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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 690

1.

Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis

Shear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress of atherosclerosis. Sustained laminar flow with high shear stress upregulates expressions...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance

EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which activate down- stream pathways, are associated with cancers, especially lung cancer....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and under certain pathologic condition such as huperglycemia. Some of the best chemically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Rap1 signaling pathway

Rap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound conformation. A variety of extracellular signals control this cycle...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Ras signaling pathway

The Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras proteins transduce signals from extracellular growth factors by cycling between inactive...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

MicroRNAs in cancer

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or the inhibition of protein translation. Using high-throughput profiling, dysregulation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Proteoglycans in cancer

Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis, affecting tumor progress. The four main types of proteoglycans include...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

HIF-1 signaling pathway

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a constitutively-expressed HIF-1beta subunit. Under normoxia, HIF-1 alpha undergoes hydroxylation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

PI3K-Akt signaling pathway

The phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, translation, proliferation, growth, and survival. The binding of growth factors to their...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune system elevates pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels, which can promote...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Bladder cancer

The urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carcinoma are bladder carcinomas, and urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Pancreatic cancer

Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Normal duct epithelium progresses to infiltrating cancer through a series of histologically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal cancer accounts for 1-4% of cases. RCC is not a single disease, it has several morphological...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Focal adhesion

Cell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the cell-extracellular matrix contact points, specialized structures are formed and termed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

VEGF signaling pathway

There is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. The binding of VEGF to VEGFR-2 leads to a cascade of different signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction

Cytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell growth, differentiation, cell death, angiogenesis, and development and repair processes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling

Interleukin-4 (IL4) is a principal regulatory cytokine during the immune response, crucially important in allergy and asthma (Nelms et al. 1999). When resting T cells are antigen-activated and expand in response to Interleukin-2 (IL2), they can differentiate as Type 1 (Th1) or Type...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

TFAP2 (AP-2) family regulates transcription of growth factors and their receptors

TFAP2A and TFAP2C directly stimulate transcription of the estrogen receptor ESR1 gene (McPherson and Weigel 1999). TFAP2A expression correlates with ESR1 expression in breast cancer, and TFAP2C is frequently overexpressed in estrogen-positive breast cancer and endometrial cancer (deConinck...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Regulation of gene expression by Hypoxia-inducible Factor

HIF-alpha (HIF1A, HIF2A (EPAS1), HIF3A) is translocated to the nucleus, possibly by two pathways: importin 4/7 (Chachami et al. 2009) and importin alpha/beta (Depping et al. 2008). Once in the nucleus HIF-alpha heterodimerizes with HIF-beta (ARNT) (Wang et al. 1995, Jiang et al. 1996,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

EPHA-mediated growth cone collapse

EPH/Ephrin signaling is coupled to Rho family GTPases such as Rac, Rho and Cdc42 that connect bidirectional receptor-ligand interactions to changes in the actin cytoskeleton (Noren & Pasquale 2004, Groeger & Nobes 2007). RHOA regulates actin dynamics and is involved in EPHA-induced...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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