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Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology. 6th edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000.

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Developmental Biology. 6th edition.

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Table 13.2Some derivatives of the pharyngeal arches

Pharyngeal archSkeletal elements (neural crest plus mesoderm)Arches, arteries (mesoderm)Muscles (mesoderm)Cranial nerves (neural tube)
1Incus and malleus (from neural crest); mandible, maxilla, and temporal bone regions (from crest dermal mesenchyme)Maxillary branch of the carotid artery (to the ear, nose, and jaw)Jaw muscles; floor of mouth; muscles of the ear and soft palateMaxillary and mandibular divisions of trigeminal nerve (V)
2Stapes bone of the middle ear; styloid process of temporal bone; part of hyoid bone of neck (all from neural crest cartilage)Arteries to the ear region: cortico- tympanic artery (adult); stapedial artery (embryo)Muscles of facial expression; jaw and upper neck musclesFacial nerve (VII)
3Lower rim and greater horns of hyoid bone (from neural crest)Common carotid artery; root of internal carotidStylopharyngeus (to elevate the pharynx)Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
4Laryngeal cartilages (from lateral plate mesoderm)Arch of aorta; right subclavian artery; original spouts of pulmonary arteriesConstrictors of pharynx and vocal cordsSuperior laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)
6Laryngeal cartilages (from lateral plate mesoderm)Ductus arteriosus; roots of definitive pulmonary arteriesIntrinsic muscles of larynxRecurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)

Source: Based on Larsen 1992.

From: The Neural Crest

Copyright © 2000, Sinauer Associates.

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