:68.
7.
Harder T, Plagemann A, Kohlhoff R, Rohde W. Overweight and obesity in children of mothers with long-term insulin-dependent diabetes or gestational diabetes. 1997. [PubMed: 9192228]
8.
Cypryk K, Wilczynski J, Penza G, Krekora M. Early detection of gestational diabetes (GDM) improves pregnancy outcome. 1997.
9.
Bancroft K, Tuffnell DJ, Mason GC, et al. A randomized controlled study of the management of impaired glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105(Suppl 17):53–4.
10.
Pavlic Renar I, Tomic M, Horvat B, Metelko Z. Screening and intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus. 1998.
11.
Persson B, Hanson U. Neonatal morbidities in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998;21 Suppl 2:B79–B84. [PubMed: 9704232]
12.
Jovanovic L. Optimization of insulin therapy in patients with gestational diabetes. Endocrine Pract. 2000;6(1):98–100. [PubMed: 11419929]
13.
Hadden D. Evidence-based screening for gestational diabetes? Diabetic Med. 2000;17(5):402–4. [PubMed: 10872544]
14.
Kitzmiller JL. Cost analysis of diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2000;43(1):140–53. [PubMed: 10694996]
15.
Souvatzoglou ES, Anastasiou E, Alevizaki M, et al. Is there any cutoff point of HbA1c levels indicative of the need for insulin treatment in women with gestational diabetes? Diabetologia. 2001;44(Suppl 1):A42.
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Excluded – Unobtainable (N=7)

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