Physical therapy interventions eligible for review

General ModalitySpecific InterventionDefinition
Patient/client-related instruction
Instruction, education, and training of patients/clients and caregiversCurrent condition
Enhancement of performance
Health, wellness, and fitness
Plan of care
Risk factors for pathology/ pathophysiology, impairments, functional limitations, or disabilities
Therapeutic exerciseAerobic capacity/endurance conditioning or reconditioningIncreased workload over time
Walking programs
Aquatic therapy
Flexibility exercisesMuscle lengthening
Range of motion
Stretching
Gait and locomotion trainingGait training
Implement and device training
Strength, power, and endurance training for limb musclesActive assistive, active, and resistive exercises
Quadriceps strengthening
Aquatic programs
Standardized, programmatic, complementary exercise approaches
Task-specific performance training
Body mechanics and postural stabilization
Body mechanics training
Balance, coordination, and agility trainingNeuromuscular education or re-education
Posture awareness training
Muscle relaxation technique for pain management
Functional training in self-care, home management, work, community, and leisure integration or reintegration (including ADL, IADL, work hardening, and work conditioning)ADL training
Devices and equipment use and trainingAssistive and adaptive device or equipment training during ADL and IADL
Orthotic, protective, or supportive device or equipment training during ADL and IADL
Functional training programsSimulated environments and tasks
Task adaptation
IADL training
Injury prevention or reductionInjury prevention education during self-care, home management, work, community, and leisure integration or reintegration
Injury prevention or reduction with use of devices and equipment
Safety awareness training during self-care, home management, work, community, and leisure integration and reintegration
Manual therapy techniques (Including mobilization/ manipulation)Detailed examination to reveal impaired movements
Manual techniques with reinforcing exercise to improve movement
Manual traction
MassageConnective tissue massage
Therapeutic massage
Mobilization/manipulationSoft tissue
Knee joint, other joints
Passive range of motion
Prescription, application of devices and equipmentAdaptive devicesRaised toilet seats
Assistive devicesCanes
Crutches
Walkers
Long-handled reachers
Power devices
Static and dynamic splints
Grab bars and tub chairs
Orthotic devicesBraces
Shoe inserts
Splints
Protective devicesBraces
Protective patellar taping
Supportive devicesSupportive taping
Electrotherapeutic interventionsElectrotherapeutic delivery of medicationsIontophoresis
Electrical stimulationElectrical muscle stimulation
Functional electrical stimulation
High-voltage pulsed current
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Physical agents and mechanical interventionsNonthermal agentsPulsed electromagnetic fields
Aquatic therapyPools
Sound agentsUltrasound
ThermotherapyDry heat
Hot packs
Diathermy
Cold modalities
CryotherapyCold packs
Ice massage

Abbreviations: ADL = activities of daily living; IADL = instrumental activities of daily living.

From: Appendix D, Review Questions According to Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, Timing, and Settings (PICOTS) Framework

Cover of Physical Therapy Interventions for Knee Pain Secondary to Osteoarthritis
Physical Therapy Interventions for Knee Pain Secondary to Osteoarthritis [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 77.
Shamliyan TA, Wang SY, Olson-Kellogg B, et al.

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