TABLE 12-10Cases and Prevalence of Developmental Disabilities by Birth Weight Among Survivors to Age 3 Years, MADDSP

Developmental Disability and StatisticBirth Weight Low Birth WeightNormal Birth WeightRisk RatioRisk Difference
<1,000 g1,000–1,499 g1,500–2,499 g2,500–2,999 g3,000–3,999 g≥4,000 gTotal
No. of 3-year survivors: 1981–1991 birthsa
1,1472,64823,11762,451231,61335,780356,75626,912329,844
Cerebral palsy
   No. of cases10113016610725437795397398
   Prevalenceb88.149.17.21.71.112.214.81.212.213.5
   (95% CIc)(72.3–106.0)(41.2–58.0)(6.1–8.4)(1.4–2.1)(1.0–1.2)(0.1–1.4)(2.1–2.4)
Mental retardation
   No. of cases1511564646671,40218930297712,258
   Prevalenceb131.658.920.110.76.15.38.528.66.84.221.8
   (95% CI)(112.6–152.6)(50.2–68.6)(18.3–22.0)(9.9–11.5)(5.7–6.4)(4.6–6.1)(8.2–8.8)
Hearing loss
   No. of cases161341721312329670226
   Prevalenceb13.94.91.81.20.60.60.82.60.73.81.9
   (95% CI)(8.0–22.6)(2.6–8.4)(1.3–2.4)(0.9–1.5)(0.5–0.7)(0.4–1.0)(0.7–0.9)
Vision impairment
   No. of cases442035501061927499175
   Prevalenceb38.47.61.50.80.50.50.83.70.56.93.2
   (95% CI)(28.0–51.2)(4.6–11.6)(1.1–2.1)(0.6–1.1)(0.4–0.6)(0.3–0.8)(0.7–0.9)
No. of 3-year survivors: 1986–1993 birthsd
1,1792,23119,11250,960189,44129,656292,579

NOTE: The data represent the birth weight-specific prevalence of select developmental disabilities among 3- to 10-year-old children who were born in Atlanta, Georgia, from 1981 to 1993 and who survived to 3 years of age.

a

Birth cohort of 3-year-old survivors for children with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, hearing loss, or vision impairment.

b

Per 1,000 children.

c

CI = confidence interval.

d

Birth cohort of 3-year-old survivors for children with autism.

From: 12, Societal Costs of Preterm Birth

Cover of Preterm Birth
Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes; Behrman RE, Butler AS, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2007.
Copyright © 2007, National Academy of Sciences.

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