NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline

Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.

Show details

SUMMARY TABLE

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS

Life Stage GroupCalcium (mg/d)Phosphorus (mg/d)Magnesium (mg/d)Vitamin D (μg/d)a,bFluoride (mg/d)Thiamin (mg/d)Riboflavin (mg/d)Niacin (mg/d) cVitamin B6 (mg/d)Folate (μg/d) dVitamin B12 (μg/d)Pantothenic Acid (mg/d)Biotin (μg/d)Cholinee (mg/d)
Infants
0–6 mo210*100*30*5*0.01*0.2*0.3*2*0.1*65*0.4*1.7*5*125*
7–12 mo270*275*75*5*0.5*0.3*0.4*4*0.3*80*0.5*1.8*6*150*
Children
1–3 y500*460805*0.7*0.50.560.51500.92*8*200*
4–8 y800*5001305*1*0.60.680.62001.23*12*250*
Males
9–13 y1,300*1,2502405*2*0.90.9121.03001.84*20*375*
14–18 y1,300*1,2504105*3*1.21.3161.34002.45*25*550*
19–30 y1,000*7004005*4*1.21.3161.34002.45*30*550*
31–50 y1,000*7004205*4*1.21.3161.34002.45*30*550*
51–70 y1,200*70042010*4*1.21.3161.74002.4f5*30*550*
> 70 y1,200*70042015*4*1.21.3161.74002.4f5*30*550*
Females
9–13 y1,300*1,2502405*2*0.90.9121.03001.84*20*375*
14–18 y1,300*1,2503605*3*1.01.0141.2400g2.45*25*400*
19–30 y1,000*7003105*3*1.11.1141.3400g2.45*30*425*
31–50 y1,000*7003205*3*1.11.1141.3400g2.45*30*425*
51–70 y1,200*70032010*3*1.11.1141.54002.4f5*30*425*
> 70 y1,200*70032015*3*1.11.1141.54002.4f5*30*425*
Pregnancy
≤ 18 y1,300*1,2504005*3*1.41.4181.9600h2.66*30*450*
19–30 y1,000*7003505*3*1.41.4181.9600h2.66*30*450*
31–50 y1,000*7003605*3*1.41.4181.9600h2.66*30*450*
Lactation
≤ 18 y1,300*1,2503605*3*1.41.6172.05002.87*35*550*
19–30 y1,000*7003105*3*1.41.6172.05002.87*35*550*
31–50 y1,000*7003205*3*1.41.6172.05002.87*35*550*

NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

a

As cholecalciferol. 1 μg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

b

In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.

c

As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

d

As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

e

Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

f

Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

g

In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

h

It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK114316

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (2.6M)
  • Disable Glossary Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...