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Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

Synonyms: Gronblad-Strandberg Syndrome, PXE
, MA
PXE International
Washington, DC
, MD
Department of Dermatology
Rhode Island Hospital and Hasbro Children's Hospital
Warren Alpert Medical School
Brown University
Providence, Rhode Island

Initial Posting: ; Last Update: June 14, 2012.

Estimated reading time: 17 minutes


Clinical characteristics.

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic disorder that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, the eye, and the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Individuals most commonly present with papules in the skin and/or with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage. Rarely, individuals may present with vascular signs and symptoms, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, angina, or intermittent claudication. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision from macular hemorrhage and disciform scarring of the macula. Most affected individuals live a normal life span.


The diagnosis of PXE is suspected in individuals with characteristic skin and ocular findings and is established by histologic findings on biopsy of lesional skin. ABCC6 (formerly known as MRP6), which encodes the ATP-binding cassette protein multidrug resistance-associated protein 6, is the only gene known to be associated with PXE. Molecular genetic testing detects a pathogenic variant in one allele in almost all affected individuals and in both alleles in close to 90%.


Treatment of manifestations: Coordinated care by a multidisciplinary team (dermatologist, primary care physician, ophthalmologist, cardiologist, vascular surgeon, plastic surgeon, genetics professional, nutritionist) depending on clinical manifestations; contact with support groups for accurate information and to reduce the sense of isolation; intraocular injection of anti-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of macular degeneration; surgical or radiologic intervention as indicated for gastrointestinal bleeding or severe peripheral vascular disease.

Surveillance: Routine examination by an ophthalmologist with expertise in retinal disease; routine physical examination with special attention to the cardiovascular system; monitoring for the development of black tarry stool; periodic monitoring of serum lipid concentrations.

Agents/circumstances to avoid: Contact sports or racquet sports without appropriate eye and head protection; aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications because of gastrointestinal bleeding risk.

Pregnancy management: Retinal examination during pregnancy and prompt attention to any visual symptoms are advised.

Genetic counseling.

PXE is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At conception, each sib of an affected individual has a 25% chance of being affected, a 50% chance of being an asymptomatic carrier, and a 25% chance of being unaffected and not a carrier. Once an at-risk sib is known to be unaffected, the chance of his/her being a carrier is 2/3. Carrier testing for at-risk family members and prenatal testing for pregnancies at increased risk is possible once the pathogenic variants have been identified in the family.


Clinical Diagnosis

Current minimal criteria for the clinical diagnosis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) are the presence of retinal angioid streaks in combination with characteristic skin lesions showing diagnostic histopathologic findings of calcified dystrophic elastic fibers. The presence of two known PXE-causing pathogenic variants with either of the above would establish a diagnosis of PXE; the pathogenic variants alone would be presumptive evidence of PXE in an individual too young to demonstrate ocular or skin manifestations. Whether heterozygous carriers of PXE-causing pathogenic variants may have mild ocular and cutaneous findings is controversial [Sherer et al 2001, Martin et al 2008]. Molecular genetic studies of known pedigrees have shown no clinical manifestations of PXE in heterozygous carriers [Miksch et al 2005, Christen-Zäch et al 2006, Plomp et al 2009, Nitschke et al 2012].

  • Angioid streaks are breaks in Bruch's membrane, the elastin-rich tissue layer between the retina and the choriocapillaris. Angioid streaks radiate from the optic disk or peripapillary area in a pattern that resembles blood vessels, hence the term "angioid." Angioid streaks are best observed on examination of the retina with an ophthalmoscope through a dilated pupil. Angioid streaks are readily visualized by fluorescein fundus angiography and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, although these techniques are rarely needed for diagnosis.
  • Typical skin lesions are yellowish papules, usually seen on the lateral aspect of the neck or the flexural creases, such as the antecubital fossae, axillae, groin, or popliteal fossae. With time, the papules coalesce to form plaques and the skin becomes loose and redundant.


Skin biopsy. Calcification of fragmented elastic fibers in a biopsy of lesional skin, confirmed by von Kossa or other calcium stain, is diagnostic.

Molecular Genetic Testing

Gene. Virtually all cases of PXE are caused by pathogenic variants in ABCC6, encoding the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCC6 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 6), a putative efflux cellular transport protein. ABCC6 contains 31 exons and spans 75 kb of gene locus 16p13.1. There are two non-functional 5' pseudogenes, ABCC6P1 and ABCC6P2, almost identical in sequence to the coding gene; gene amplification is designed to eliminate interference from the pseudogenes [Pfendner et al 2007, Li et al 2009b].

Clinical testing. Inheritance is autosomal recessive; however, in a small number of cases, only one or no pathogenic variant is found. It is possible that some cases of PXE are examples of digenic inheritance, resulting from pathogenic variants in both ABCC6 and GGCX [Li et al 2009a] or hypothetically ABCC6 and ENPP1.

Table 1.

Molecular Genetic Testing Used in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

Gene 1Test MethodsVariants Detected 2Variant Detection Frequency 3
ABCC6Sequence analysis 4Sequence variants~90% 5
Sequence analysis of select exonsSequence variants located in select exons 6Unknown
Deletion/duplication analysis 7The recurrent deletion of exons 23-29 8 and other exon or whole-gene deletions5%-30% depending on population

See Table A. Genes and Databases for chromosome locus and protein.


See Molecular Genetics for information on allelic variants.


The ability of the test method used to detect a variant that is present in the indicated gene


Sequence analysis detects variants that are benign, likely benign, of uncertain significance, likely pathogenic, or pathogenic. Pathogenic variants may include small intragenic deletions/insertions and missense, nonsense, and splice site variants; typically, exon or whole-gene deletions/duplications are not detected. For issues to consider in interpretation of sequence analysis results, click here.


Sequence analysis detects pathogenic missense variants, the most prevalent pathogenic variants in ABCC6 [Le Saux et al 2001, Pfendner et al 2007], as well as pathogenic nonsense variants, frameshift variants, and small deletions and insertions, which have also been described.


Exons sequenced may vary by laboratory.


Testing that identifies deletions/duplications not readily detectable by sequence analysis of the coding and flanking intronic regions of genomic DNA. Methods used may include: quantitative PCR, long-range PCR, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and chromosomal microarray (CMA) that includes this gene/chromosome segment.


A 16.4-kb deletion involving ABCC6 exons 23-29 is a recurrent pathogenic variant found in multiple populations with varying frequency. It represents approximately 30% of alleles in the US and about 5% of alleles in Europe [Le Saux et al 2001].

Testing Strategy

To confirm/establish the diagnosis in a proband. A commonly used testing strategy is a first-tier screen for the two most common pathogenic variants, p.Arg1141Ter and a deletion of exons 23-29. If only one or neither pathogenic variant is found, the next step is to screen all exons, beginning at the 3' end with direct sequencing [Vanakker et al 2008].

Carrier testing for at-risk relatives requires prior identification of the pathogenic variants in the family.

Note: Carriers are heterozygotes for this autosomal recessive disorder and are not at risk of developing the disorder.

Prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for at-risk pregnancies require prior identification of the pathogenic variants in the family.

Clinical Characteristics

Clinical Description

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) primarily affects the skin, eye, cardiovascular system, and gastrointestinal system. Individuals with PXE most commonly present with papules in the skin and/or with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage. Rarely, individuals may present with vascular signs and symptoms, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, angina, or intermittent claudication. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision from macular hemorrhage and disciform scarring. Most affected individuals live a normal life span.

Skin. The primary skin lesion is a yellowish papule, usually seen on the lateral aspect of the neck or the flexural creases (e.g., the antecubital fossae, axillae, groin, or popliteal fossae). Occasionally, there is periumbilical involvement, which has also been associated with acquired perforating PXE in multiparous females. The papules gradually coalesce to form plaques, and eventually the skin, especially of the neck, axilla, and groin, becomes loose and redundant. Mucous membranes can show similar lesions, most commonly the inner aspect of the lower lip and the vaginal mucosa.

Eye. The earliest ocular finding is a diffuse mottling of the fundus known as peau d'orange, generally appearing between adolescence and the late second decade. In the second and third decades, angioid streaks usually develop. These broad grayish to reddish-brown irregular lines radiate outward from the optic nerve and peripapillary region. They result from dehiscences in a mineralized Bruch's membrane, an elastin-rich layer of the choroid. Neither angioid streaks nor peau d'orange affects visual acuity; however, spontaneous subretinal neovascularization and hemorrhage can occur and lead to visual distortion (metamorphopsia) and loss of visual acuity, resulting in disciform scarring and, when the macula or fovea is involved, permanent loss of central vision.

Cardiovascular. Mineralization of the internal elastic lamina of medium-sized arteries resulting in arterial narrowing occurs frequently in PXE. Arterial narrowing can lead to asymmetric or diminished pulses in the limbs and, if severe enough, can cause intermittent claudication of the leg and arm muscles, or angina or myocardial infarction (coronary arteries), small strokes (cerebrovascular arteries), intestinal angina (celiac or mesenteric arteries), and renovascular hypertension (renal arteries). At least one small series suggested an increased incidence of mitral valve prolapse in individuals with PXE [Lebwohl et al 1982]. However, this has yet to be confirmed by larger prospective controlled studies.

Gastrointestinal. The most common site of bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract, particularly the stomach. The characteristic yellow mucosal lesions of PXE can be seen on gastroscopy. The cause of bleeding is not well understood; one theory is that it may begin with superficial bleeding from erosive gastritis, but becomes massive and uncontrolled due to defective vasoconstriction of affected arteries. Diffuse punctate bleeding and erosions can be seen on gastroscopy but an exact source of the hemorrhage may be difficult to locate. Bleeding may be difficult to control without surgery [Dalle & Geboes 2002].

Pregnancy. Most women with PXE have normal pregnancies: PXE is not associated with markedly increased fetal loss or adverse reproductive outcomes. The incidence of gastric bleeding and retinal complications (<1%) is lower than previously thought [Bercovitch et al 2004].

Genotype-Phenotype Correlations

To date, no genotype-phenotype correlations are known [Pfendner et al 2007].


Earlier reports sometimes referred to PXE as Grondblad-Strandberg syndrome.


The exact prevalence is unknown. Published reports estimate prevalence from 1:25,000 to 1:100,000.

An increased risk for PXE is seen in a few populations including the Afrikaners in South Africa, who display a founder effect [Le Saux et al 2002].

Differential Diagnosis

Individuals with beta-thalassemia may present with a phenotype (skin, eye, and cardiovascular) that is similar to pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) but not associated with ABCC6 pathogenic variants.

Individuals with pathogenic variants in GGCX (gamma-glutamyl carboxylase) may present with a phenotype showing cutis laxa-like skin changes with histolopathologic changes of PXE, and deficiency of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors.

Individuals with biallelic pathogenic variants in ENPP1 develop a phenotype with severe arteriopathy known as generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI). However, there have been cases described of children with GACI and biallelic ENPP1 pathogenic variants who also develop the typical cutaneous and ocular phenoptype of PXE [Nitschke et al 2012].

Skin. The skin lesions of PXE are mimicked by those in the following conditions:

  • Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome (osteopoikilosis associated with cutaneous papules with extensive accumulation of elastin in the dermis)
  • White fibrous papulosis of the neck and papillary dermal elastolysis, both signs of intrinsic aging, associated with thinning or loss of elastic fibers and focal thickening of the collagen fiber network (collectively known as fibroelastolytic papulosis)
  • Solar elastosis, in which yellowish-white papules occur in the skin of the neck and chest as a result of photoaging
  • Late-onset focal dermal elastosis
  • Cutis laxa

D-penicillamine treatment (see Wilson disease) results in skin lesions that clinically resemble PXE but do not exhibit elastic fiber mineralization histologically [Bécuwe et al 2005].

Eyes. PXE is the most common cause of angioid streaks of the retina. Angioid streaks in the retina can also be seen in the following:

Subretinal neovascularization with hemorrhage can be seen in the absence of angioid streaks in age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, and presumed ocular histoplasmosis.

Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. PXE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown cause [Dalle & Geboes 2002].


Evaluations Following Initial Diagnosis

To establish the extent of disease in an individual diagnosed with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), the following assessments are recommended:

  • Complete skin examination, including a biopsy of potentially lesional skin from the axilla or neck. A von Kossa or similar histologic stain for calcium should be done on the biopsy to confirm the diagnosis, although PXE can be strongly suspected on skin biopsy even without special stains.
  • Complete dilated eye examination by a retinal specialist, particularly looking for peau d'orange and angioid streaks. A fluorescein angiogram may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Baseline cardiovascular examination with periodic follow up for individuals with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), including (as clinically indicated based on age, physical findings, and exercise level):
    • Echocardiography
    • Cardiac stress testing
    • Doppler evaluation of peripheral vasculature

Treatment of Manifestations

No specific treatment for PXE exists.

Management of PXE requires coordinated input from a multidisciplinary team of specialists including a dermatologist, primary care physician, ophthalmologist, cardiologist, vascular surgeon, plastic surgeon, genetics professional, and nutritionist. Support groups can benefit affected individuals and their families by providing accurate information and education and reducing isolation.

Current treatment for macular degeneration, especially the intraocular injection of anti-angiogenic drugs, also appears to be effective in PXE [Finger et al 2011]. A retinal specialist should be consulted immediately when the individual experiences any distortion in vision.

Surgical or radiologic intervention may be indicated for gastrointestinal bleeding, severe peripheral vascular disease (if correctable), and the improvement of changes of the skin of the face, neck, axilla, and groin that are of cosmetic concern. Although wound healing seems to be uncomplicated in PXE, cosmetic acceptability of surgery involving the skin is less predictable, although generally good [Viljoen et al 1990].

Prevention of Primary Manifestations

Weight control, avoidance of smoking, and aggressive management of hypertension and lipid disorders may reduce the risk of vascular complications by reducing the risk of comorbidity resulting from atherosclerosis. However, reduction in risk resulting from these measures has not been confirmed in controlled studies.

Prevention of Secondary Complications

Individuals with PXE who have coexistent mitral valve prolapse should have antibiotic prophylaxis for dental, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary procedures.


The following are appropriate:

  • Regular examination by an ophthalmologist with expertise in retinal disease. Affected individuals benefit from learning to use the Amsler grid to monitor for central visual disturbances.
  • Regular physical examination with specific attention to the cardiovascular system
  • Monitoring by the affected individual for black tarry stool
  • Periodic monitoring of serum lipid concentrations

Agents/Circumstances to Avoid

Racquet and contact sports carry an increased risk for ocular and head trauma, both of which have been reported to precipitate retinal hemorrhage in patients with angioid streaks; participation in such activities should be discouraged.

Individuals with PXE who participate in sports and physical recreation should wear appropriate protective eyewear such as polycarbonate sports goggles and/or protective helmets with eye shields.

Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications should be avoided whenever possible to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Evaluation of Relatives at Risk

See Genetic Counseling for issues related to testing of at-risk relatives for genetic counseling purposes.

Pregnancy Management

In the series of Bercovitch et al [2004], there was no statistically significant effect of gravidity on the severity of skin, eye, cardiac, or peripheral vascular manifestations of PXE in women older than age 40 years. In addition, women older than 40 with PXE who had been pregnant did not have more severe skin, cardiac, ocular, or vascular manifestations of PXE than those who had never been pregnant. Except for the consequences of severe maternal gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which appears to be uncommon, PXE has no known significant effect on the fetus. Retinal examination during pregnancy and prompt attention to any visual symptoms are advised.

Therapies Under Investigation

Based on animal studies [LaRusso et al 2009, Li et al 2009c], magnesium supplementation has been proposed as a treatment to prevent progression of elastic tissue mineralization in PXE. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to study the effect of magnesium oxide supplementation was recently completed.

Search in the US and in Europe for access to information on clinical studies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.


It has been reported that high calcium intake in adolescence may correlate with the overall severity of PXE [Renie et al 1984]; however, this has never been confirmed by prospective controlled studies and thus remains unproven and controversial.

The AREDS study for macular degeneration suggested that a regimen of antioxidant vitamins could prove beneficial in that disease [Clemons et al 2004]. While it is possible that this could also be the case for PXE, it has not been reported and remains unproven.

Genetic Counseling

Genetic counseling is the process of providing individuals and families with information on the nature, inheritance, and implications of genetic disorders to help them make informed medical and personal decisions. The following section deals with genetic risk assessment and the use of family history and genetic testing to clarify genetic status for family members. This section is not meant to address all personal, cultural, or ethical issues that individuals may face or to substitute for consultation with a genetics professional. —ED.

Mode of Inheritance

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Risk to Family Members

Parents of the proband

  • The parents of an affected individual are obligate heterozygotes and therefore carry one mutated allele.
  • It is not known at this time to what degree parents who are carriers of a mutated allele causing PXE are at risk for some manifestations of the disorder. It has been reported that the presence of calcified elastic fibers on biopsy of lesional skin and limited ocular and cutaneous signs of PXE in parents may be consistent with the heterozygous carrier state [Sherer et al 2001], but the individuals in that study did not have molecular genetic studies, so it was not conclusive.
  • Parents of a probands can undergo ocular and skin examination looking for signs of PXE, but skin biopsies and/or genetic testing would not be indicated unless the diagnosis of PXE was suspected in a presumed obligate carrier.

Sibs of the proband

  • At conception, each sib of an individual with autosomal recessive PXE has a 25% chance of being affected, a 50% chance of being an asymptomatic carrier, and a 25% chance of being unaffected and not a carrier.
  • Once an at-risk sib is known to be unaffected, the chance of his/her being a carrier is 2/3.
  • Most relatives have peau d'orange and/or angioid streaks by the first or second decade if they are affected. Heterozygotes (carriers) may have minimal clinical findings.

Offspring of the proband. The offspring of an individual with autosomal recessive PXE are obligate heterozygotes (carriers) for a mutated allele causing PXE (see Heterozygotes).

Other family members of the proband. Each sib of the proband's parents has a 50% chance of being a carrier.

Heterozygotes (carriers) are usually asymptomatic. Whether heterozygous carriers of an ABCC6 pathogenic variant may have mild ocular and cutaneous findings is controversial [Bacchelli et al 1999, Sherer et al 2001, Martin et al 2008]. No clinical manifestations of PXE have been observed in molecularly diagnosed heterozygous carriers [Miksch et al 2005, Christen-Zäch et al 2006, Plomp et al 2009].

Carrier (Heterozygote) Detection

Carrier testing for at-risk family members is possible once the ABCC6 pathogenic variants have been identified in the proband.

Related Genetic Counseling Issues

Evidence in support of autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Although early literature on PXE suggests autosomal dominant inheritance based on the observation of two-generation familial occurrence of PXE, these cases have been shown to be pseudodominant [Bergen 2006, Ringpfeil et al 2006]. No three-generation affected pedigrees have been reported. Autosomal dominant inheritance has not been confirmed.

Pedigree analysis, skin biopsy, retinal examination, and molecular genetic studies may fail to establish the mode of inheritance or to distinguish a carrier from an affected individual, but these situations are the exception [Martin et al 2008].

Family planning

  • The optimal time for determination of genetic risk, clarification of carrier status, and discussion of the availability of prenatal testing is before pregnancy.
  • It is appropriate to offer genetic counseling (including discussion of potential risks to offspring and reproductive options) to young adults who are affected, are carriers, or are at risk of being carriers.

DNA banking is the storage of DNA (typically extracted from white blood cells) for possible future use. Because it is likely that testing methodology and our understanding of genes, allelic variants, and diseases will improve in the future, consideration should be given to banking DNA of affected individuals.

Prenatal Testing and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

Once the ABCC6 pathogenic variant has been identified in an affected family member, prenatal testing for a pregnancy at increased risk and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for PXE are possible.


GeneReviews staff has selected the following disease-specific and/or umbrella support organizations and/or registries for the benefit of individuals with this disorder and their families. GeneReviews is not responsible for the information provided by other organizations. For information on selection criteria, click here.

  • National Library of Medicine Genetics Home Reference
  • PXE International, Inc.
    4301 Connecticut Avenue Northwest
    Suite 404
    Washington DC 20008-2369
    Phone: 202-362-9599
    Fax: 202-966-8553
  • PXE International Registry

Molecular Genetics

Information in the Molecular Genetics and OMIM tables may differ from that elsewhere in the GeneReview: tables may contain more recent information. —ED.

Table A.

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: Genes and Databases

Data are compiled from the following standard references: gene from HGNC; chromosome locus from OMIM; protein from UniProt. For a description of databases (Locus Specific, HGMD, ClinVar) to which links are provided, click here.

Table B.

OMIM Entries for Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (View All in OMIM)


Gene structure. ABCC6 is approximately 100 kb in length; alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. The longer transcript NM_001171.5 has 31 exons. It is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and shows 45% sequence homology with ABCC1, encoding a multidrug-resistant protein, in the same chromosome region. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Benign variants. Benign variants detected to date are missense variants encoded by neutral polymorphic changes in exons at the 3' end. See Table A, Gene for alternative transcript.

Pathogenic variants. Pathogenic variants in exons 24 and 28 and the 16.4-kb deletion including exons 23-29 account for more than 70% of pathogenic variants in a large international series [Pfendner et al 2007]. Insertions, deletions, and nonsense, splice-junction, and missense variants have all been reported. A common pathogenic variant is p.Arg1141Ter (c.3421C>T). Very large partial- and whole-gene deletions causing hemizygosity have been found. The most common is the deletion of exons 23-29.

Normal gene product. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 6 (MRP6) (NP_001162.4) or ABCC6, the protein encoded by the transcript NM_001171.5 comprises 1503 amino acids. It is a putative efflux cellular transporter; its physiologic substrate is unknown [Uitto et al 2011]. However, MRP1, the prototypic MRP protein, functions as an efflux pump for amphipathic anionic conjugates.

Abnormal gene product. The finding that heterozygous partial- and whole-gene deletions of ABCC6 result in PXE strongly suggests that the phenotype results from haploinsufficiency of the MRP6 protein.


Literature Cited

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  • Vanakker OM, Leroy BP, Coucke P, Bercovitch LG, Uitto J, Viljoen D, Terry SF, Van Acker P, Matthys D, Loeys B, De Paepe A. Novel clinico-molecular insights in pseudoxanthoma elasticum provide an efficient molecular screening method and a comprehensive diagnostic flowchart. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:205. [PubMed: 18157818]
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Chapter Notes

Author Notes

Sharon Terry, Founding Executive Director of PXE International, manages the 36-lab PXE International Research consortium, 56 offices worldwide, and the PXE International Registry and BioBank. She is also President & CEO of Genetic Alliance, a coalition of more than 1200 disease advocacy organizations representing 1500 diseases. She is the co-founder of the Genetic Alliance Registry and BioBank.

Lionel Bercovitch, MD, Medical Director of PXE International and Professor of Dermatology and Director of Pediatric Dermatology at Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, coordinates all of the research that PXE International initiates and oversees the production of educational materials for affected individuals and health professionals.

Author History

Lionel G Bercovitch, MD (2001-present)
Charles D Boyd, PhD; University of Hawaii (2001-2006)
Sharon F Terry, MA (2001-present)

Revision History

  • 14 June 2012 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 2 April 2007 (st) Revision: Molecular Genetic Testing - targeted mutation analysis changed to deletion analysis
  • 11 December 2006 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 5 November 2003 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 14 March 2002 (st) Author revision
  • 5 June 2001 (me) Review posted live
  • September 2000 (st) Original submission
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