The analytic framework outlines potential areas in which to target a review of the effectiveness of nitrous oxide for the management of labor pain in women intending a vaginal birth, whether labor is spontaneous, induced, or augmented. Multiple decision points for choosing a pain relief method are included to reflect the initial preference for pain relief as well as the decision to either alter or maintain the pain relief method during labor. Both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods are included. External factors that influence the choice of pain relief method, such as health system factors (including availability and cost) and individual characteristics (including past experiences and knowledge of outcomes) are also illustrated. Intermediate and long-term outcomes associated with pain relief methods can include pain, coping, co-interventions, and satisfaction with birth experience and pain management. Adverse outcomes resulting from the initial choice of pain relief method and the secondary choice to modify or maintain the pain relief method are also illustrated.

Figure 2Analytic framework for nitrous oxide for the management of labor pain

From: Methods

Cover of Nitrous Oxide for the Management of Labor Pain
Nitrous Oxide for the Management of Labor Pain [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 67.
Likis FE, Andrews JC, Collins MR, et al.

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