TABLE 1-1Reference Nutrient Values Used by Various Countries and Groups

Country/RegionYearNumber of Life-Stage GroupsaNumber of Infant GroupsAge at which Males and Females are First Treated Separately (years)EAR
European Communityc19939111
Nordic countries198913211
United Kingdom199114411
United States198913211

NOTE: EAR, Estimated Average Requirement. United Kingdom: the required intake of a group of people for energy, protein, a vitamin, or a mineral. About half will usually need more than the EAR and half less.

RDI and RDNI, Recommended Daily Nutrient Intake: the average nutrient intake that meets the requirement needs of 50 percent of a group. The remaining 50 percent of the group will have requirements above the RDI.

RNI, Reference Nutrient Intake or AI, Adequate Intake. United Kingdom, Netherlands: an amount of the nutrient that is enough or more than enough to meet the needs of about 97 percent of people in a group. Canada: RNI = the recommended nutrient intakes of essential nutrients.

PRI, Population Reference Intake: the intake that is enough for virtually all healthy people within a group.

RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowance. United States: the intake that meets the nutrient needs of 97 to 98 percent of a group. Netherlands: the intake that meets the nutrient needs of practically all healthy people in a defined population/age category; applied to planning the food supply for the population group (similar to PRI).


Males and females treated separately after age 7, 10, or 11.


Except for energy.


Adults >18 years all grouped together; age < 6 months not addressed.

From: 1, Dietary Reference Intakes

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.
Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1997.
Copyright © 1997, National Academy of Sciences.

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